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portmanteau, portmanteau meaning
A portmanteau i/pɔːrtˈmæntoʊ/, /ˌpɔːrtmænˈtoʊ/; plural portmanteaus or portmanteaux /-ˈtoʊz/ or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words, in which parts of multiple words, or their phones sounds, and their meanings are combined into a new word A portmanteau word fuses both the sounds and the meanings of its components, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel In linguistics, a portmanteau is defined as a single morph that represents two or more morphemes

The definition overlaps with the grammatical term contraction, but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not to make don't, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept which the portmanteau describes A portmanteau also differs from a compound, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words For instance, starfish is a compound, not a portmanteau, of star and fish; whereas a hypothetical portmanteau of star and fish might be stish


  • 1 Origin
  • 2 Examples in English
    • 21 Standard English
      • 211 Formal
      • 212 Informal
      • 213 Business
    • 22 Non-standard English
      • 221 Name-meshing
  • 3 Other languages
    • 31 Arabic
    • 32 Bulgarian
    • 33 Chinese
    • 34 Filipino
    • 35 French
    • 36 Galician
    • 37 German
    • 38 Modern Hebrew
    • 39 Hindi
    • 310 Icelandic
    • 311 Indonesian
    • 312 Japanese
    • 313 Spanish
    • 314 Tibetan
  • 4 Word/morph linguistics
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links


The word "portmanteau" was first used in this context by Lewis Carroll in the book Through the Looking-Glass 1871, in which Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the coinage of the unusual words in Jabberwocky, where "slithy" means "slimy and lithe" and "mimsy" is "miserable and flimsy" Humpty Dumpty explains the practice of combining words in various ways by telling Alice:

You see it's like a portmanteau—there are two meanings packed up into one word

In his introduction to The Hunting of the Snark, Carroll uses "portmanteau" when discussing lexical selection:

Humpty Dumpty's theory, of two meanings packed into one word like a portmanteau, seems to me the right explanation for all For instance, take the two words "fuming" and "furious" Make up your mind that you will say both words, but leave it unsettled which you will say first … if you have the rarest of gifts, a perfectly balanced mind, you will say "frumious"

In then-contemporary English, a portmanteau was a suitcase that opened into two equal sections The etymology of the word is the French porte-manteau, from porter, to carry, and manteau, cloak from Old French mantel, from Latin mantellum In modern French, a porte-manteau is a clothes valet, a coat-tree or similar article of furniture for hanging up jackets, hats, umbrellas and the like It has also been used especially in Europe as a formal description for hat racks from the French words porter to carry and manteau cloak

An occasionally-used synonym for "portmanteau word" is frankenword, itself an autological word exemplifying the phenomenon it describes, blending "Frankenstein" and "word"

Examples in English

Main article: List of portmanteaux

Standard English


The original "Gerrymander" pictured in an 1812 cartoon The word is a portmanteau of Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry's name with "salamander"

Many neologisms are examples of blends, but many blends have become part of the lexicon In Punch in 1896, the word brunch breakfast + lunch was introduced as a "portmanteau word" In 1964, the newly independent African republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar chose the portmanteau word Tanzania as its name Similarly Eurasia is a portmanteau of Europe and Asia

Some city names are portmanteaux of the border regions they straddle: Texarkana spreads across the Texas-Arkansas-Louisiana border, while Calexico and Mexicali are respectively the American and Mexican sides of a single conurbation A scientific example is a liger, which is a cross between a male lion and a female tiger a tigon or tiglon is a similar cross in which the male is a tiger

Many company or brand names are portmanteaus, including Microsoft, a portmanteau of microcomputer and software; the cheese "Cambozola" combines a similar rind to "Camembert" with the same mold used to make "Gorgonzola"; passenger rail company "Amtrak", a portmanteau of "America" and "track"; "Velcro", a portmanteau of the French "Velours" velvet and "Crochet" hook; "Verizon," a portmanteau of "veritas" Latin for truth and "horizon," and ComEd A Chicago-area electric utility company a portmanteau of "Commonwealth" and Edison Thomas Edison

"Jeoportmanteau!" is a recurring category on the American television quiz show Jeopardy! The category's name is itself a portmanteau of the words "Jeopardy" and "portmanteau" Responses in the category are portmanteaux constructed by fitting two words together


Portmanteau words may be produced by joining together proper nouns with common nouns, such as "gerrymandering," which refers to the scheme of Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry for politically contrived re-districting; the perimeter of one of the districts thereby created resembled a very curvy salamander in outline The term gerrymander has itself contributed to portmanteau terms bjelkemander and playmander

Oxbridge is a common portmanteau for the UK's two oldest universities, those of Oxford and Cambridge

A spork

Many portmanteau words receive some use but do not appear in all dictionaries For example, a spork is an eating utensil that is a combination of a spoon and a fork, and a skort is an item of clothing that is part skirt, part shorts On the other hand, turducken, a dish made by inserting a chicken into a duck, and the duck into a turkey, was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2010

Similarly, the word refudiate was first used by Sarah Palin when she misspoke, conflating the words refute and repudiate Though initially a gaffe, the word was recognized as the New Oxford American Dictionary's "Word of the Year" in 2010


The business lexicon is replete with newly coined portmanteau words like "permalance" permanent freelance, "advertainment" advertising as entertainment, "advertorial" a blurred distinction between advertising and editorial, "infotainment" information about entertainment or itself intended to entertain by virtue of its manner of presentation, and "infomercial" informational commercial

Non-standard English


Two proper names can also be used in creating a portmanteau word in reference to the partnership between people, especially in cases where both persons are well-known, or sometimes to produce epithets such as "Billary" referring to former United States president Bill Clinton and his wife, former United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton In this example of recent American political history, the purpose for blending is not so much to combine the meanings of the source words but "to suggest a resemblance of one named person to the other"; the effect is often derogatory, as linguist Benjamin Zimmer states By contrast, the public, including the media, use portmanteaux to refer to their favorite pairings as a way to "giv people an essence of who they are within the same name" This is particularly seen in cases of fictional and real-life "supercouples" An early known example, Bennifer, referred to film stars Ben Affleck and Jennifer Lopez Other examples include Brangelina Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie and TomKat Tom Cruise and Katie Holmes "Desilu Productions" was a Los Angeles, California-based company jointly owned by couple and actors Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball Miramax is the combination of the first names of the parents of the Weinstein brothers

Holidays are another example, as in Thanksgivukkah, a portmanteau neologism given to the convergence of the American holiday of Thanksgiving and the first day of the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah on Thursday, 28 November 2013

Other languages


In vernacular Arabic, contractions are a pretty common phenomenon, in which mostly prepositions are added to other words to create a word with a new meaning For example, the Hejazi word for "not yet" is لسع/لسه lessa/lessaʕ, which is a combination of the words لـ li, for and الساعة assaʕa,the hour Other examples in Hejazi Arabic include:

  • إيش eːsh, what, from أي ay, which and شيء shayʔ, thing
  • ليش leːsh, why, from لـ li, for and أي ay, which and شيء shayʔ, thing
  • فين feːn, where, from في fiː, in and أين ayn, where
  • إلين ileːn, until, from إلى ilaː, to and أن an, that
  • دحين daħeːn or daħiːn, now, from ذا thaː, this and الحين alħiːn, part of time
  • علشان/عشان ʕashaːn/ʕalashaːn, because, from على ʕalaː, on and شأن shaʔn, matter
  • كمان kamaːn, also/more, from كما kamaː as and أن an that
  • معليش maʕleːsh, is it ok/sorry, from ما maː, nothing and عليه ʕalayh, on him and شيء shayʔ, thing
  • إيوه iːwa, yes, from إي iː, yes and و wa , swear to or promise by and الله allaːh, god

A few rare or facetious examples would include:

  • لعم from "naʕm", yes and "la", no, implying you are not sure
  • متشائل "mutashaʔim", pessimist and "mutafaʔil", optimist, the title of a novel published by Emile Habibi in 1974 The title is translated in English to "The Pessoptimist"
  • كهرماء "kahramaʔ", utilities coined from كهرباء "kahrabaʔ", electricity and ماء "maʔ", water, the national utilities company of Qatar
  • كهرطيسي "kahratisi", electromagnetic coined from كهرباء "kahrabaʔ", electricity and مغناطيسي "magnetic"


In the Bulgarian language the most common use of portmanteau is as a part of advertising campaigns One such example is the word gintuition джинтуиция pronounced dzhintuitsia, which is made up from the words gin and intuition This one in particular is used, not surprisingly, as a part of a gin commercial Another example is the word charomat, which consists of the words чар the Bulgarian word for charm and аромат meaning aroma, made popular by an ad about a coffee brand


Several Chinese province names are portmanteau words Anhui is a combination of Anqing and Huizhou, Fujian is a combination of Fuzhou and Jianzhou ancient name of Jian'ou, Gansu is a combination of Ganzhou and Suzhou, and Jiangsu is a combination of Jiangning ancient name of Nanjing and Suzhou

In 1927, the city of Wuhan, capital of Hubei Province, was created by merging the three cities of Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang into one city


Certain portmanteaus in Filipino have come into use to describe popular combinations of items in a Filipino breakfast An example of such a combination order is kankamtuy: an order of kanin rice, kamatis tomatoes and tuyo dried fish Another is tapsi: an order of tapa and sinangág Other examples include variations using a silog suffix, usually some kind of meat served with sinangág and itlog egg The three most commonly seen silogs are tapsilog having tapa as the meat portion, tocilog having tocino as the meat portion, and longsilog having longganisa as the meat portion Other silogs include hotsilog with a hot dog, bangsilog with bangus milkfish, dangsilog with danggit rabbitfish, spamsilog with spam, adosilog with adobo, chosilog with chorizo, chiksilog with chicken, cornsilog with corned beef, and litsilog with lechon/litson An establishment that specializes in such meals is called a tapsihan or "tapsilugan"

The name of a common Filipino mongrel dogs askal is derived from Tagalog words "asong kalye" or "street dog" because these dogs are commonly seen in streets Askals are also called "aspins", a combination of "asong Pinoy" or "Philippine Dog"

Another Filipino portmanteau is a popular but slightly dated female name Luzviminda derived from the Philippines' three major island groups Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao


Despite its French etymology modern spelling: porte-manteau, portmanteau is not used in French in this context It is indeed a false friend It refers to a coat stand or coat hook literally a "coat support", but in the past it could also refer to a cloth drape knight would use to pack their gear It was in this context that it first came to its English use, and the metaphorical use for a linguistic phenomenon putting one word inside another, as into a case is an English coinage The French linguistic term mot-valise, literally a "suitcase-word", is a relatively recent back-translation from English, attested only since 1970

Although French is regulated by the Académie française which has had a conservative attitude to neologisms it produced a number of portmanteau words such as franglais frenglish or courriel courrier électronique = email and has used the technique in literature Boris Vian or to create brands: Transilien Transports franciliens = Île-de-France transportation system

French has a second regulatory body, named OQLF, an agency of the Government of Quebec, which is completely independent from the Académie It has a tendency to produce neologisms in order to replace anglicisms It created the portmanteaus courriel and clavardage clavier + bavardage, for example Another example in Quebec but made outside of OQLF is Centricois, which means person from the region Centre-du-Québec winner of a contest organised by the SSJB of Centre-du-Québec in 1999


Galician has many portmanteaus, some existing also in Portuguese but many others not or only in the North of Portugal, close to Galicia, which can be explained by its popular origin: carambelo frozen candy, from caramelo candy and carámbano icicle; martabela a kind of dead bolt, from martelo hammer and tarabela a kind of drill bit; rabuñar to scratch with a fingernail, for instance a cat or a person, from rabuxa a small tail, and also a common ill in tails and rañar to scratch; millenta "many thousands", also common in Portuguese milhenta, from milleiro one thousand and cento one hundred; runxir to crackle, applied to some things only, from ruxir to howl and renxer to grind the teeth, or vagamundo tramp, from vagabundo wanderer and mundo world, currently "vagamundo" and "vagabundo" mean the same, and the former is considered a vulgarism


Kofferwort, a German synonym for portmanteau, is a recent literal translation of French mot-valise, attested since 1983 However, the phenomenon is well known in German poetry A modern example of German portmanteau is 'Teuro', combining 'teuer' expensive and 'Euro' Other examples are Mainhattan, a Central business district in Frankfurt on the river Main like Manhattan, New York and Kreuzkölln, the Berlin area bordering between Kreuzberg and Neukölln

Modern Hebrew

Modern Hebrew abounds with European mechanisms such as blending: Along with קומפקט דיסק kompaktdisk, compact disc, Hebrew has the blend תקליטור taklitor, which consists of the Jewish-descent תקליט taklít, record and אור or, light Modern Hebrew is full of portmanteau blends, such as:

  • ערפיח arpiakh, smog, from ערפל arafel, fog and פיח piakh, soot
  • מדרחוב midrakhov, pedestrian promenade, from מדרכה midrakha, footpath and רחוב rekhov, street
  • מחזמר makhazemer, musical, from מחזה makhazeh, play and זמר zémer, song
  • מגדלור migdalor, lighthouse, from מגדל migdal, tower and אור or, light
  • רמזור ramzor, traffic light, from רמז remez, signal and אור or, light

Sometimes the root of the second word is truncated, giving rise to a portmanteau that resembles an acrostic:

  • תפוז tapuz, orange fruit, from תפוח tapuach, apple and זהב zahav, gold


A portmanteau common in both Hindi and English is Hinglish, which refers to the vernacular of the people in the Hindi-speaking regions of India, where they mix Hindi and English in the spoken language Another modern day example is the BrahMos missile, whose name is a portmanteau of two rivers, Brahmaputra and Moskva

Compounds displaying Sanskritic sandhi are extremely commonplace in Hindi, but as compounds showing sandhi still consist of multiple morphemes, these are not portmanteaux


There is a tradition of linguistic purism in Icelandic, and neologisms are frequently created from pre-existing words Tölva "computer" is a portmanteau of tala "digit; number" and völva "oracle or seeress"


In Indonesian, portmanteaux are often used as both formal and informal acronyms and referrals Many organizations and government bodies use them for brevity Journalists often create portmanteaux for particular historical moments Examples include:

Formal and journalism uses:

  • Golput: voters who abstain from voting, from Golongan Putih, "blank party" or "white party"
  • Jagorawi: a motorway linking the cities of Jakarta, Bogor and Ciawi
  • Jabodetabek: the neighboring cities of Jakarta, consisting of Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi, and sometimes Cianjur Jabodetabekjur
  • The Suramadu Bridge connects the cities of Surabaya and Madura
  • "Malari": refers to "Malapetaka 15 Januari" – a social riot that happened on 15 January 1974
  • Military units, eg Kopassus army special forces unit, from Komando Pasukan Khusus, "special forces command" Another example is the Kopaska navy frogman unit, from Komando Pasukan Katak, "Frogman Command"
  • Governmental bodies, eg "Kemdikbud", refers to "Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan" Education and Culture Ministry, where the ministry leader is called "Mendikbud", "Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan" Minister of Education and Culture

Informal uses, for example:

  • Asbun = Asal bunyi: carelessly speaking
  • Mafia = matematika + fisika + kimia: math, physics, and chemistry, three school subjects that are often related with arithmetic
  • Caper = cari perhatian: attention seeker
  • Warnet = warung internet: internet cafe
  • Alay = anak layangan: unfashionable people
  • Copas = Copy paste: copying other people's work without permission
  • Ropang = roti panggang: toasted bread
  • Nasgor = nasi goreng


A very common type of portmanteau in Japanese forms one word from the beginnings of two others that is, from two back-clippings The portion of each input word retained is usually two morae, which is tantamount to one kanji in most words written in kanji

The inputs to the process can be native words, Sino-Japanese words, gairaigo later borrowings, or combinations thereof A Sino-Japanese example is the name 東大 Tōdai for the University of Tokyo, in full kyō daigaku With borrowings, typical results are words such as パソコン pasokon, meaning personal computer PC, which despite being formed of English elements does not exist in English; it is a uniquely Japanese contraction of the English personal computer ナル・コンピュータ, pāsonaru konpyūta Another example, Pokémon ポケモン, is a contracted form of the English words pocket ポケット, poketto and monsters モンスター, monsutā A famous example of a blend with mixed sources is karaoke カラオケ, karaoke, blending the Japanese word for empty 空, kara and the English word orchestra オーケストラ, ōkesutora


Although not very common in Spanish except for some compulsory contractions such as 'a el'='al', portmanteaux are finding their way into the language mainly through marketing and media efforts, such as in Mexican Spanish 'cafebrería' from 'cafetería' and 'librería', or Teletón from 'televisión' and 'maratón' However, it is very frequent in commercial brands of any type for instance, "chocolleta", from "chocolate" + "galleta", cookie, and above all family owned business of small size, for instance: Rocar, from "Roberto" + "Carlos", and Mafer, from "Maria" + "Fernanda" Such usages are obviously prompted by the registering of a distinguishable trademark, but with time is common that a specific trademark became the name of the all similar products, like in Cola Cao, a name which is very common to use to refer any similar product


Neologisms are also frequently created from pre-existing words in the Tibetan languages For example, kubkyab the common word for "chair" combines the words kub "butt", kyag "a stand", and gyab nye "cushion," often for the back Gyabnye is itself a blend of gyabten "back support" and nyeba, the verb for "lean against, recline, rest on" Thus the word for chair is "a standing support for one's butt and back to rest on" Tibetan also employs portmanteaus frequently in names of important figures and spiritual practices, such as His Holiness Penor Rinpoche, with Penor being pema norbu "lotus jewel", and the Buddhist practice of Dzogchen, or dzogpa chenpo, the "Great Perfection" Tibetan is rich with portmanteaus

Word/morph linguistics

In linguistics the term blend is used to refer to general combination of words, and the term portmanteau is reserved for the narrow sense of combining two or more morphemes in one morph Eg in the Latin word animalis the ending -is is a portmanteau morph because it is used for two morphemes: the singularity and the genitive case In English two separate morphs are used of an animal

The term may also be extended to include contractions Examples of such combinations include:

Language Combination Portmanteau
Portuguese de o do
a aquele àquele
de ela dela
em um num
French à le au
à les aux
de le du
de les des
en les ès
German in das ins
in dem im
zu dem zum
zu der zur
Irish de an den
do an don
Spanish a el al
de el del
Italian a il al
a la alla
a lo allo
a l' all'
a i ai
a gli agli
a le alle
di il del
di la della
di lo dello
di l' dell'
di i dei
di gli degli
di le delle
da il dal
da la dalla
da lo dallo
da l' dall'
da i dai
da gli dagli
da le dalle
Cornish a an a'n
Welsh i ein i'n
o ein o'n
West Frisian bist do bisto
yn de yn 'e

This usage has been referred to as "portmanteau morph"

While in Portuguese, French, Spanish and Italian the use of the short forms is obligatory with the exception of ès in French, which is archaic in most senses, German and Cornish speakers theoretically may freely choose the form they use In German, portmanteaus clearly dominate in spoken language, whilst in written language both forms are in use

See also

  • Linguistics portal
  • Malamanteau
  • Acronym
  • Body Sweats: The Uncensored Writings of Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, a collection the poetry of Dadaist Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven featuring frequent and creative use of portmanteaux
  • Blend word
  • Border towns in the United States with portmanteau names
  • Colloquialism
  • Double entendre
  • Finnegans Wake, James Joyce's novel with an unusually high proportion of portmanteau neologisms
  • Hybrid word
  • List of portmanteaus
  • Neologism
  • Pseudo-anglicism
  • Pun
  • Sniglet
  • Syllabic abbreviation


  1. ^ a b Garner's Modern American Usage, p 644
  2. ^ a b "Portmanteau" Merriam-Webster Offline Dictionary Retrieved 21 June 2008 
  3. ^ "Portmanteau word" The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition 2000 Retrieved 21 June 2008 
  4. ^ "portmanteau word" Webster's New World College Dictionary Cleveland: Wiley 2010 ISBN 0-7645-7125-7 
  5. ^ "Portmanteau word" Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 23 August 2013 
  6. ^ a b "What is a portmanteau morph" LinguaLinks Library 2003  External link in |work= help
  7. ^ Thomas, David 1983 "An invitation to grammar" Summer Institute of Linguistics Bangkok: Mahidol University: 9 
  8. ^ Crystal, David 1985 "A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics" 2nd ed New York: Basil Blackwell: 237 
  9. ^ Hartmann, RRK; Stork, FC 1972 "Dictionary of language and linguistics" London: Applied Science: 180 
  10. ^ "portmanteau, n" Oxford English Dictionary, third edition Oxford: Oxford University Press 2010 Retrieved 23 February 2011 
  11. ^ a b c Fromkin, V, Rodman, R, and Hyams, N 2007 An Introduction to Language, Eighth Edition Boston: Thomson Wadsworth ISBN 1-4130-1773-8
  12. ^ "Portmanteau" The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition 2000
  13. ^ Petit Robert: portemanteau - "malle penderie" suitcase in which clothes hang
  14. ^ "PORTEMANTEAU : Définition de PORTEMANTEAU" cnrtlfr 
  15. ^ Such a "coat bag" is mentioned in Chapter 12 of Alexander Dumas' ″The Count of Monte Cristo″ The Count of Monte Cristo
  16. ^ Punch, 1 August 1896, 58/2
  17. ^ "NEW OXFORD AMERICAN DICTIONARY'S 2010 WORD OF THE YEAR IS" Retrieved 30 January 2012 
  18. ^ Zimmer, Benjamin 1 November 2005 "A perilous portmanteau" Language Log University of Pennsylvania Retrieved 11 November 2008 
  19. ^ a b Winterman, Denise 3 August 2006 "What a mesh" BBC News Magazine Retrieved 17 July 2008 
  20. ^ Christine Byrne 2 October 2013 "How To Celebrate Thanksgivukkah, The Best Holiday Of All Time" Buzzfeed Retrieved 10 October 2013 
  21. ^ Stu Bykofsky 22 October 2012 "Thanks for Thanukkah!" Phillycom Retrieved 11 October 2013 
  22. ^ Wallah Arabic
  23. ^ The name also combines the word lien link
  24. ^ Kristján Árnason; Sigrún Helgadóttir 1991, "Terminology and Icelandic Language Policy", Behovet och nyttan av terminologiskt arbete på 90-talet, Nordterm 5, Nordterm-symposium, pp 7–21
  25. ^ "Golput – Schott's Vocab Blog – NYTimescom" The New York Times 17 February 2009 Retrieved 19 June 2009 
  26. ^ "What are contracted words like rimokon" Sljfaqorg Retrieved 3 October 2013 
  27. ^ Rosen, Eric "Japanese loanword accentuation: epenthesis and foot form interacting through edge-interior alignment∗" PDF University of British Columbia sfuca Retrieved 25 November 2010 

External links

  • Lexiconceptcom—an online portmanteau generator
  • Portmanteaurcom—a tool for making portmanteaus
  • Portmanteau tool – Invent new words with definition

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