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Politics of Mongolia

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Politics of Mongolia takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, and of a multi-party system123 Executive power is exercised by the President and the Government Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature


  • 1 Socialist period and single party administration
  • 2 Democratic movement
  • 3 Multi-party system establishment
  • 4 Political developments
  • 5 Executive branch
  • 6 President
  • 7 Government
    • 71 Ministries
  • 8 Parliament
  • 9 Political parties and elections
  • 10 Legal system
  • 11 Administrative divisions
  • 12 See also
  • 13 References
  • 14 External links

Socialist period and single party administrationedit

From shortly after the Mongolian Revolution of 1921 until 1990, the Mongolian Government was modeled on the Soviet system; only the communist party—the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party MPRP—was officially permitted to function After some instability during the first two decades of communist rule in Mongolia, there was no significant popular unrest until December 1989 Collectivization of livestock, introduction of agriculture, and the extension of fixed abodes were all carried out without perceptible popular opposition

Democratic movementedit

The birth of perestroika in the former Soviet Union and the democracy movement in Eastern Europe were seen in Mongolia On the morning of 10 December 1989, the first open pro-democracy demonstration met in front of the Youth Cultural Center in Ulaanbaatar4 There, Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj announced the creation of the Mongolian Democratic Union5 Over the next months activists 13 democratic leaders continued to organize demonstrations, rallies, protests and hunger strikes, as well as teachers' and workers' strikes6 Activists had growing support from Mongolians, both in the capital and the countryside and the union's activities led to other calls for democracy all over the country789 After extended demonstrations of many thousands of people in subzero weather in the capital city as well as provincial centers, Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party MPRP present Mongolian People's Party's Politburo – the authority of the government eventually gave way to the pressure and entered negotiations with the leaders of the democratic movement10 Jambyn Batmönkh, chairman of Politburo of MPRP's Central Committee decided to dissolve the Politburo and to resign on 9 March 19901112 Thus paved the way for the first multi-party elections in Mongolia6 Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj announced this news to the hunger strikers and the people those gathered on Sükhbaatar Square at 10PM on that day after the negotiations between leaders of MPRP and Mongolian Democratic Union13 As a result, Mongolia became the first successful country in Asia to transition into democracy from communist rule14 Elbegdorj worked as the Leader of the Mongolian Democratic Union in 1989–199715

Multi-party system establishmentedit

As a result of the democratic movement that led to 1990 Democratic Revolution in Mongolia, in May 1990 the constitution was amended, deleting reference to the MPRP's role as the guiding force in the country, legalizing opposition parties, creating a standing legislative body, and establishing the office of president

Mongolia's first multi-party elections for a People's Great Hural parliament were held on 29 July 1990 The MPRP won 85% of the seats The People's Great Hural first met on 3 September and elected a president MPRP, vice-president SDP, Social Democratic Party, prime minister MPRP, and 50 members to the Baga Hural small parliament The vice president was also a chairman of the Baga Hural In November 1991, the People's Great Hural began discussion on a new constitution and adopted it on 13 January 1992 The Constitution entered into force on 12 February 1992 In addition to establishing Mongolia as an independent, sovereign republic and guaranteeing a number of rights and freedoms, the new constitution restructured the legislative branch of government, creating a unicameral legislature, the State Great Khural SGKh parliament

The 1992 constitution provided that the president would be directly elected by popular vote rather than by the legislature as before In June 1993, incumbent Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat won the first direct presidential election, running as the candidate of the democratic opposition

Mongolia's Parliament in session

As the supreme legislative organ, the SGKh is empowered to enact and amend laws, regarding domestic and foreign policy, to ratify international agreements, and declare a state of emergency The SGKh meets semi-annually There are 76 members of the parliament They were popularly elected by district in 1992-2012 By 2012 legislative election law, since 2012 parliamentary election, a parallel voting system began to be used in legislature in Mongolia 48 of the parliamentary members are popularly elected by district and 28 of them are elected from nationwide lists using proportional representation16 SGKh members elect a speaker and vice speakers from each party or coalition in the government and they serve 4-year term

Political developmentsedit

Until June 1996 the predominant party in Mongolia was the ex-communist party Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party MPRP The country's president was Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat Democratic Party in 1990-1997 Ochirbat was a member of MPRP until 1990 but changed his party membership to Democratic Party following the democratic revolution

Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, as the chairman of the Democratic Party, co-led the Democratic Union Coalition to its first time historic victory in the 1996 parliamentary elections winning 50 out of 76 parliamentary seats Democratic Union Coalition of Democratic Party and Social Democratic Party chairman Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj was in power in 1996-200017 Mendsaikhany Enkhsaikhan, election manager of Democratic Union Coalition worked as the Prime Minister from 7 July 1996 to 23 April 1998 In 1998, a clause in the constitution was removed that prohibited members of parliament to take cabinet responsibility18 Thus on 23 April 1998, the Parliament elected 61–6 Elbegdorj, chairman of the Democratic Union Coalition and the Majority Group at the Parliament as the Prime Minister19 Due to opposition MPRP's demand Elbegdorj lost confidence vote at the Parliament20 and was replaced by Janlavyn Narantsatsralt Democratic Party on 9 December 199821 Janlavyn Narantsatsralt worked as the Prime Minister for eight months until his resignation in July 1999 Rinchinnyamyn Amarjargal became Democratic Party's new chairman and served as the Prime Minister from 30 July 1999 to 26 July 2000

In 1997 Natsagiin Bagabandi MPRP was elected as the country's President in 1997 Mongolian presidential election He was re-elected as President in 2001 Mongolian presidential election and served as the country's President until 2005

As a result of 2000 parliamentary elections MPRP was back in power in the parliament and the government as well as the presidency

The vote in the 2004 parliamentary elections was evenly split between the two major political forces – Motherland-Democratic Coalition of Democratic Party and Motherland Party and the MPRP22 Thus it required the establishing of the first ever coalition government in Mongolia between the democratic coalition and the MPRP On 20 August 2004, Elbegdorj became the Prime Minister of Mongolia for the second time leading a grand coalition government23

In 2005 Mongolian presidential election Nambaryn Enkhbayar MPRP was elected as the country's President

The MPRP won a majority 46 of 76 seats in 2008 parliamentary elections The Democratic Party won 27 seats with the three remaining seats going to minor parties and an independent MPRP formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party although MPRP had enough seats to form a government alone at the parliament

On 24 May 2009, in 2009 Mongolian presidential election, Democratic Party candidate Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj made a victory over incumbent President Nambaryn Enkhbayar24 Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj was sworn into office and became the country's president on 18 June 200925 Elbegdorj is Mongolia's first president to never have been a member of the former communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party and the first to obtain a Western education26

In 2010 former communist party Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party reverted its name to its original name, the Mongolian People's Party After his defeat in 2009 presidential election, Nambaryn Enkhbayar established a new political party and named it Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party after receiving the old name of Mongolian People's Party from the Supreme Court of Mongolia in 2010 Enkhbayar became the chairman of the new party27

In June 2012 the Democratic Party won the 2012 parliamentary elections and became the majority at the Parliament The Democratic Party established a coalition government with Civil Will-Green Party, and Justice Coalition of new MPRP and Mongolian National Democratic Party due to Democratic Party having not enough seats at the parliament to establish a government on its own by law Members of the Parliament are: 35 from Democratic Party, 26 from Mongolian People's Party, 11 from Justice Coalition, 2 from Civil Will-Green Party, and 3 independents28

Incumbent President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj, candidate of Democratic Party won the 2013 Mongolian presidential election on 26 June 201329 and was sworn into office for his second term as President of Mongolia on 10 July 201330 Thus, since 2012 the Democratic Party has been in power holding both presidency and government

Executive branchedit

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Battulga Khaltmaa Democratic Party 10 July 2017
Prime Minister Jargaltulgyn Erdenebat Mongolian People's Party 7 July 2016


President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj

The presidential candidates are usually nominated by parties those have seats in the State Great Khural and from these candidates the president is elected by popular vote for a four-year termcitation needed The president is the Head of State, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, and Head of the National Security Council He is popularly elected by a national majority for a 4-year term and limited to two terms The constitution empowers the president to propose a prime minister, call for the government's dissolution, initiate legislation, veto all or parts of a legislation the State Great Khural can override the veto with a two-thirds majority,12 and issue decrees, decrees giving directives become effective with the prime minister's signature In the absence, incapacity, or resignation of the president, the SGKh chairman exercises presidential power until inauguration of a newly elected president


The Government, headed by the Prime Minister, has a four-year term The President appoints the Prime Minister, after elections, and also appoints the members of the Government on the proposal of the Prime Minister, or if the latter is not able to reach a consensus on this issue with the President, within a week, then he or she shall submit it by to the State Great Khural for the cabinet to be appointed3 The Cabinet consists of thirteen ministries31 Dismissal of the government occurs upon the Prime Minister's resignation, simultaneous resignation of half the cabinet, or after the State Great Khural voted for a motion of censure



  • Environment, Green Development and Tourism
  • Foreign Affairs
  • Finance
  • Justice


  • Construction and Urban Development
  • Defence
  • Education, Culture and Science
  • Energy
  • Health and Sports
  • Food and Agriculture
  • Industry
  • Labour
  • Mining
  • Population Development and Social Welfare
  • Road and Transportation32


The State Great Khural Ulsyn Ikh Hural in Mongolian the Parliament is unicameral with 76 seats, which are allocated using the mixed-member proportional representation 48 of the parliamentary members are directly elected by district and 28 of them are appointed by the political parties by proportional representation SGKh members elect a speaker and vice speakers from each party or coalition in the government and they serve four-year term

Political parties and electionsedit

Ger set up by the Democratic Party for an election campaign in Khövsgöl, 2006 For other political parties, see List of political parties in Mongolia An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Mongolia e  d Summary of the 26 June 2013 Mongolian presidential election results
Candidate Party Votes %
Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj Democratic Party 622,794 5089
Badmaanyambuugiin Bat-Erdene Mongolian People's Party 520,380 4252
Natsagiin Udval Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party 80,563 658
Invalid/blank votes 13,688
Total 1,239,784 100
Registered voters/turnout 1,864,273 6650
Source: Mongolian Electoral Commission
e  d  Summary of the 28 June 2012 Mongolian State Great Khural election results
Party Constituency Party list Total
+/– Votes summary
Seats +/− Seats +/− Votes  % +/−
Democratic Party 24 6 10 10 34 4 399,194 3532% +3532
Mongolian People's Party 17 26 9 9 26 20 353,839 3131% +3131
Justice Coalition MPRP and MNDP 4 4 7 7 11 11 252,077 2231% +2231
Civil Will–Green Party 0 2 2 2 2 62,310 551% +551
Independents 3 2 0 3 2
Totals 48 28 76 1,198,086 100%
Registered voters/turnout 1,833,478 6524%
Source: General Election Commission of Mongolia, UB Post Mongolia Today Newsmn Revote Newsmn

Legal systemedit

The new constitution empowered a Judicial General Council JGC to select all judges and protect their rights The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body Justices are nominated by the JGC, confirmed by the SGKh and appointed by the President The Supreme Court is constitutionally empowered to examine all lower court decisions—excluding specialized court rulings—upon appeal and provide official interpretations on all laws except the constitution

Specialized civil, criminal, and administrative courts exist at all levels and are not subject to Supreme Court supervision Local authorities—district and city governors—ensure that these courts abide by presidential decrees and SGKh decisions At the apex of the judicial system is the Constitutional Court of Mongolia, which consists of nine members, including a chairman, appointed for six-year term, whose jurisdiction extends solely over the interpretation of the constitution

Administrative divisionsedit

Mongolia is divided in 21 Aimags provinces and three municipalities/cities khot: Arkhangai, Bayan-Ölgii, Bayankhongor, Bulgan, Darkhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Govi-Altai, Govisümber, Khentii, Khovd, Khövsgöl, Ömnögovi, Orkhon, Övörkhangai, Selenge, Sükhbaatar, Töv, Uvs, Zavkhan

Local khurals parliaments are elected in the 21 aimags plus the capital, Ulaanbaatar On the next lower administrative level, they are elected in provincial subdivisions and urban sub-districts in Ulaanbaatar

See alsoedit

  • Foreign relations of Mongolia
  • Flag of Mongolia


  1. ^ a b Shugart, Matthew Søberg September 2005 "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" PDF Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies United States: University of California, San Diego Archived from the original PDF on 19 August 2008 Retrieved 23 December 2015 
  2. ^ a b Shugart, Matthew Søberg December 2005 "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" PDF French Politics Palgrave Macmillan Journals 3 3: 323–351 doi:101057/palgravefp8200087  Retrieved 23 December 2015 Even if the president has no discretion in the forming of cabinets or the right to dissolve parliament, his or her constitutional authority can be regarded as 'quite considerable' in Duverger’s sense if cabinet legislation approved in parliament can be blocked by the people's elected agent Such powers are especially relevant if an extraordinary majority is required to override a veto, as in Mongolia, Poland and Senegal 
  3. ^ a b Odonkhuu, Munkhsaikhan 12 February 2016 "Mongolia: A Vain Constitutional Attempt to Consolidate Parliamentary Democracy" ConstitutionNet International IDEA Retrieved 17 February 2016 Mongolia is sometimes described as a semi-presidential system because, while the prime minister and cabinet are collectively responsible to the SGKh, the president is popularly elected, and his/her powers are much broader than the conventional powers of heads of state in parliamentary systems 
  4. ^ G, Dari 5 December 2011 "Democracy Days to be inaugurated" newsmn in Mongolian Retrieved 8 July 2013 
  5. ^ "Tsakhia Elbegdorj" Community of Democracies Mongolia Retrieved 8 July 2013 
  6. ^ a b Ahmed and Norton, Nizam U and Philip 1999 Parliaments in Asia London: Frank Cass & CoLtd p 143 ISBN 0-7146-4951-1 Retrieved 8 July 2013 
  7. ^ Baabar 16 November 2009 "Democratic Revolution and Its Terrible Explanations" baabarmn in Mongolian Retrieved 25 June 2013 
  8. ^ "Democracy's Hero: Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj" Washington: The International Republican Institute 21 July 2011 Retrieved 8 August 2012 
  9. ^ "Mongolia Celebrates 20th Anniversary of Democratic Revolution" The International Republican Institute 11 December 2009 Retrieved 8 August 2012 
  10. ^ Wilhelm, Kathy 12 March 1990 "Mongolian Politburo resigns en masse" The Free Lance Star Fredericksburg, VA p 4 Retrieved 8 July 2013 
  11. ^ "Entire Mongolian Politburo resigns" Lawrence Journal-World Lawrence, KS 12 March 1990 pp 8A Retrieved 8 July 2013 
  12. ^ Ch, Munkhbayar 13 March 2013 "What was the Mongolian democratic revolution" dorgiomn in Mongolian Retrieved 8 July 2013 
  13. ^ Tsakhia, Elbegdorj 1999 Mongolian Democratic Union, New Period Youth Organization, and Mongolia's Young Leaders Foundation, eds The Footstep of Truth is White book "Speech of Ulaan Od newspaper's correspondent Elbegdorj at Young Artists’ Second National Congress" Ulaanbaatar: Hiimori p 15 ISBN 99929-74-01-X CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link
  14. ^ Gamba, Ganbat 2004 "The Mass Public and Democratic Politics in Mongolia" PDF Taipei: Asian Barometer p 3 Retrieved 8 July 2013 
  15. ^ Sanders, Alan JK 2010 Historical Dictionary of Mongolia Third edition Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press p 209 ISBN 978-0-8108-7452-7 Retrieved 25 June 2013 
  17. ^ Lawrence, Susan V 14 June 2011 "Mongolia: Issues for Congress" PDF Congressional Research Service Retrieved 25 June 2013 
  18. ^ "Constitution of Mongolia" World Intellectual Property Organization 13 January 1992 Retrieved 25 June 2013 
  19. ^ "April 1998" rulersorg April 1998 Retrieved 21 May 2009 
  20. ^ Sanders, Alan JK 2010 Historical Dictionary of Mongolia Third edition Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press pp xviii ISBN 978-0-8108-7452-7 Retrieved 25 June 2013 
  21. ^ Kohn, Michael 2006 Dateline Mongolia: An American Journalist in Nomad's Land Muskegon, MI: RDR Books p 109 ISBN 978-1-57143-155-4 Retrieved 25 June 2013 
  22. ^ Zuckerman, Ethan 13 January 2006 "It is never too cold to riot in Ulaanbaatar" ethanzuckermancom Retrieved 25 June 2013 
  23. ^ "Ts Elbegdorj is Prime Minister August 20, 2004" Open Society Forum 20 August 2004 Retrieved 7 July 2013 
  24. ^ "Mongolia Profile" BBC Retrieved 31 July 2012 
  25. ^ "Mongolia's new president sworn in" euronewscom 18 June 2009 Retrieved 25 June 2013 
  26. ^ "Tsakhiagiyn Elbegdorj" globalsecurityorg Retrieved 22 June 2013 
  27. ^ "Former MPRP is reborn and former President named chairman" Business-Mongoliacom 2 February 2011 Retrieved 30 June 2013 
  28. ^ "Parliament of Mongolia in Mongolian" Retrieved 4 August 2013 
  29. ^ "Incumbent Mongolian president wins 2nd term on pro-Western, anti-graft platform" The Washington Post Washington 27 June 2013 Retrieved 29 June 2013 
  30. ^ Khuder 10 July 2013 "Ts Elbegdorj takes oath" Montsame News Agency Retrieved 10 July 2013 
  31. ^ Mongolia Ulaanbaatar: Montsame News Agency 2006 p 43 ISBN 99929-0-627-8 
  32. ^ "Websites of Government Organizations of Mongolia" Government of Mongolia Retrieved 3 August 2013 

External linksedit

  • official website of the Office of the President of Mongolia
  • official website of the Office of the Parliament of Mongolia
  • official website of the Government of Mongolia
  • Erik Herron's Guide to Politics in East Central Europe and Eurasia

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