Fri . 20 Jul 2020
TR | RU | UK | KK | BE |

Primordial black hole

primordial black hole, primordial black holes
Primordial black holes are a hypothetical type of black hole that formed soon after the Big Bang In the early universe, high densities and inhomogeneous conditions could lead sufficiently dense regions to undergo gravitational collapse, forming black holes Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich and Igor Dmitriyevich Novikov in 1966[1] first proposed the existence of such black holes, but the theory behind their origins was first studied in depth by Stephen Hawking in 1971[2] Since primordial black holes did not form from stellar gravitational collapse, their masses can be far below stellar mass c 7030200000000000000♠2×1030 kg Hawking calculated that primordial black holes could weigh as little as 6992100000000000000♠10−8 kg, about the weight of a human ovum

Contents

  • 1 Theoretical history
  • 2 Formation
  • 3 Observational limits and detection strategies
  • 4 Implications
  • 5 String theory
  • 6 References

Theoretical history

Depending on the model, primordial black holes could have initial masses ranging from 6992100000000000000♠10−8 kg the so-called Planck relics to more than thousands of solar masses However, primordial black holes with a mass lower than 7011100000000000000♠1011 kg would have evaporated due to Hawking radiation in a time much shorter than the age of the Universe, so they cannot have survived until the present Universe A noticeable exception is the case of Planck relics that could eventually be stable[clarification needed] The abundance of primordial black holes could be as important as the one of dark matter, to which they are a plausible candidate Primordial black holes are also good candidates for being the seeds of the supermassive black holes at the center of massive galaxies, as well as of intermediate-mass black holes[3]

Primordial black holes belong to the class of massive compact halo objects MACHOs They are naturally a good dark matter candidate: they are nearly collision-less and stable if sufficiently massive, they have non-relativistic velocities, and they form very early in the history of the Universe typically less than one second after the Big Bang Nevertheless, tight limits on their abundances have been set up from various astrophysical and cosmological observations, so that it is now excluded that they contribute importantly to the dark matter over most of the plausible mass range

In March 2016, one month after the announcement of the detection by Advanced LIGO/VIRGO of gravitational waves emitted by the merging of two 30 solar mass black holes about 7031600000000000000♠6×1031 kg, three groups of researchers proposed independently that the detected black holes had a primordial origin[4][5][6][7] Two of them found that the merging rates inferred by LIGO are consistent with a scenario in which all the dark matter is made of primordial black holes, if a non-negligible fraction of them are somehow clustered within halos such as faint dwarf galaxies or globular clusters, as expected by the standard theory of cosmic structure formation The third group claimed that these merging rates are incompatible with an all-dark-matter scenario and that primordial black holes could only contribute to less than one percent of the total dark matter The unexpected large mass of the black holes detected by LIGO has strongly revived the interest for primordial black holes with masses in the range of 1 to 100 solar masses It is however still unclear and debated whether this range is excluded or not by other observations, such as the absence of micro-lensing of stars, the cosmic microwave background anisotropies, the size of faint dwarf galaxies, and the absence of correlation between X-ray and radio sources towards the galactic center

In May 2016, Alexander Kashlinsky suggested that the observed spatial correlations in the unresolved gamma-ray and X-ray background radiations could be due to primordial black holes with similar masses, if their abundance is comparable to the one of dark matter[8]

Formation

Primordial black holes could have formed in the very early Universe less than one second after the Big-Bang, during the so-called radiation dominated era The essential ingredient for a primordial black hole to form is a fluctuation in the density of the Universe, inducing its gravitational collapse One typically requires density contrasts δ ρ / ρ ∼ 01 where ρ is the density of the Universe to form a black hole[9] There are several mechanisms able to produce such inhomogeneities in the context of cosmic inflation in hybrid inflation models, for example axion inflation, reheating, or cosmological phase transitions

Observational limits and detection strategies

A variety of observations have been interpreted to place limits on the abundance and mass of primordial black holes:

  • Lifetime, Hawking radiation and gamma-rays: One way to detect primordial black holes, or to constrain their mass and abundance, is by their Hawking radiation Stephen Hawking theorized in 1974 that large numbers of such smaller primordial black holes might exist in the Milky Way in our galaxy's halo region All black holes are theorized to emit Hawking radiation at a rate inversely proportional to their mass Since this emission further decreases their mass, black holes with very small mass would experience runaway evaporation, creating a massive burst of radiation at the final phase, equivalent to a hydrogen bomb yielding millions of megatons of explosive force[10] A regular black hole of about 3 solar masses cannot lose all of its mass within the current age of the universe they would take about 1069 years to do so, even without any matter falling in However, since primordial black holes are not formed by stellar core collapse, they may be of any size A black hole with a mass of about 1011 kg would have a lifetime about equal to the age of the universe If such low-mass black holes were created in sufficient number in the Big Bang, we should be able to observe some of those that are relatively nearby in our own Milky Way galaxy exploding today NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope satellite, launched in June 2008, was designed in part to search for such evaporating primordial black holes Fermi data set up the limit that less than one percent of dark matter could be made of primordial black holes with masses up to 1013 kg Evaporating primordial black holes would have also an impact on the Big Bang nucleosynthesis and change the abundances of light elements in the Universe However, if theoretical Hawking radiation does not actually exist, such primordial black holes would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, to detect in space due to their small size and lack of large gravitational influence
  • Lensing of gamma-ray bursts: Compact objects can induce a change in the luminosity of gamma-ray bursts when passing close to their line-of-sight, through the gravitational lensing effect The Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor experiment found that primordial black holes cannot contribute importantly to the dark matter within the mass range 5 x 1014 – 1017 kg[11]
  • Capture of primordial black holes by neutron stars: If primordial black holes with masses between 1015 kg and 1022 kg had abundances comparable to the one of dark matter, neutron stars in globular clusters should have captured some of them, which leads to the rapid destruction of the star[12] The observation of neutron stars in globular clusters can thus be used to set a limit on primordial black holes abundances
  • Micro-lensing of stars: If a primordial black hole passes between us and a distant stars, it induces a magnification of these stars due to the gravitational lensing effect By monitoring the magnitude of stars in the Magellanic Clouds, the EROS and MACHO surveys have put a limit on the abundance of primordial black holes in the range 1023 – 1031 kg According to these surveys, primordial black holes within this range cannot constitute an important fraction of the dark matter[13][14] However, these limits are model dependent It has been also argued that if primordial black holes are regrouped in dense halos, the micro-lensing constraints are then naturally evaded[15]
  • Temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background: Accretion of matter onto primordial black holes in the early Universe should lead to energy injection in the medium that affects the recombination history of the Universe This effect induces signatures in the statistical distribution of the cosmic microwave background CMB anisotropies The Planck observations of the CMB exclude that primordial black holes with masses in the range 100 – 104 solar masses contribute importantly to the dark matter,[16] at least in the simplest conservative model It is still debated whether the constraints are stronger or weaker in more realistic or complex scenarios

At the time of the detection by LIGO of the gravitational waves emitted during the final coalescence of two 30 solar mass black holes, the mass range between 10 and 100 solar masses were still only poorly constrained Since then, new observations have been claimed to close this window, at least for models in which the primordial black holes have all the same mass:

  • from the absence of X-ray and optical correlations in point sources observed in the direction of the galactic center[17]
  • from the dynamical heating of dwarf galaxies[18]
  • from the observation of a central star cluster in the Eridanus II dwarf galaxy but these constraints can be relaxed if Eridanus II owns a central intermediate mass black hole, which is suggested by some observations[19] If primordial black holes exhibit a broad mass distributions, those constraints could nevertheless still be evaded
  • from the gravitational micro-lensing of distant quasars by closer galaxies, allowing only 20% of the galactic matter to be in the form of compact objects with stellar masses, a value consistent with the expected stellar population[20]
  • from micro-lensing of distant stars by galaxy clusters, suggesting that the fraction of dark matter in the form of Primordial Black Holes with masses comparable to those found by LIGO must be less than 10%[21]

In the future, new limits will be set up by various observations:

  • The Square Kilometre Array SKA radiotelescope will probe the effects of primordial black holes on the reionization history of the Universe, due to energy injection into the intergalactic medium, induced by matter accretion onto primordial black holes[22]
  • LIGO, VIRGO and future gravitational waves detectors will detect new black hole merging events, from which one could reconstruct the mass distribution of primordial black holes[23] They could allow to distinguish unambiguously between primordial or stellar origins if a merging event involving black holes with a mass lower than 14 solar mass are detected Another way would be to measure the large orbital eccentricity of primordial black hole binaries[24]
  • Gravitational wave detectors, such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna LISA and pulsar timing arrays will also probe the stochastic background of gravitational waves emitted by primordial black hole binaries, when they are still orbiting relatively far from each other[25]
  • New detections of faint dwarf galaxies, and the observations of their central star cluster, could be used to test the hypothesis that these dark-matter dominated structures contain primordial black holes in abundance
  • Monitoring star positions and velocities within the Milky Way could be used to detect the influence of a nearby primordial black hole
  • It has been suggested[26][27] that a small black hole passing through the Earth would produce a detectable acoustic signal Because of its tiny diameter, large mass compared to a nucleon, and relatively high speed, such primordial black holes would simply transit Earth virtually unimpeded with only a few impacts on nucleons, exiting the planet with no ill effects
  • Another way to detect primordial black holes could be by watching for ripples on the surfaces of stars If the black hole passed through a star, its density would cause observable vibrations[28][29]
  • Monitoring quasars in the microwave wavelength and detection of wave optics feature of gravitational microlensing by the primordial black holes [30]

Implications

The evaporation of primordial black holes has been suggested as one possible explanation for gamma-ray bursts This explanation is, however, considered unlikely[clarification needed][citation needed] Other problems for which primordial black holes have been suggested as a solution include the dark matter problem, the cosmological domain wall problem[31] and the cosmological monopole problem[32] Since a primordial black hole does not necessarily have to be small they can have any size, primordial black holes may also have contributed to the later formation of galaxies

Even if they do not solve these problems, the low number of primordial black holes as of 2010, only two intermediate mass black holes were confirmed aids cosmologists by putting constraints on the spectrum of density fluctuations in the early universe

String theory

Main article: String theory

General relativity predicts the smallest primordial black holes would have evaporated by now, but if there were a fourth spatial dimension – as predicted by string theory – it would affect how gravity acts on small scales and "slow down the evaporation quite substantially"[33] This could mean there are several thousand black holes in our galaxy To test this theory, scientists will use the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope which was put in orbit by NASA on June 11, 2008 If they observe specific small interference patterns within gamma-ray bursts, it could be the first indirect evidence for primordial black holes and string theory

References

  1. ^ Zel'dovitch & Novikov 14 March 1966 "The Hypothesis of Cores Retarded During Expansion and the Hot Cosmological MOdel" Soviet Astronomy – AJ 10 4: 602–603 Bibcode:1966AZh43758Z 
  2. ^ Hawking, S 1971 "Gravitationally collapsed objects of very low mass" Mon Not R Astron Soc 152: 75 Bibcode:1971MNRAS15275H doi:101093/mnras/152175 
  3. ^ Clesse, S; Garcia-Bellido, J 2015 "Massive Primordial Black Holes from Hybrid Inflation as Dark Matter and the seeds of Galaxies" Physical Review D 92 2: 023524 arXiv:150107565  Bibcode:2015PhRvD92b3524C doi:101103/PhysRevD92023524 
  4. ^ Bird, S; Cholis, I 2016 "Did LIGO Detect Dark Matter" Physical Review Letters 116 20: 201301 arXiv:160300464  Bibcode:2016PhRvL116t1301B doi:101103/PhysRevLett116201301 
  5. ^ Clesse, S; Garcia-Bellido, J 2017 "The clustering of massive Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter: Measuring their mass distribution with Advanced LIGO" Physics of the Dark Universe 10: 142 arXiv:160305234  Bibcode:2017PDU15142C doi:101016/jdark201610002 
  6. ^ Sasaki, M; Suyama, T; Tanaki, T 2016 "Primordial Black Hole Scenario for the Gravitational-Wave Event GW150914" Physical Review Letters 117 6: 061101 arXiv:160308338  Bibcode:2016PhRvL117f1101S doi:101103/PhysRevLett117061101 
  7. ^ "Did Gravitational Wave Detector Find Dark Matter" Johns Hopkins University June 15, 2016 Retrieved June 20, 2015 
  8. ^ Kashlinsky, A 2016 "LIGO gravitational wave detection, primordial black holes and the near-IR cosmic infrared background anisotropies" The Astrophysical Journal 823 2: L25 arXiv:160504023  Bibcode:2016ApJ823L25K doi:103847/2041-8205/823/2/L25 
  9. ^ Harada, T; Yoo, C-M; Khori, K 2013 "Threshold of primordial black hole formation" Physical Review D 88 8: 084051 arXiv:13094201  Bibcode:2013PhRvD88h4051H doi:101103/PhysRevD88084051 
  10. ^ Hawking, SW 1977 "The quantum mechanics of black holes" Scientific American 236: 34–40 Bibcode:1977SciAm236a34H doi:101038/scientificamerican0177-34 
  11. ^ Barnacka, A; Glicenstein, J; Moderski, R 2012 "New constraints on primordial black holes abundance from femtolensing of gamma-ray bursts" Physical Review D 86 4: 043001 arXiv:12042056  Bibcode:2012PhRvD86d3001B doi:101103/PhysRevD86043001 
  12. ^ Capela, Fabio; Pshirkov, Maxim; Tinyakov, Peter 2013 "Constraints on primordial black holes as dark matter candidates from capture by neutron stars" Physical Review D 87 12: 123524 arXiv:13014984  Bibcode:2013PhRvD87l3524C doi:101103/PhysRevD87123524 
  13. ^ Tisserand, P; Le Guillou, L; Afonso, C; Albert, J N; Andersen, J; Ansari, R; Aubourg, E; Bareyre, P; Beaulieu, J P; Charlot, X; Coutures, C; Ferlet, R; Fouqué, P; Glicenstein, J F; Goldman, B; Gould, A; Graff, D; Gros, M; Haissinski, J; Hamadache, C; de Kat, J; Lasserre, T; Lesquoy, E; Loup, C; Magneville, C; Marquette, J B; Maurice, E; Maury, A; Milsztajn, A; et al 2006 "Limits on the Macho Content of the Galactic Halo from the EROS-2 Survey of the Magellanic Clouds" Astronomy and Astrophysics 469 2: 387–404 arXiv:astro-ph/0607207  Bibcode:2007A&A469387T doi:101051/0004-6361:20066017 
  14. ^ Collaboration, EROS; Collaboration, MACHO; Alves, D; Ansari, R; Aubourg, É; Axelrod, T S; Bareyre, P; Beaulieu, J-Ph; Becker, A C; Bennett, D P; Brehin, S; Cavalier, F; Char, S; Cook, K H; Ferlet, R; Fernandez, J; Freeman, K C; Griest, K; Grison, Ph; Gros, M; Gry, C; Guibert, J; Lachièze-Rey, M; Laurent, B; Lehner, M J; Lesquoy, É; Magneville, C; Marshall, S L; Maurice, É; et al 1998 "EROS and MACHO Combined Limits on Planetary Mass Dark Matter in the Galactic Halo" The Astrophysical Journal 499: L9 arXiv:astro-ph/9803082  Bibcode:1998ApJ499L9A doi:101086/311355 
  15. ^ Clesse, S; Garcia-Bellido, J 2017 "The clustering of massive Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter: Measuring their mass distribution with Advanced LIGO" Physics of the Dark Universe 10: 142 arXiv:160305234  Bibcode:2017PDU15142C doi:101016/jdark201610002 
  16. ^ Ali-Haimoud, Y; Kamionkowski, M 2016 "Cosmic microwave background limits on accreting primordial black holes" Physical Review D 95 4 arXiv:161205644  Bibcode:2017PhRvD95d3534A doi:101103/PhysRevD95043534 
  17. ^ Gaggero, D; Bertone, G; Calore, F; Connors, R; Lovell, L; Markoff, S; Storm, E 2016 "Searching for primordial black holes in the X-ray and radio sky" Physical Review Letters 118 arXiv:161200457  Bibcode:2017PhRvL118x1101G doi:101103/PhysRevLett118241101 
  18. ^ Green, AM 2016 "Microlensing and dynamical constraints on primordial black hole dark matter with an extended mass function" Phys Rev D 94 6: 063530 arXiv:160901143  Bibcode:2016PhRvD94f3530G doi:101103/PhysRevD94063530 
  19. ^ Li, T S; Simon, J D; Drlica-Wagner, A; Bechtol, K; Wang, M Y; García-Bellido, J; Frieman, J; Marshall, J L; James, D J; Strigari, L; Pace, A B; Balbinot, E; Zhang, Y; Abbott, T M C; Allam, S; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernstein, G M; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Burke, D L; Carnero Rosell, A; Carrasco Kind, M; Carretero, J; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; et al 2016 "Farthest Neighbor: The Distant Milky Way Satellite Eridanus II" The Astrophysical Journal 838: 8 arXiv:161105052  Bibcode:2017ApJ8388L doi:103847/1538-4357/aa6113 
  20. ^ Mediavilla, E; Jimenez-Vicente, J; Munoz, J A; Vives Arias, H; Calderon-Infante, J 2017 "Limits on the Mass and Abundance of Primordial Black Holes from Quasar Gravitational Microlensing" The Astrophysical Journal 836 2: L18 arXiv:170200947  Bibcode:2017ApJ836L18M doi:103847/2041-8213/aa5dab 
  21. ^ Diego, Jose M 2017 "Dark matter under the microscope: Constraining compact dark matter with caustic crossing events" arXiv:170610281  Bibcode:2018ApJ85725D doi:103847/1538-4357/aab617 
  22. ^ Tashiro, H; Sugiyama 2012 "The effect of primordial black holes on 21 cm fluctuations" Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 435 4: 3001 arXiv:12076405  Bibcode:2013MNRAS4353001T doi:101093/mnras/stt1493  |first3= missing |last3= in Authors list help
  23. ^ Clesse, S; Garcia-Bellido, J 2017 "The clustering of massive Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter: Measuring their mass distribution with Advanced LIGO" Physics of the Dark Universe 10: 142 arXiv:160305234  Bibcode:2017PDU15142C doi:101016/jdark201610002 
  24. ^ Cholis, I; Kovetz, ED; Ali-Haimoud, Y; Bird, S; Kamionkowski, M; Munoz, J; Raccanelli, A 2016 "Orbital eccentricities in primordial black hole binaries" Physical Review D 94 8 arXiv:160607437  Bibcode:2016PhRvD94h4013C doi:101103/PhysRevD94084013 
  25. ^ Clesse, Sebastien; Garcia-Bellido, Juan 2016 "Detecting the gravitational wave background from primordial black hole dark matter" arXiv:161008479   
  26. ^ Khriplovich, I B; Pomeransky, A A; Produit, N; Ruban, G Yu 13 March 2008 "Can one detect passage of a small black hole through the Earth" Physical Review D 77 6: 064017 arXiv:07103438  Bibcode:2008PhRvD77f4017K doi:101103/PhysRevD77064017 
  27. ^ I B Khriplovich, A A Pomeransky, N Produit and G Yu Ruban, Passage of small black hole through the Earth Is it detectable, preprint
  28. ^ "Primitive Black Holes Could Shine" 
  29. ^ Kesden, Michael; Hanasoge, Shravan 2011 "Transient Solar Oscillations Driven by Primordial Black Holes" Physical Review Letters 107 11: 111101 arXiv:11060011  Bibcode:2011PhRvL107k1101K doi:101103/PhysRevLett107111101 PMID 22026654 
  30. ^ Naderi, Tayebeh; Mehrabi, Ahmad; Rahvar, Sohrab 2018 "Primordial black hole detection through diffractive microlensing" Physical Review D 97 10: 103507 arXiv:171106312  Bibcode:2018PhRvD97j3507N doi:101103/PhysRevD97103507 
  31. ^ D Stojkovic; K Freese & G D Starkman 2005 "Holes in the walls: primordial black holes as a solution to the cosmological domain wall problem" Phys Rev D 72 4: 045012 arXiv:hep-ph/0505026  Bibcode:2005PhRvD72d5012S doi:101103/PhysRevD72045012  preprint
  32. ^ D Stojkovic; K Freese 2005 "A black hole solution to the cosmological monopole problem" Phys Lett B 606 3–4: 251–257 arXiv:hep-ph/0403248  Bibcode:2005PhLB606251S doi:101016/jphysletb200412019  preprint
  33. ^ McKee, Maggie 2006 NewScientistSpacecom – Satellite could open door on extra dimension
  • SW Hawking, CommunMath Phys 43 1975 199[permanent dead link] : Original article proposing existence of radiation
  • D Page, Phys Rev D13 1976 198 : First detailed studies of the evaporation mechanism
  • BJ Carr & SW Hawking, Mon Not Roy Astron Soc 168 1974 399 : Describes links between primordial black holes and the early universe
  • A Barrau et al, Astron Astrophys 388 2002 676, Astron Astrophys 398 2003 403, Astrophys J 630 2005 1015 : Experimental searches for primordial black holes due to the emitted antimatter
  • A Barrau & G Boudoul, Review talk given at the International Conference on Theoretical Physics TH2002 : Cosmology with primordial black holes
  • A Barrau & J Grain, Phys Lett B 584 2004 114 : Searches for new physics quantum gravity with primordial black holes
  • P Kanti, Int J Mod Phys A19 2004 4899 : Evaporating black holes and extra-dimensions

primordial black hole, primordial black hole shoots through earth, primordial black holes, primordial black holes - recent developments, primordial black holes and dark matter, primordial black holes as dark matter, primordial black holes dark matter, primordial black holes definition, primordial black holes wiki, primordial black holes wikipedia


Primordial black hole Information about

Primordial black hole


  • user icon

    Primordial black hole beatiful post thanks!

    29.10.2014


Primordial black hole
Primordial black hole
Primordial black hole viewing the topic.
Primordial black hole what, Primordial black hole who, Primordial black hole explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video

Random Posts

Book

Book

A book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or...
Boston Renegades

Boston Renegades

Boston Renegades was an American women’s soccer team, founded in 2003 The team was a member of the U...
Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement

Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement

Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement can be found on a rocky headland about 10 kilometers west of Ibiza T...
Bodybuilding.com

Bodybuilding.com

Bodybuildingcom is an American online retailer based in Boise, Idaho, specializing in dietary supple...