Pleural disease


Contents

  • 1 Pleural content anomalies
  • 2 Pleural lesions
  • 3 Pleural diseases
  • 4 Pleural tumors
  • 5 See also

Pleural content anomaliesedit

  • Pneumothorax: a collection of air within the pleural cavity, arising either from the outside or from the lung Pneumothoraces may be traumatic, iatrogenic, or spontaneous A tension pneumothorax is a particular type of pneumothorax where the air may enter though a defect of the chest wall, lung, or airways on inspiration, but cannot exit on expiration Each breath increases the amount of trapped air in the chest cavity, leading to further lung compression This is often an urgent situation and may progress to a medical emergency if there is compromise of the venous return to the heart causing hypotension and rarely shock
  • Pleural effusion: a fluid accumulation within the pleural space Abnormal collections of pleural fluid may be due to excessive fluid volume ie excess intravenous fluids, renal failure, decreased fluid protein eg cirrhosis, proteinuria, heart failure, bleeding hemothorax, infections parapneumonic effusions, pleural empyema, inflammation, malignancies, or perforation of thoracic organs ie chylothorax, esophageal rupture

Pleural lesionsedit

  • Pleuritis
  • Pleural mesothelial hyperplasia
  • Pleural calcified fibrous pseudotumor
  • Pleural plaques: discrete fibrous or partially calcified thickened area which can be seen on X-rays of individuals exposed to asbestos Although pleural plaques are themselves asymptomatic, in some patients this develops into pleural thickening

Pleural diseasesedit

  • Pleural infections
  • Pleural endometriosis

Pleural tumorsedit

Pleural tumors may be benign ie solitary fibromas or malignant in nature Pleural Mesothelioma is a type of malignant cancer associated with asbestos exposure

    • Mesothelial tumors: pleural malignant mesothelioma
    • Pleural sarcomas
      • Pleural angiosarcoma
      • Pleural desmoplastic small round cell tumor pleural DSRCT
      • Pleural synovial sarcoma
      • Pleural solitary fibrous tumor pleural SFT
    • Smooth muscle tumors of the pleura
    • Pleural carcinomas
      • Pleural mucoepidermoid carcinoma
      • Pleural pseudomesotheliomatous adenocarcinoma

See alsoedit

  • Pleural cavity




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