Fri . 19 May 2019

Plan 9 from Bell Labs

plan 9 from bell labs, plan 9 from bell labs mascot
Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, originally developed by the Computing Sciences Research Center at Bell Labs between the mid-1980s and 2002 It takes some of the principles of Unix, developed in the same research group, but extends these to a networked environment with graphical terminals

In Plan 9, virtually all computing resources, including files, network connections, and peripheral devices, are represented through the file system rather than specialized interfaces A unified network protocol called 9P ties a network of computers running Plan 9 together, allowing them to share all resources so represented

The name Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a reference to the Ed Wood 1959 cult science fiction Z-movie Plan 9 from Outer Space4 Also, Glenda, the Plan 9 Bunny, is presumably a reference to Wood's film Glen or Glenda The system continues to be used and developed by operating system researchers and hobbyists56

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Design concepts
    • 21 9P protocol
    • 22 Union directories and namespaces
    • 23 Special virtual filesystems
      • 231 /proc
      • 232 /net
    • 24 Unicode
    • 25 Combining the design concepts
  • 3 Software for Plan 9
    • 31 Graphical programs
    • 32 Storage system
    • 33 Software development
    • 34 Unix compatibility
  • 4 Reception
    • 41 Comparison to contemporary operating systems
    • 42 Impact
      • 421 Derivatives and forks
  • 5 License
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

Historyedit

Plan 9 from Bell Labs was originally developed, starting mid-1980s, by members of the Computing Science Research Center at Bell Labs, the same group that originally developed Unix and C7 The Plan 9 team was initially led by Rob Pike, Ken Thompson, Dave Presotto and Phil Winterbottom, with support from Dennis Ritchie as head of the Computing Techniques Research Department Over the years, many notable developers have contributed to the project including Brian Kernighan, Tom Duff, Doug McIlroy, Bjarne Stroustrup and Bruce Ellis8

Plan 9 replaced Unix as Bell Labs's primary platform for operating systems research It explored several changes to the original Unix model that facilitate the use and programming of the system, notably in distributed multi-user environments After several years of development and internal use, Bell Labs shipped the operating system to universities in 1992 Three years later, in 1995, Plan 9 was made available for commercial parties by AT&T via the book publisher Harcourt Brace With source licenses costing $350, AT&T targeted the embedded systems market rather than the computer market at large; Ritchie commented that the developers did not expect to do "much displacement" given how established other operating systems had become9

By early 1996, the Plan 9 project had been "put on the back burner" by AT&T in favor of Inferno, intended to be a rival to Sun Microsystems' Java platform10 In the late 1990s, Bell Labs' new owner Lucent Technologies dropped commercial support for the project and in 2000, a third release was distributed under an open source license A fourth release under a new free software license occurred in 200211

A user and development community, including current and former Bell Labs personnel, produced minor daily releases in form of ISO images Bell Labs hosted the development12 The development source tree is accessible over the 9P and HTTP protocols and is used to update existing installations13 In addition to the official components of the OS included in the ISOs, Bell Labs also hosts a repository of externally developed applications and tools14

Date Release Comment
1992 Plan 9 1st edition Released by Bell Labs to universities
1995 Plan 9 2nd edition Released by Bell Labs for non-commercial purposes15
2000 Plan 9 3rd ed Brazil Released by Lucent Technologies under an open source license
2002 Plan 9 4th edition Released by Lucent Technologies under a new free software license

Design conceptsedit

Plan 9 from Bell Labs is like the Quakers: distinguished by its stress on the 'Inner Light,' noted for simplicity of life, in particular for plainness of speech Like the Quakers, Plan 9 does not proselytize

—Sape J Mullender, Pierre G Janson
Real Time in a Real Operating System16

Plan 9 is a distributed operating system, designed to make a network of heterogeneous and geographically separated computers function as a single system17 In a typical Plan 9 installation, users work at terminals running the window system rio, and they access CPU servers which handle computation-intensive processes Permanent data storage is provided by additional network hosts acting as file servers and archival storage18

Its designers state that:

the foundations of the system are built on two ideas: a per-process name space and a simple message-oriented file system protocol

— Pike et al19

The first idea means that, unlike on most operating systems, processes running programs each have their own view of the namespace, corresponding to what other operating systems call the file system; a single path name may refer to different resources for different processes The potential complexity of this setup is controlled by a set of conventional locations for common resources2021

The second idea means that processes can offer their services to other processes by providing virtual files that appear in the other processes' namespace The client process's input/output on such a file becomes inter-process communication between the two processes This way, Plan 9 generalizes the Unix notion of the filesystem as the central point of access to computing resources It carries over Unix's idea of device files to provide access to peripheral devices mice, removable media, etc and the possibility to mount filesystems residing on physically distinct filesystems into a hierarchical namespace, but adds the possibility to mount a connection to a server program that speaks a standardized protocol and treat its services as part of the namespace

For example, the original window system, called 8½, exploited these possibilities as follows Plan 9 represents the user interface on a terminal by means of three pseudo-files: mouse, which can be read by a program to get notification of mouse movements and button clicks, cons, which can be used to perform textual input/output, and bitblt, writing to which enacts graphics operations see bit blit The window system multiplexes these devices: when creating a new window to run some program in, it first sets up a new namespace in which mouse, cons and bitblt are connected to itself, hiding the actual device files to which it itself has access The window system thus receives all input and output commands from the program and handles these appropriately, by sending output to the actual screen device and giving the currently focused program the keyboard and mouse input18 The program does not need to know if it is communicating directly with the operating system's device drivers, or with the window system; it only has to assume that its namespace is set up so that these special files provide the kind of input and accept the kind of messages that it expects

Plan 9's distributed operation relies on the per-process namespaces as well, allowing client and server processes to communicate across machines in the way just outlined For example, the cpu command starts a remote session on a compute server The command exports part of its local namespace, including the user's terminal's devices mouse, cons, bitblt, to the server, so that remote programs can perform input/output using the terminal's mouse, keyboard and display, combining the effects of remote login and a shared network filesystem1819

9P protocoledit

Main article: 9P protocol

All programs that wish to provide services-as-files to other programs speak a unified protocol, called 9P Compared to other systems, this reduces the number of custom programming interfaces 9P is a generic, medium-agnostic, byte-oriented protocol that provides for messages delivered between a server and a client22 The protocol is used to refer to and communicate with processes, programs, and data, including both the user interface and the network23 With the release of the 4th edition, it was modified and renamed 9P200011

Unlike most other operating systems, Plan 9 does not provide special application programming interfaces such as Berkeley sockets, X resources or ioctl system calls to access devices22 Instead, Plan 9 device drivers implement their control interface as a file system, so that the hardware can be accessed by the ordinary file input/output operations read and write Consequently, sharing the device across the network can be accomplished by mounting the corresponding directory tree to the target machine4

Union directories and namespacesedit

Plan 9 allows the user to collect the files called names from different directory trees in a single location The resulting union directory behaves as the concatenation of the underlying directories the order of concatenation can be controlled; if the constituent directories contain files having the same name, a listing of the union directory ls or lc will simply report duplicate names24 Resolution of a single path name is performed top-down: if the directories top and bottom are unioned into u with top first, then u/name denotes top/name if it exists, bottom/name only if it exists and top/name does not exist, and no file if neither exists No recursive unioning of subdirectories is performed, so if top/subdir exists, the files in bottom/subdir are not accessible through the union25

A union directory can be created by using the bind command:

; bind /arm/bin /bin ; bind -a /acme/bin/arm /bin ; bind -b /usr/alice/bin /bin

In the example above, /arm/bin is mounted at /bin, the contents of /arm/bin replacing the previous contents of /bin Acme's bin directory is then union mounted after /bin, and Alice's personal bin directory is union mounted before When a file is requested from /bin, it is first looked for in /usr/alice/bin, then in /arm/bin, and then finally in /acme/bin/arm

The separate process namespaces thus replace the notion of a search path in the shell Where Unix shells have a list of directories to search for programs when given a command, the Plan 9 shell only looks in the directory /bin; adding commands is done by binding several directories together to appear as a single /bin18

Furthermore, the kernel can keep separate mount tables for each process,16 and can thus provide each process with its own file system namespace Processes' namespaces can be constructed independently, and the user may work simultaneously with programs that have heterogeneous namespaces19 Namespaces may be used to create an isolated environment similar to chroot, but in a more secure way22

Plan 9's union directory architecture inspired 44BSD and Linux union file system implementations,24 although the developers of the BSD union mounting facility found the non-recursive merging of directories in Plan 9 "too restrictive for general purpose use"25

Special virtual filesystemsedit

/procedit

Listing processes with list contents of directory ls, lc command26 in /proc Main article: procfs

Instead of having system calls specifically for process management, Plan 9 provides the /proc file system Each process appears as a directory containing information and control files which can be manipulated by the ordinary file IO system calls27

The file system approach allows Plan 9 processes to be managed with simple file management tools such as ls and cat; however, the processes cannot be copied and moved as files2

/netedit

Plan 9 does not have specialised system calls or ioctls for accessing the networking stack or networking hardware Instead, the /net file system is used Network connections are controlled by reading and writing control messages to control files Sub-directories such as /net/tcp and /net/udp are used as an interface to their respective protocols2

Unicodeedit

Further information: UTF-8 and Comparison of Unicode encodings

To reduce the complexity of managing character encodings, Plan 9 uses Unicode throughout the system The initial Unicode implementation was ISO 10646 Ken Thompson invented UTF-8, which became the native encoding in Plan 9 The entire system was converted to general use in 199228 UTF-8 preserves backwards compatibility with traditional null terminated strings, enabling more reliable information processing and the chaining of multilingual string data with Unix pipes between multiple processes Using a single UTF-8 encoding with characters for all cultures and regions eliminates the need for switching between code sets29

Combining the design conceptsedit

Though interesting on their own, the design concepts of Plan 9 were supposed to be most useful when combined together For example, to implement a network address translation NAT server, a union directory can be created, overlaying the router's /net directory tree with its own /net Similarly, a virtual private network VPN can be implemented by overlaying in a union directory a /net hierarchy from a remote gateway, using secured 9P over the public Internet A union directory with the /net hierarchy and filters can be used to sandbox an untrusted application or to implement a firewall22 In the same manner, a distributed computing network can be composed with a union directory of /proc hierarchies from remote hosts, which allows interacting with them as if they are local

When used together, these features allow for assembling a complex distributed computing environment by reusing the existing hierarchical name system2

Software for Plan 9edit

Further information: List of Plan 9 applications

As a benefit from the system's design, most tasks in Plan 9 can be accomplished by using ls, cat, grep, cp and rm utilities in combination with the rc shell the default Plan 9 shell

Factotum is an authentication and key management server for Plan 9 It handles authentication on behalf of other programs such that both secret keys and implementation details need only be known to Factotum30

Graphical programsedit

Plan 9 running acme and rc

Unlike Unix, Plan 9 was designed with graphics in mind23 After booting, a Plan 9 terminal will run the rio windowing system, in which the user can create new windows displaying rc31 Graphical programs invoked from this shell replace it in its window

The plumber provides an inter-process communication mechanism which allows system-wide hyperlinking

Sam and acme are Plan 9's text editors32

Storage systemedit

Plan 9 supports the Kfs, Paq, Cwfs, FAT, and Fossil file systems The last was designed at Bell Labs specifically for Plan 9 and provides snapshot storage capability It can be used directly with a hard drive or backed with Venti, an archival file system and permanent data storage system

Software developmentedit

The distribution package for Plan 9 includes special compiler variants and programming languages, and provides a tailored set of libraries along with a windowing user interface system specific to Plan 933 The bulk of the system is written in a dialect of C ANSI C with some extensions and some other features left out The compilers for this language were custom built with portability in mind; according to their author, they "compile quickly, load slowly, and produce medium quality object code"34

A concurrent programming language called Alef was available in the first two editions, but was then dropped for maintenance reasons and replaced by a threading library for C3536

Unix compatibilityedit

Though Plan 9 was supposed to be a further development of Unix concepts, compatibility with preexisting Unix software was never the goal for the project Many command line utilities of Plan 9 share the names of Unix counterparts, but work differently26

Plan 9 can support POSIX applications and can emulate the Berkeley socket interface through the ANSI/POSIX Environment APE that implements an interface close to ANSI C and POSIX, with some common extensions the native Plan 9 C interfaces conform to neither standard It also includes a POSIX-compatible shell APE's authors claim to have used it to port the X Window System X11 to Plan 9, although they do not ship X11 "because supporting it properly is too big a job"37 Some Linux binaries can be used with the help of a "linuxemu" Linux emulator application; however, it is still a work in progress38 Vice versa, the vx32 virtual machine allows a slightly modified Plan 9 kernel to run as a user process in Linux, supporting unmodified Plan 9 programs39

Receptionedit

Comparison to contemporary operating systemsedit

In 1991, Plan 9's designers compared their system to other early nineties operating systems in terms of size, showing that the source code for a minimal "working, albeit not very useful" version was less than one-fifth the size of a Mach microkernel without any device drivers 5899 or 4622 lines of code for Plan 9, depending on metric, vs 25530 lines The complete kernel comprised 18000 lines of code18 According to a 2006 count, the kernel was then some 150,000 lines, but this was compared against more than 48 million in Linux22

Within the operating systems research community, as well as the commercial Unix world, other attempts at achieving distributed computing and remote filesystem access were made concurrently with the Plan 9 design effort These included the Network File System and the associated vnode architecture developed at Sun Microsystems, and more radical departures from the Unix model such as the Sprite OS from UC Berkeley Sprite developer Welch points out that the SunOS vnode architecture is limited compared to Plan 9's capabilities in that it does not support remote device access and remote inter-process communication cleanly, even though it could have, had the preexisting UNIX domain sockets which "can essentially be used to name user-level servers" been integrated with the vnode architecture20

One critique of the "everything is a file", communication-by-textual-message design of Plan 9 pointed out limitations of this paradigm compared to the typed interfaces of Sun's object-oriented operating system, Spring:

Plan 9 constrains everything to look like a file In most cases the real interface type comprises the protocol of messages that must be written to, and read from, a file descriptor This is difficult to specify and document, and prohibits any automatic type checking at all, except for file errors at run time A path name relative to a process' implicit root context is the only way to name a service Binding a name to an object can only be done by giving an existing name for the object, in the same context as the new name As such, interface references simply cannot be passed between processes, much less across networks Instead, communication has to rely on conventions, which are prone to error and do not scale

— Roscoe; emphasis in the original40

A later retrospective comparison of Plan 9, Sprite and a third contemporary distributed research operating system, Amoeba, found that

the environments they Amoeba and Sprite build are tightly coupled within the OS, making communication with external services difficult Such systems suffer from the radical departure from the UNIX model, which also discourages portability of already existing software to the platform The lack of developers, the very small range of supported hardware and the small, even compared to Plan 9, user base have also significantly slowed the adoption of those systems In retrospect, Plan 9 was the only research distributed OS from that time which managed to attract developers and be used in commercial projects long enough to warrant its survival to this day

— Mirtchovski, Simmonds and Minnich41

Impactedit

The wmii X window manager was inspired by acme, a text editor from the Plan 9 project42

Plan 9 demonstrated that an integral concept of Unix—that every system interface could be represented as a set of files—could be successfully implemented in a modern distributed system31 Some features from Plan 9, like the UTF-8 character encoding of Unicode, have been implemented in other operating systems Unix-like operating systems such as Linux have implemented 9P, Plan 9's file system, and have adopted features of rfork, Plan 9's process creation mechanism43 Additionally, in Plan 9 from User Space, several of Plan 9's applications and tools, including the sam and acme editors, have been ported to Unix and Linux systems and have achieved some level of popularity Several projects seek to replace the GNU operating system programs surrounding the Linux kernel with the Plan 9 operating system programs4445 The 9wm window manager was inspired by 8½, the older windowing system of Plan 9;46 wmii is also heavily influenced by Plan 942 In computer science research, Plan 9 has been used as a grid computing platform4741 and as a vehicle for research into ubiquitous computing without middleware48

However, Plan 9 has never approached Unix in popularity, and has been primarily a research tool:

It looks like Plan 9 failed simply because it fell short of being a compelling enough improvement on Unix to displace its ancestor Compared to Plan 9, Unix creaks and clanks and has obvious rust spots, but it gets the job done well enough to hold its position There is a lesson here for ambitious system architects: the most dangerous enemy of a better solution is an existing codebase that is just good enough

— Eric S Raymond4

Other factors that contributed to low adoption of Plan 9 include the lack of commercial backup, the low number of end-user applications, and the lack of device drivers3132

Plan 9 proponents and developers claim that the problems hindering its adoption have been solved, that its original goals as a distributed system, development environment, and research platform have been met, and that it enjoys moderate but growing popularitycitation needed Inferno, through its hosted capabilities, has been a vehicle for bringing Plan 9 technologies to other systems as a hosted part of heterogeneous computing grids495051

Several projects work to extend Plan 9, including 9atom and 9front These forks augment Plan 9 with additional hardware drivers and software, including an improved version of the Upas e-mail system, the go compiler, Mercurial version control system support, and other programs652 Plan 9 was ported to the Raspberry Pi single-board computer5354 The Harvey project attempts to replace the custom Plan 9 C compiler with GCC, to leverage modern development tools such as GitHub and Coverity and speed up development55

Derivatives and forksedit

Inferno is a descendant of Plan 9, and shares many design concepts and even source code in the kernel, particularly around devices and the Styx/9P2000 protocol Inferno shares with Plan 9 the Unix heritage from Bell Labs and the Unix philosophy Many of the command line tools in Inferno were Plan 9 tools that were translated to Limbo

9atom56 augments the Plan 9 distribution with the addition of a 386 PAE kernel, an amd64 cpu and terminal kernel, nupas, extra pc hardware support, IL and Ken's fs

9front57 is a fork of Plan 9 It was started to remedy a perceived lack of devoted development resources inside Bell Labs, and has accumulated various fixes and improvements

9legacy58 is an alternative distribution It includes a set of patches based on the current Plan 9 distribution

Akaros59 is designed for many-core architectures and large-scale SMP systems

Harvey OS60 is an effort to get the Plan 9 code working with gcc and clang

JehanneOS61 is an experimental OS derived from Plan 9 Its userland and modules are mostly derived from 9front, its build system from Harvey OS, and its kernel is a fork of the Plan9-9k 64-bit Plan9 kernel

NIX 62 is a fork of Plan9 aimed at multicore systems and cloud computing The Google Code project page contains more information

Licenseedit

Starting with the release of Fourth edition on April 2002,11 the full source code of Plan 9 from Bell Labs was freely available under Lucent Public License 102, which is considered to be open source license by the Open Source Initiative OSI, free software license by the Free Software Foundation, and it passes the Debian Free Software Guidelines22

In February 2014, the University of California, Berkeley, has been authorized by the current Plan 9 copyright holder – Alcatel-Lucent – to release all Plan 9 software previously governed by the Lucent Public License, Version 102 under the GNU General Public License, Version 263


See alsoedit

  • Open-source software portal
  • Alef programming language
  • Rendezvous Plan 9
  • Inferno operating system

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Lucent Technologies 2006 "Glenda, the Plan 9 Bunny" Retrieved 2008-12-02 
  2. ^ a b c d Pike, R; Presotto, D; Dorward, S; Flandrena, B; Thompson, K; Trickey, H; Winterbottom, P "Plan 9 from Bell Labs" Bell Labs Lucent Technologies Retrieved 2016-02-26 
  3. ^ http://akaroscsberkeleyedu/files/Plan9License
  4. ^ a b c Raymond, Eric S 2003-09-17 "Plan 9: The Way the Future Was" The Art of UNIX Programming Addison-Wesley ISBN 0-13-142901-9 Retrieved 2007-05-07 
  5. ^ Robertson, James 2011-07-16 "Plan 9 Forked, Continues as 9front" OSNews Retrieved 2011-12-31 
  6. ^ a b "9atom" Retrieved 2011-11-11 
  7. ^ "From the inventors of UNIX system comes Plan 9 from Bell Labs" Press release Lucent Technologies 1995-07-18 dead link
  8. ^ McIlroy, Doug Mar 1995 "Preface" Bell Labs 2nd ed Lucent Technologies Retrieved 2016-02-26 
  9. ^ Lee, Yvonne L 24 July 1995 "AT&T Bell Labs ships Plan 9 OS for embedded systems" InfoWorld 
  10. ^ Pontin, Jason 19 February 1996 "AT&T reveals plans for Java competitor" InfoWorld p 3 
  11. ^ a b c Loli-Queru, Eugenia 2002-04-29 "Bell Labs Releases New Version of Plan 9" OSNews Retrieved 2011-12-31 
  12. ^ "How to contribute" Bell Labs Lucent Technologies Retrieved 2011-11-30 
  13. ^ "Staying up to date" Bell Labs Lucent Technologies Retrieved 2006-04-27 
  14. ^ "Plan 9 — Additional Software" 2009 Retrieved 2016-03-06 
  15. ^ "Announcement of the first release to general public" 9 fans 1995-07-16 
  16. ^ a b Mullender, Sape J; Janson, Pierre G 2004-02-26 "Real Time in a Real Operating System" In Herbert, Andrew J; Spärck Jones, Karen Computer systems: theory, technology, and applications: a tribute to Roger Needham Springer Science+Business Media p 211 ISBN 978-0-387-20170-2 Retrieved 2011-12-24 
  17. ^ Hancock, Brian 2003 "Reinventing Unix: an introduction to the Plan 9 operating system" Library Hi Tech MCB UP 21 4: 471–76 doi:101108/07378830310509772 
  18. ^ a b c d e Presotto, Dave; Pike, Rob; Thompson, Ken; Trickey, Howard Plan 9, A Distributed System Proc Spring 1991 EurOpen Conference CiteSeerX 1011419192 
  19. ^ a b c Pike, R; Presotto, D; Thompson, K; Trickey, H; Winterbottom, P "The Use of Name Spaces in Plan 9" Bell Labs Retrieved 2016-02-26 
  20. ^ a b Welch, Brent 1994 "A comparison of three distributed file system architectures: Vnode, Sprite, and Plan 9" Computing Systems 7 2: 175–199 CiteSeerX 1011462817 
  21. ^ namespace4 – Plan 9 Programmer's Manual, Volume 1
  22. ^ a b c d e f Pereira, Uriel M 2006 The Unix Spirit set Free: Plan 9 from Bell Labs AVI FOSDEM Retrieved 2011-12-02 Lay summary PDF 
  23. ^ a b Minnich, Ron 2005 "Why Plan 9 is not dead yet And What we can learn from it" PDF Los Alamos National Laboratory Retrieved 2016-02-26 
  24. ^ a b Valerie, Aurora 2009-03-25 "Union file systems: Implementations, part I" LWNnet Retrieved 2011-12-05 
  25. ^ a b Pendry, Jan-Simon; McKusick, Marshall Kirk 1995 Union Mounts in 44BSD-Lite Proc Winter USENIX Conf 
  26. ^ a b "UNIX to Plan 9 command translation" Bell Labs Lucent Technologies Retrieved 2011-12-02 
  27. ^ Ballesteros, Francisco J 2007-09-28 "Introduction to OS abstractions using Plan 9 from Bell Labs" PDF Universidad Rey Juan Carlos Archived from the original pdf on 2010-09-22 
  28. ^ Pike, Rob 2003-04-30 "UTF-8 History" Retrieved 2006-04-27 
  29. ^ Lunde, Ken Jan 1999 CJKV information processing O'Reilly Media p 466 ISBN 978-1-56592-224-2 Retrieved 2011-12-23 
  30. ^ Cox, R; Grosse, E; Pike, R; Presotto, D; Quinlan, S "Security in Plan 9" Bell Labs Lucent Technologies Retrieved 2016-02-26 
  31. ^ a b c Hudson, Andrew 2006-07-19 "Investigating the Plan 9 Operating System" OSNews Retrieved 2011-12-31 
  32. ^ a b "An interview with Russ Cox" The Setup Uses this 2011-04-09 Retrieved 2012-01-01 
  33. ^ Dixon, Rod 2004 Open source software law Artech House p 213 ISBN 978-1-58053-719-3 Retrieved 2011-12-25 
  34. ^ Thompson, Ken February 1992 "A new C Compiler" PDF Australian UNIX systems User Group Newsletter Kensington, AU: AUUG 13 1: 31–41 ISSN 1035-7521 Retrieved 2011-12-25 
  35. ^ Pike, Rob "Rio: Design of a Concurrent Window System" PDF Retrieved 8 March 2013 
  36. ^ thread2 – Plan 9 Programmer's Manual, Volume 1
  37. ^ Trickey, Howard "APE – The ANSI/POSIX Environment" Bell Labs Lucent Technologies Retrieved 2016-02-26 
  38. ^ "Linux emulation" Bell Labs Lucent Technologies Retrieved 2016-02-26 
  39. ^ Ford, Bryan; Cox, Russ 2008 Vx32: Lightweight, User-level Sandboxing on the x86 USENIX Annual Tech Conf pp 293–306 
  40. ^ Roscoe, Timothy 1995 The Structure of a Multi-Service Operating System PDF PhD University of Cambridge pp 22–23 
  41. ^ a b Mirtchovski, Andrey; Simmonds, Rob; Minnich, Ron 2004 Plan 9—an integrated approach to grid computing Proc 18th Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp IEEE CiteSeerX 101197122 
  42. ^ a b "window manager improved 2" sucklessorg Retrieved 2012-01-02 wmii has a 9p filesystem interface and supports classic and tiling acme-like window management 
  43. ^ Torvalds, Linus 1999 "The Linux edge" Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution O'Reilly ISBN 1-56592-582-3 
  44. ^ "Glendix: Bringing the beauty of Plan 9 to Linux" Retrieved 2011-12-01 
  45. ^ "Plan 9 From Gentoo: Plan 9 Meets Gentoo" Gentoo Linux Retrieved 2011-12-01 
  46. ^ "The 9wm Window Manager" 9wm Retrieved 2012-01-02 9wm is an X window manager which attempts to emulate the Plan 9 window manager 8-1/2 as far as possible within the constraints imposed by X 
  47. ^ "9grid" Bell Labs Lucent Technologies Retrieved 2006-03-28 
  48. ^ Ballesteros, Francisco J; Guardiola, Gorka; Soriano, Enrique; Leal Algara, Katia 2005 Traditional systems can work well for pervasive applications A case study: Plan 9 from Bell Labs becomes ubiquitous IEEE Intl' Conf on Pervasive Computing and Communications CiteSeerX 10111098131 
  49. ^ "Vita Nuova Supplies Inferno Grid to Evotec OAI" PDF Press release Vita Nuova 2004-05-18 Retrieved 2006-03-28 
  50. ^ "Rutgers University Libraries Install Inferno Data Grid" PDF Press release Vita Nuova 2004-05-12 Retrieved 2006-03-28 
  51. ^ "The University of York Department of Biology install Vita Nuova's Inferno Data Grid" PDF Press release Vita Nuova 2004-05-04 Retrieved 2006-03-28 
  52. ^ "plan9front – the front fell off" Retrieved 2011-12-01 
  53. ^ Hayward, David 2013-05-09 "Raspberry Pi operating systems: 5 reviewed and rated" TechRadar Archived from the original on June 7, 2013 Retrieved 2014-04-20 
  54. ^ "How to install Plan 9 on a Raspberry Pi" eLinux Retrieved 2014-11-16 
  55. ^ Jurado, Álvaro; Fernández, Rafael; du Colombier, David; Minnich, Ron; Nyrhinen, Aki; Floren, John Harvey PDF USENIX ATC BOF session 
  56. ^ "9atom" 
  57. ^ "9FRONTORG THE PLAN FELL OFF" 
  58. ^ "9legacy" 
  59. ^ http://akaroscsberkeleyedu
  60. ^ "Harvey OS" 
  61. ^ "JehanneOS" 
  62. ^ "NIX" 
  63. ^ Sharwood, Simon 2014-02-14 "Plan 9 moves out from Lucent licence space" TheRegister Retrieved 2014-04-20 

External linksedit

  • Mirror of official website
  • GPL Source code and git repo
  • git mirror of Plan 9 from Bell Labs repo
  • 9front, a plan9 fork
  • 9fans, the Plan 9 mailing list hosted by http://9fansnet
  • Ninetimes Plan 9, Inferno, Unix, and Bell Labs operating systems news
  • #plan9 connect, the Plan 9 IRC channel hosted by freenode
  • Cat-vorg Random Contrarian Insurgent Organization, the Plan 9 user and developer community
  • Glendix Bringing the beauty of Plan9 to Linux
  • Glenda, the Plan 9 bunny

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