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Primary source

primary source, primary source vs secondary source
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source also called original source or evidence is an artifact, a document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, a recording, or other source of information that was created at the time under study It serves as an original source of information about the topic Similar definitions can be used in library science, and other areas of scholarship, although different fields have somewhat different definitions In journalism, a primary source can be a person with direct knowledge of a situation, or a document written by such a person

Primary sources are distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on, or build upon primary sources Generally, accounts written after the fact with the benefit and possible distortions of hindsight are secondary A secondary source may also be a primary source depending on how it is used For example, a memoir would be considered a primary source in research concerning its author or about his or her friends characterized within it, but the same memoir would be a secondary source if it were used to examine the culture in which its author lived "Primary" and "secondary" should be understood as relative terms, with sources categorized according to specific historical contexts and what is being studied:118–246


  • 1 The significance of source classification
    • 11 History
    • 12 Other fields
  • 2 Finding primary sources
  • 3 Using primary sources
  • 4 Strengths and weaknesses of primary sources
  • 5 Classifying sources
  • 6 Forgeries
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

The significance of source classification


From a letter of Philip II, King of Spain, 16th century

In scholarly writing, an important objective of classifying sources is to determine their independence and reliability In contexts such as historical writing, it is almost always advisable to use primary sources and that "if none are available, it is only with great caution that may proceed to make use of secondary sources" Sreedharan believes that primary sources have the most direct connection to the past and that they "speak for themselves" in ways that cannot be captured through the filter of secondary sources

Other fields

In scholarly writing, the objective of classifying sources is to determine the independence and reliability of sources Though the terms primary source and secondary source originated in historiography as a way to trace the history of historical ideas, they have been applied to many other fields For example, these ideas may be used to trace the history of scientific theories, literary elements and other information that is passed from one author to another

In scientific literature, a primary source is the original publication of a scientist's new data, results and theories In political history, primary sources are documents such as official reports, speeches, pamphlets, posters, or letters by participants, official election returns and eyewitness accounts In the history of ideas or intellectual history, the main primary sources are books, essays and letters written by intellectuals; these intellectuals may include historians, whose books and essays are therefore considered primary sources for the intellectual historian, though they are secondary sources in their own topical fields In religious history, the primary sources are religious texts and descriptions of religious ceremonies and rituals

A study of cultural history could include fictional sources such as novels or plays In a broader sense primary sources also include artifacts like photographs, newsreels, coins, paintings or buildings created at the time Historians may also take archaeological artifacts and oral reports and interviews into consideration Written sources may be divided into three types

  • Narrative sources or literary sources tell a story or message They are not limited to fictional sources which can be sources of information for contemporary attitudes but include diaries, films, biographies, leading philosophical works and scientific works
  • Diplomatic sources include charters and other legal documents which usually follow a set format
  • Social documents are records created by organizations, such as registers of births and tax records

In historiography, when the study of history is subject to historical scrutiny, a secondary source becomes a primary source For a biography of a historian, that historian's publications would be primary sources Documentary films can be considered a secondary source or primary source, depending on how much the filmmaker modifies the original sources

The Lafayette College Library, provides a synopsis of primary sources in several areas of study:

"The definition of a primary source varies depending upon the academic discipline and the context in which it is used

  • In the humanities, a primary source could be defined as something that was created either during the time period being studied or afterward by individuals reflecting on their involvement in the events of that time
  • In the social sciences, the definition of a primary source would be expanded to include numerical data that has been gathered to analyze relationships between people, events, and their environment
  • In the natural sciences, a primary source could be defined as a report of original findings or ideas These sources often appear in the form of research articles with sections on methods and results"

Finding primary sources

Although many primary sources remain in private hands, others are located in archives, libraries, museums, historical societies, and special collections These can be public or private Some are affiliated with universities and colleges, while others are government entities Materials relating to one area might be spread over a large number of different institutions These can be distant from the original source of the document For example, the Huntington Library in California houses a large number of documents from the United Kingdom

In the US, digital copies of primary sources can be retrieved from a number of places The Library of Congress maintains several digital collections where they can be retrieved Some examples are American Memory and Chronicling America The National Archives and Records Administration also has digital collections in Digital Vaults The Digital Public Library of America searches across the digitized primary source collections of many libraries, archives, and museums The Internet Archive also has primary source materials in many formats

In the UK, the National Archives provides a consolidated search of its own catalogue and a wide variety of other archives listed on the Access to Archives index Digital copies of various classes of documents at the National Archives including wills are available from DocumentsOnline Most of the available documents relate to England and Wales Some digital copies of primary sources are available from the National Archives of Scotland Many County Record Offices collections are included in Access to Archives, while others have their own on-line catalogues Many County Record Offices will supply digital copies of documents

In other regions, Europeana has digitized materials from across Europe while the World Digital Library and Flickr Commons have items from all over the world Trove has primary sources from Australia

Most primary source materials are not digitized and may only be represented online with a record or finding aid Both digitized and not digitized materials can be found through catalogs such as WorldCat, the Library of Congress catalog, the National Archives catalog, and so on

Using primary sources

History as an academic discipline is based on primary sources, as evaluated by the community of scholars, who report their findings in books, articles and papers Arthur Marwick says "Primary sources are absolutely fundamental to history" Ideally, a historian will use all available primary sources that were created by the people involved at the time being studied In practice some sources have been destroyed, while others are not available for research Perhaps the only eyewitness reports of an event may be memoirs, autobiographies, or oral interviews taken years later Sometimes the only evidence relating to an event or person in the distant past was written or copied decades or centuries later Manuscripts that are sources for classical texts can be copies of documents, or fragments of copies of documents This is a common problem in classical studies, where sometimes only a summary of a book or letter has survived Potential difficulties with primary sources have the result that history is usually taught in schools using secondary sources

Historians studying the modern period with the intention of publishing an academic article prefer to go back to available primary sources and to seek new in other words, forgotten or lost ones Primary sources, whether accurate or not, offer new input into historical questions and most modern history revolves around heavy use of archives and special collections for the purpose of finding useful primary sources A work on history is not likely to be taken seriously as scholarship if it only cites secondary sources, as it does not indicate that original research has been done

However, primary sources – particularly those from before the 20th century – may have hidden challenges "Primary sources, in fact, are usually fragmentary, ambiguous and very difficult to analyse and interpret" Obsolete meanings of familiar words and social context are among the traps that await the newcomer to historical studies For this reason, the interpretation of primary texts is typically taught as part of an advanced college or postgraduate history course, although advanced self-study or informal training is also possible

The following questions are asked about primary sources:

  • What is the tone
  • Who is the intended audience
  • What is the purpose of the publication
  • What assumptions does the author make
  • What are the bases of the author's conclusions
  • Does the author agree or disagree with other authors of the subject
  • Does the content agree with what you know or have learned about the issue
  • Where was the source made questions of systemic bias

Strengths and weaknesses of primary sources

In many fields and contexts, such as historical writing, it is almost always advisable to use primary sources if possible, and that "if none are available, it is only with great caution that may proceed to make use of secondary sources" In addition, primary sources avoid the problem inherent in secondary sources, where each new author may distort and put their own spin on the findings of prior cited authors

"A history, whose author draws conclusions from other than primary sources or secondary sources actually based on primary sources, is by definition fiction and not history at all"

— Kameron Searle

However, a primary source is not necessarily more of an authority or better than a secondary source There can be bias and tacit unconscious views which twist historical information

"Original material may be prejudiced, or at least not exactly what it claims to be"

— David Iredale

These errors may be corrected in secondary sources, which are often subjected to peer review, can be well documented, and are often written by historians working in institutions where methodological accuracy is important to the future of the author's career and reputation Historians consider the accuracy and objectiveness of the primary sources they are using and historians subject both primary and secondary sources to a high level of scrutiny A primary source such as a journal entry or the online version, a blog, at best, may only reflect one individual's opinion on events, which may or may not be truthful, accurate, or complete

Participants and eyewitnesses may misunderstand events or distort their reports deliberately or unconsciously to enhance their own image or importance Such effects can increase over time, as people create a narrative that may not be accurate For any source, primary or secondary, it is important for the researcher to evaluate the amount and direction of bias As an example, a government report may be an accurate and unbiased description of events, but it can be censored or altered for propaganda or cover-up purposes The facts can be distorted to present the opposing sides in a negative light Barristers are taught that evidence in a court case may be truthful, but it may be distorted to support or oppose the position of one of the parties

Classifying sources

Many sources can be considered either primary or secondary, depending on the context in which they are examined Moreover, the distinction between primary and secondary sources is subjective and contextual, so that precise definitions are difficult to make A book review, when it contains the opinion of the reviewer about the book rather than a summary of the book, becomes a primary source

If a historical text discusses old documents to derive a new historical conclusion, it is considered to be a primary source for the new conclusion Examples in which a source can be both primary and secondary include an obituary or a survey of several volumes of a journal counting the frequency of articles on a certain topic

Whether a source is regarded as primary or secondary in a given context may change, depending upon the present state of knowledge within the field For example, if a document refers to the contents of a previous but undiscovered letter, that document may be considered "primary", since it is the closest known thing to an original source; but if the letter is later found, it may then be considered "secondary"

In some instances, the reason for identifying a text as the "primary source" may devolve from the fact that no copy of the original source material exists, or that it is the oldest extant source for the information cited


Historians must occasionally contend with forged documents that purport to be primary sources These forgeries have usually been constructed with a fraudulent purpose, such as promulgating legal rights, supporting false pedigrees, or promoting particular interpretations of historic events The investigation of documents to determine their authenticity is called diplomatics

For centuries, Popes used the forged Donation of Constantine to bolster the Papacy's secular power Among the earliest forgeries are false Anglo-Saxon charters, a number of 11th- and 12th-century forgeries produced by monasteries and abbeys to support a claim to land where the original document had been lost or never existed One particularly unusual forgery of a primary source was perpetrated by Sir Edward Dering, who placed false monumental brasses in a parish church In 1986, Hugh Trevor-Roper "authenticated" the Hitler Diaries, which were later proved to be forgeries Recently, forged documents have been placed within the UK National Archives in the hope of establishing a false provenance However, historians dealing with recent centuries rarely encounter forgeries of any importance:22–25

See also

  • Monograph
  • Archival research
  • Historiography
  • Source criticism
  • Source literature
  • Source text
  • Historical document
  • Library and information science portal
  • Secondary source
  • Tertiary source
  • Original research
  • UNISIST model
  • Scientific journalism
  • Scholarly method


  1. ^ "Primary, secondary and tertiary sources" University Libraries, University of Maryland accessed 16 Jul 2013
  2. ^ "Primary and secondary sources" Ithaca College Library
  3. ^ a b c Oscar Handlin and Arthur Meier Schlesinger, Harvard Guide to American History 1954
  4. ^ a b c d Kragh, Helge 1989 An Introduction to the Historiography of Science Cambridge University Press p 121 ISBN 0-521-38921-6 he distinction is not a sharp one Since a source is only a source in a specific historical context, the same source object can be both a primary or secondary source according to what it is used for 
  5. ^ a b Cipolla, Carlo M 1992 Between Two Cultures:An Introduction to Economic History W W Norton & Co p 27 ISBN 978-0-393-30816-7 
  6. ^ Sreedharan, E 2004 A Textbook of Historiography, 500 BC to AD 2000 Orient Longman p 302 ISBN 81-250-2657-6 it is through the primary sources that the past indisputably imposes its reality on the historian That this imposition is basic in any understanding of the past is clear from the rules that documents should not be altered, or that any material damaging to a historian's argument or purpose should not be left out or suppressed These rules mean that the sources or the texts of the past have an integrity and that they do indeed 'speak for themselves', and that they are necessary constraints through which past reality imposes itself on the historian 
  7. ^ "Primary Sources - Religion" Research Guides at Tufts University 26 August 2014 Retrieved 15 January 2014 
  8. ^ Howell, Martha C; Prevenier, Walter 2001 From reliable sources : an introduction to historical method Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press pp 20–22 ISBN 0-8014-8560-6 
  9. ^ Cripps, Thomas 1995 "Historical Truth: An Interview with Ken Burns" American Historical Review The American Historical Review, Vol 100, No 3 100 3: 741–764 doi:102307/2168603 JSTOR 2168603 
  10. ^ "Primary Sources: what are they" Lafayette College Library
  11. ^ a b Marwick, Arthur "Primary Sources: Handle with Care" In Sources and Methods for Family and Community Historians: A Handbook edited by Michael Drake and Ruth Finnegan Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997 ISBN 0-521-46580-X
  12. ^ Ross, Jeffrey Ian 2004 "Taking Stock of Research Methods and Analysis on Oppositional Political Terrorism" The American Sociologist 35 2: 26–37 doi:101007/BF02692395 The analysis of secondary source information is problematic The further an investigator is from the primary source, the more distorted the information may be Again, each new person may put his or her spin on the findings 
  13. ^ Iredale, David 1973 Enjoying archives: what they are, where to find them, how to use them Newton Abbot, David and Charles, ISBN 0-7153-5669-0 
  14. ^ Barbara W Sommer and Mary Kay Quinlan, The Oral History Manual 2002
  15. ^ Library of Congress, " Analysis of Primary Sources" online 2007
  16. ^ Dalton & Charnigo 2004, p 419 n18
  17. ^ Delgadillo, Roberto; Lynch, Beverly 1999 "Future Historians: Their Quest for Information" PDF College & Research Libraries: 245–259, at 253 he same document can be a primary or a secondary source depending on the particular analysis the historian is doing 
  18. ^ Princeton 2011 "Book reviews" Scholarly definition document Princeton Retrieved 22 September 2011 
  19. ^ Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University 2011 "Book reviews" Scholarly definition document Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Retrieved 22 September 2011 
  20. ^ a b Duffin, Jacalyn 1999 History of Medicine: A Scandalously Short Introduction University of Toronto Press p 366 ISBN 0-8020-7912-1 
  21. ^ Henige, David 1986 "Primary Source by Primary Source On the Role of Epidemics in New World Depopulation" Ethnohistory Ethnohistory, Vol 33, No 3 33 3: 292–312, at 292 doi:102307/481816 JSTOR 481816 he term 'primary' inevitably carries a relative meaning insofar as it defines those pieces of information that stand in closest relationship to an event or process in the present state of our knowledge Indeed, in most instances the very nature of a primary source tells us that it is actually derivative…istorians have no choice but to regard certain of the available sources as 'primary' since they are as near to truly original sources as they can now secure 
  22. ^ Henige 1986, p 292
  23. ^ Ambraseys, Nicholas; Melville, Charles Peter; Adams, Robin Dartrey 1994 The Seismicity of Egypt, Arabia, and the Red Sea Cambridge University Press p 7 ISBN 0-521-39120-2 The same chronicle can be a primary source for the period contemporary with the author, a secondary source for earlier material derived from previous works, but also a primary source when these earlier works have not survived 
  24. ^ Everyone has Roots: An Introduction to English Genealogy by Anthony J Camp, published by Genealogical Pub Co, 1978
  25. ^ "Introduction to record class R4" The National Archives Retrieved 8 March 2015 
  26. ^ Leppard, David 4 May 2008 "Forgeries revealed in the National Archives – Times Online" The Sunday Times Retrieved 4 July 2011 
  • Benjamin, Jules R 2004 A Student's Guide to History Boston: Bedford/St Martin's ISBN 0-312-40356-9 
  • Craver, Kathleen W 1999 Using Internet Primary Sources to Teach Critical Thinking Skills in History Westwood, CT: Greenwood Press ISBN 0-313-30749-0 
  • Wood Gray 1991 Historian's Handbook: A Key to the Study and Writing of History 2nd ed Waveland Press; 1991 ISBN 978-0-88133-626-9
  • Marius, Richard; Page, Melvin Eugene 2005 A short guide to writing about history New York: Pearson Longman ISBN 978-0-321-22716-4 
  • Sebastian Olden-Jørgensen 2005 Til kilderne!: introduktion til historisk kildekritik in Danish København: Gads Forlag ISBN 978-87-12-03778-1

External links

Primary sources repositories
  • Primary Sources from World War One and Two: War-letterscom Database of mailed letters to and from soldiers during major world conflicts from the Napoleonic Wars to World War Two
  • Fold3com – Over 60,000,000 Primary Source Documents created by Ancestrycom
  • A listing of over 5000 websites describing holdings of manuscripts, archives, rare books, historical photographs, and other primary sources from the University of Idaho
  • Find primary sources in the collections of major research libraries using ArchiveGrid
  • Shapell Manuscript Foundation Digitalized Primary Sources and Historical Artifacts from 1786 – present
  • Sacred Textscom A collection of religious texts and books from the Internet Sacred Text Archive
All sources repositories
  • Wikisource – The Free Library – the Wikimedia project that collects, edits, and catalogs all source texts
Essays and descriptions of primary, secondary and other sources
  • "Research Using Primary Sources" from the University of Maryland Libraries accessed 16 Jul 2013
  • "How to distinguish between primary and secondary sources" from the University of California, Santa Cruz Library
  • Joan of Arc: Primary Sources Series – Example of a publication focusing on primary source documents- the Historical Association of Joan of Arc Studies
  • Finding historical primary sources from the University of California, Berkeley library
  • "Primary versus secondary sources" from the Bowling Green State University library
  • Finding primary sources in world history from the Center for History and New Media, George Mason University
  • Guide to Terminology used when describing archival and other primary source materials on Archivopedia
  • Thehistorysiteorg Links to many online history archival sources

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