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Piper J-3 Cub

piper j-3 cub, piper j-3 cub specifications
The Piper J-3 Cub is an American light aircraft that was built between 1937 and 1947 by Piper Aircraft The aircraft has a simple, lightweight design which gives it good low-speed handling properties and short-field performance The Cub is one of the best known light aircraft of all time The Cub's simplicity, affordability and popularity — as well as its large production numbers, with nearly 20,000 built in the United States — invokes comparisons to the Ford Model T automobile

The Cub was originally intended as a trainer and had great popularity in this role and as a general aviation aircraft Due to its performance, it was well suited a variety of military uses such as reconnaissance, liaison and ground control It was produced in large numbers during World War II as the L-4 Grasshopper Large numbers of Cubs are still flying today Notably, Cubs are highly prized as bush aircraft

The Cub is a high-wing, strut-braced monoplane with a large-area rectangular wing It is powered by an air-cooled piston engine driving a fixed-pitch propeller Its fuselage is a welded steel frame covered in fabric, seating two people in tandem

The aircraft's standard chrome yellow paint has come to be known as "Cub Yellow" or "Lock Haven Yellow"2


  • 1 Before WWII
  • 2 Flitfire
  • 3 World War II service
  • 4 Postwar
  • 5 Korean War service
  • 6 Modern production
  • 7 Variants
    • 71 Civil variants
    • 72 Military designations and variants
  • 8 Operators
    • 81 Civil operators
    • 82 Military operators
  • 9 Specifications J3C-65 Cub
  • 10 See also
  • 11 References
  • 12 External links

Before WWIIedit

The Taylor E-2 Cub first appeared in 1930, built by Taylor Aircraft in Bradford, Pennsylvania Sponsored by William T Piper, a Bradford industrialist and investor, the affordable E-2 was meant to encourage greater interest in aviation Later in 1930, the company went bankrupt, with Piper buying the assets, but keeping founder C Gilbert Taylor on as president In 1936, an earlier Cub was altered by employee Walter Jamouneau to become the J-2 while Taylor was on sick leave The coincidence led some to believe that the "J" stood for Jamouneau, while aviation historian Peter Bowers concluded that the letter simply followed the E, F, G and H models, with the I omitted because it could be mistaken for the numeral one34 When he saw the redesign, Taylor was so incensed that he fired Jamouneau Piper, however, had encouraged Jamouneau's changes and hired him back Piper then bought Taylor's share in the company, paying him US$250 per month for three years 5

Although sales were initially slow, about 1,200 J-2s were produced before a fire in the Piper factory ended its production in 1938 After Piper moved his company from Bradford to Lock Haven, the J-3, which featured further changes by Jamouneau, replaced the J-2 The changes mostly amounted to integrating the vertical fin of the tail into the rear fuselage structure and covering it simultaneously with each of the fuselage's sides, changing the rearmost side window's shape to a smoothly curved half-oval outline and placing a true steerable tailwheel at the rear end of the J-2's leaf spring-style tailskid, linked for its steering function to the lower end of the rudder with springs and lightweight chains to either end of a double-ended rudder control horn Powered by a 40 hp 30 kW engine, in 1938, it sold for just over $1,0006

A number of different air-cooled engines, most of flat-four configuration, were used to power J-3 Cubs, resulting in differing model designations for each type: the J3C models used the Continental A series,7 the J3F used the Franklin 4AC,8 and the J3L used the Lycoming O-1459 A very few examples, designated J3P, were equipped with Lenape Papoose 3-cylinder radial engines10

The outbreak of hostilities in Europe in 1939, along with the growing realization that the United States might soon be drawn into World War II, resulted in the formation of the Civilian Pilot Training Program CPTP The Piper J-3 Cub became the primary trainer aircraft of the CPTP and played an integral role in its success, achieving legendary status About 75% of all new pilots in the CPTP from a total of 435,165 graduates were trained in Cubs By war's end, 80% of all United States military pilots had received their initial flight training in Piper Cubs11

The need for new pilots created an insatiable appetite for the Cub In 1940, the year before the United States' entry into the war, 3,016 Cubs had been built; wartime demands soon increased that production rate to one Cub being built every 20 minutes11


Main article: Flitfire Flitfire, used in RAF Benevolent Fund and war bond efforts

Prior to the United States entering World War II, J-3s were part of a fund-raising program to support the United Kingdom Billed as a Flitfire, a Piper Cub J3 bearing Royal Air Force insignia was donated by W T Piper and Franklin Motors to the RAF Benevolent Fund to be raffled off Piper distributors nationwide were encouraged to do the same On April 29, 1941, all 48 Flitfire aircraft, one for each of the 48 states that made up the country at that time, flew into La Guardia Field for a dedication and fundraising event which included Royal Navy officers from the battleship HMS Malaya, in New York for repairs, as honored guests1213 At least three of the original Flitfires have been restored to their original silver-doped finish; one, powered with a Franklin 65 engine, is on display at the North Carolina Aviation Museum in Asheboro, North Carolina This Flitfire was flown by Orville Wright in a war bond promotion campaign14

World War II serviceedit

An L-4A painted and marked to represent an aircraft that flew in support of the Allied invasion of North Africa in November 1942 A Piper Cub of the 1st Marine Division’s improvised air force snags a message from a patrol on New Britain's north coast

The Piper Cub quickly became a familiar sight First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt took a flight in a J-3 Cub, posing for a series of publicity photos to help promote the CPTP Newsreels and newspapers of the era often featured images of wartime leaders, such as Generals Dwight Eisenhower, George Patton and George Marshall, flying around European battlefields in Piper Cubs Civilian-owned Cubs joined the war effort as part of the newly formed Civil Air Patrol, patrolling the Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast in a constant search for German U-boats and survivors of U-boat attacks15verification needed

Piper developed a military variant "All we had to do," Bill Jr is quoted as saying, "was paint the Cub olive drab to produce a military airplane",5 variously designated as the O-59 1941, L-4 after April 1942 and NE US Navy The L-4 Grasshopper was mechanically identical to the J-3 civilian Cub, but was distinguishable by the use of a Plexiglas greenhouse skylight and rear windows for improved visibility, much like the Taylorcraft L-2 and Aeronca L-3 also in use with the US armed forces Carrying a single pilot and no passenger, the L-4 had a top speed of 85 mph 137 km/h, a cruise speed of 75 mph 121 km/h, a service ceiling of 12,000 ft 3,658 m, a stall speed of 38 mph 61 km/h, an endurance of three hours,16 and a range of 225 mi 362 km17 Some 5,413 L-4s were produced for US forces, including 250 built for the US Navy under contract as the NE-1 and NE-21819

All L-4 models, as well as similar, tandem-cockpit accommodation aircraft from Aeronca and Taylorcraft, were collectively nicknamed "Grasshoppers", though the L-4 was almost universally referred to by its civilian designation of Cub The L-4 was used extensively in World War II for reconnaissance, transporting supplies, artillery spotting duties and medical evacuation of wounded soldiers11 During the Allied invasion of France in June 1944, the L-4's slow cruising speed and low-level maneuverability — alongside examples of the Auster AOP aircraft occasionally used by the British Army and other Commonwealth forces for the same purposes — made it an ideal observation platform for spotting hidden German tanks, antitank gun emplacements and Sturmgeschütz and Jagdpanzer tank destroyers waiting in ambush in the hedgerowed bocage country south of the invasion beaches For these operations, the pilot generally carried both an observer/radio operator and a 25-pound communications radio, a load that often exceeded the plane's specified weight capacity16 After the Allied breakout in France, L-4s were also sometimes equipped with improvised racks, usually in pairs or quartets, of infantry bazookas for ground attack against German armored units The most famous of these L-4 ground attack planes was Rosie the Rocketer, piloted by Maj Charles "Bazooka Charlie" Carpenter, whose six bazooka rocket launchers were credited with eliminating six enemy tanks and several armored cars during its wartime service,2021 especially during the Battle of Arracourt

After the war, many L-4s were sold as surplus, but a considerable number were retained in service22 L-4s sold as surplus in the US were redesignated as J-3s, but often retained their wartime glazing and paint23


A taxiing Piper J-3 Cub, shown in "Cub Yellow" hue

An icon of the era and of American general aviation in general, the J-3 Cub has long been loved by pilots and nonpilots alike, with thousands still in use today Piper sold 19,073 J-3s between 1938 and 1947, the majority of them L-4s and other military variants After the war, thousands of Grasshoppers were civilian-registered under the designation J-3 Hundreds of Cubs were assembled from parts in Canada by Cub Aircraft as the Cub Prospector, Denmark and Argentina and by a licensee in Oklahoma

In the late 1940s, the J-3 was replaced by the Piper PA-11 Cub Special 1,500 produced, the first Piper Cub version to have a fully enclosed cowling for its powerplant and then the Piper PA-18 Super Cub, which Piper produced until 1981 when it sold the rights to WTA Inc In all, Piper produced 2,650 Super Cubs The Super Cub had a 150 hp 110 kW engine which increased its top speed to 130 mph 210 km/h; its range was 460 miles 740 km

Korean War serviceedit

The L-4 was used extensively by both US and South Korean Air Forces in the early 1950s22 During the Korean War, the L-4 was in service in many of the same roles it had performed during World War II, such as artillery spotting, forward air control and reconnaissance22 Some L-4s were fitted with a high-back canopy to carry a single stretcher for medical evacuation of wounded soldiers22

Modern productionedit

Cubs gather for their 75th anniversary at AirVenture 2012

Modernized and up-engined versions are produced today by Cub Crafters of Washington and by American Legend Aircraft in Texas, as the Cub continues to be sought after by bush pilots for its short takeoff and landing STOL capabilities, as well as by recreational pilots for its nostalgia appeal The new aircraft are actually modeled on the PA-11, though the Legend company does sell an open-cowl version with the cylinder heads exposed, like the J-3 Cub An electrical system is standard from both manufacturerscitation needed

A Piper J-3C-65 nose-on with "eyebrow" air scoops on its engine cylinders

The J-3 is distinguished from its successors by having a cowl that exposes its engine's cylinder heads — the exposed cylinders of any J-3's engine were usually fitted with sheet metal "eyebrow" air scoops to direct air over the cylinder's fins for more effective engine cooling in flight Very few other examples exist of "flat" aircraft engine installations as opposed to radial engines in which the cylinder heads are exposed From the PA-11 on through the present Super Cub models, the cowling surrounds the cylinder heads24

A curiosity of the J-3 is that when it is flown solo, the lone pilot normally occupies the rear seat for proper balance, to balance the fuel tank located at the firewall Starting with the PA-11, as well as some L-4s, fuel was carried in wing tanks, allowing the pilot to fly solo from the front seat24

A "clipped-wing" Piper J3C-65 of O’Briens Flying Circus Aerobatic Stunt Team lands on a moving trailer at Cotswold Airport


Civil variantsedit

J-3 Equipped with a Continental A-40, A-40-2, or A-40-3 engine of 37 hp 28 kW, or A-40-4 engine of 40 hp 30 kW25 J3C-40 Certified 14 July 1938 and equipped with a Continental A-40-4 or A-40-5 of 40 hp 30 kW7 J3C-50 Certified 14 July 1938 and equipped with a Continental A-50-1 or A-50-2 to -9 inclusive of 50 hp 37 kW7 J3C-50S Certified 14 July 1938 and equipped with a Continental A-50-1 or A-50-2 to -9 inclusive of 50 hp 37 kW, equipped with optional float kit7 J3C-65 Certified 6 July 1939 and equipped with a Continental A-65-1 or A-65-3, 6, 7, 8, 8F, 9 or 14 of 65 hp 48 kW or an A-65-14, Continental A-75-8, A-75-8-9 or A-75-12 of 75 hp 56 kW or Continental A-85-8 or C-85-12 of 85 hp 63 kW or Continental A-90-8F of 90 hp 67 kW7 J3C-65S Certified 27 May 1940 and equipped with a Continental A-65-1 or A-65-3, 6, 7, 8, 8F, 9 or 14 of 65 hp 48 kW or an A-65-14, Continental A-75-8, A-75-8-9 or A-75-12 of 75 hp 56 kW or Continental A-85-8 or C-85-12 of 85 hp 63 kW or Continental A-90-8F of 90 hp 67 kW, equipped with optional float kit7 J3F-50 Certified 14 July 1938 and equipped with a Franklin 4AC-150 Series 50 of 50 hp 37 kW8 J3F-50S Certified 14 July 1938 and equipped with a Franklin 4AC-150 Series 50 of 50 hp 37 kW, equipped with optional float kit8 J3F-60 Certified 13 April 1940 and equipped with a Franklin 4AC-150 Series A of 65 hp 48 kW or a Franklin 4AC-171 of 60 hp 45 kW8 J3F-60S Certified 31 May 1940 and equipped with a Franklin 4AC-150 Series A of 65 hp 48 kW or a Franklin 4AC-171 of 60 hp 45 kW, equipped with optional float kit8 J3F-65 Certified 7 August 1940 and equipped with a Franklin 4AC-176-B2 or a Franklin 4AC-176-BA2 of 65 hp 48 kW8 J3F-65S Certified 4 January 1943 and equipped with a Franklin 4AC-176-B2 or a Franklin 4AC-176-BA2 of 65 hp 48 kW, equipped with optional float kit8 J3L Certified 17 September 1938 and equipped with a Lycoming O-145-A1 of 50 hp 37 kW or a Lycoming O-145-A2 or A3 of 55 hp 41 kW9 J3L-S Certified 2 May 1939 and equipped with a Lycoming O-145-A1 of 50 hp 37 kW or a Lycoming O-145-A2 or A3 of 55 hp 41 kW, equipped with optional float kit9 J3L-65 Certified 27 May 1940 and equipped with a Lycoming O-145-B1, B2, or B3 of 65 hp 48 kW9 J3L-65S Certified 27 May 1940 and equipped with a Lycoming O-145-B1, B2, or B3 of 65 hp 48 kW, equipped with optional float kit9 Piper J-3P J3P Variant powered by a 50 hp 37 kW Lenape LM-3-50 or Lenape AR-3-160 three-cylinder radial engine110 J-3R Variant with slotted flaps powered by a 65 hp 48 kW Lenape LM-3-65 engine1 J-3X 1944 variant with cantilever wing powered by a 65 hp 48 kW Continental A-65-8 engine1 Cammandre 1 A French conversion of J-3 Cub/L-4 aircraft26 Poullin J5A Five L-4 Cubs converted by Jean Poullin for specialist tasks27 Poullin J5B A single L-4 Cub converted by Jean Poullin for specialist tasks27 Wagner Twin Cub A twin fuselage conversion of the J-3citation needed

Military designations and variantsedit

YO-59 Four US Army Air Corps test and evaluation J3C-6528 O-59 Production version for the USAAC; 140 built later redesignated L-428 O-59A Improved version, powered by a 65-hp 48-kW Continental O-170-3 piston engine; 948 built, later redesignated L-4A28 L-4 Redesignated YO-59 and O-5929 L-4A Redesignated O-59A29 L-4B As per L-4A, but without radio equipment; 980 built29 L-4C Eight impressed J3L-65s, first two originally designated UC-83A29 L-4D Five impressed J3F-65s29 L-4H As per L-4B but with improved equipment and fixed-pitch propeller, 1801 built29 L-4J L-4H with controllable-pitch propeller, 1680 built29 UC-83A Two impressed J3L-65s, later redesignated L-4C30 TG-8 Three-seat training glider variant, 250 built31 LNP United States Navy designation for three TG-8s received31 Piper NE-1 NE-1 United States Navy designation for dual-control version of J3C-65, 230 built32 NE-2 As per NE-1 with minor equipment changes, 20 built32


Civil operatorsedit

The aircraft has been popular with flying schools — especially from the pre-World War II existence of the Civilian Pilot Training Program using them in the United States — and remains so with private individuals, into the 21st century

Military operatorsedit

  • Brazilian Air Forcecitation needed
 Republic of Korea
  • Republic of Korea Air Force33
  • Military of Paraguay - L-434
 United Kingdom
  • Royal Air Force35
  • Royal Thai Air Forcecitation needed
 United States
  • United States Air Force1
  • United States Army33
  • United States Army Air Forces1
  • United States Navy133

Specifications J3C-65 Cubedit

Inside the cockpit of a Piper Cub The aircraft has far fewer instruments than most modern aircraft

Data from The Piper Cub Story36

General characteristics

  • Crew: one pilot
  • Capacity: one passenger
  • Length: 22 ft 5 in 683 m
  • Wingspan: 35 ft 3 in 1074 m
  • Height: 6 ft 8 in 203 m
  • Wing area: 1785 ft² 1658 m²
  • Empty weight: 765 lb 345 kg
  • Useful load: 455 lb 205 kg
  • Max takeoff weight: 1,220 lb 550 kg
  • Powerplant: 1 × Continental A-65-8 air-cooled horizontally opposed four cylinder, 65 hp 48 kW at 2,350 rpm


  • Maximum speed: 76 kn 87 mph, 140 km/h
  • Cruise speed: 65 kn 75 mph, 121 km/h
  • Range: 191 NM 220 mi, 354 km
  • Service ceiling: 11,500 ft 3,500 m
  • Rate of climb: 450 ft/min 23 m/s
  • Wing loading: 684 lb/ft² 334 kg/m²
  • Power/mass: 1875 lb/hp 1135 kg/kW

See alsoedit

  • Military of the United States portal
  • United States Air Force portal
  • Aviation portal
Related development
  • American Legend AL3C-100
  • CubCrafters CC11-100 Sport Cub S2
  • LIPNUR Belalang
  • Marawing 1-L Malamut
  • Piper J-2
  • Piper PA-15 Vagabond
  • Piper PA-16 Clipper
  • Piper PA-18 Super Cub
  • Piper PA-20 Pacer
  • Wag-Aero CUBy
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
  • Aeronca Champion
  • Aeronca L-3
  • American Eagle Eaglet 31
  • Fieseler Fi 156 Storch
  • Kitfox Model 5
  • Taylorcraft BC-65
  • Taylorcraft L-2
Related lists
  • List of aircraft of World War II


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Peperell 1987, pp 22–34
  2. ^ Lord, Magnus April 2008 "The story of Cub Yellow" Retrieved 2008-09-15 
  3. ^ "Piper J-3" Aircraft of the Smithsonian Retrieved 2006-04-02 
  4. ^ Peter M Bowers, Piper Cubs Tab Books 1993
  5. ^ a b Spence, Charles 23 September 1997 "They're not all Piper Cubs" Aviation History Retrieved 2011-09-06 
  6. ^ Piper J-3 Cub Film Series TM Technologies, footage from 1937-1948 shows step-by-step construction 110 minutes
  7. ^ a b c d e f Federal Aviation Administration August 2006 "AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATION NO A-691" PDF Retrieved 2010-02-15 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Federal Aviation Administration August 2006 "AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATION NO A-692" PDF Retrieved 2010-02-15 
  9. ^ a b c d e Federal Aviation Administration August 2006 "AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATION A-698" PDF Retrieved 2010-02-15 
  10. ^ a b Federal Aviation Administration October 1942 "Approved Type Certificate 695" PDF Retrieved 2010-02-18 
  11. ^ a b c Guillemette, Roger "The Piper Cub" US Centennial of Flight Commission Retrieved 2006-04-02 
  12. ^ "Shindig at NY Airport Opens Fund Drive for RAF" Life 12 May 1941 
  13. ^ "Alamo Liaison Squadron" 
  14. ^ "Museum Guide" North Carolina Aviation Museum  Missing or empty |url= help
  15. ^ Campbell, Douglas E, "Volume III: US Navy, US Marine Corps and US Coast Guard Aircraft Lost During World War II Listed by Aircraft Type", Lulucom, ISBN 978-1-257-90689-5 2011, p 374
  16. ^ a b Fountain, Paul, The Maytag Messerschmitts, Flying Magazine, March 1945, p 90: With one pilot aboard, the L-4 had a maximum endurance of three hours' flight time no reserve at a reduced cruising speed of 65 mph
  17. ^ Gunston, Bill and Bridgman, Leonard, Jane's Fighting Aircraft of World War II, Studio Editions, ISBN 978-1-85170-199-5 1989, p 253
  18. ^ Frédriksen, John C, Warbirds: An Illustrated guide to US Military Aircraft, 1915-2000, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-1-57607-131-1 1999, p 270
  19. ^ Bishop, Chris, The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc, ISBN 978-1-58663-762-0 2002, p 431
  20. ^ What's New in Aviation: Piper Cub Tank Buster, Popular Science, Vol 146 No 2 February 1945 p 84
  21. ^ Kerns, Raymond C, Above the Thunder: Reminiscences of a Field Artillery Pilot in World War II, Kent State University Press, ISBN 978-0-87338-980-8 2009, pp 23–24, 293-294
  22. ^ a b c d Edwards, Paul M, Korean War Almanac, Infobase Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8160-6037-5 2006, p 502
  23. ^ Nicholas Aircraft Sales, Flying Magazine, April 1946, Vol 38, No 4, ISSN 0015-4806, p 106
  24. ^ a b Clark, Anders 21 November 2014 "Piper J-3 Cub: The World’s Most Iconic Airplane" Disciples of Flight Retrieved 21 August 2014
  25. ^ Federal Aviation Administration October 1939 "Approved Type Certificate 660" PDF Retrieved 2010-02-15 
  26. ^ "Cammandre 1" Retrieved 2011-02-07 
  27. ^ a b Gaillard, Pierre 1990 Les Avions Francais de 1944 a 1964 in French Paris: Editions EPA ISBN 2 85120 350 9 
  28. ^ a b c Andrade 1979, p 140
  29. ^ a b c d e f g Andrade 1979, p 129
  30. ^ Andrade 1979, p 81
  31. ^ a b Andrade 1979, p 170
  32. ^ a b Andrade 1979, p 201
  33. ^ a b c Triggs, James M: The Piper Cub Story, pages 13-19 The Sports Car Press, 1963 SBN 87112-006-2
  34. ^ Krivinyi, Nikolaus: World Military Aviation, page 181 Arco Publishing Company, 1977 ISBN 0-668-04348-2
  35. ^ Andrade 1979, p 239
  36. ^ Triggs, James M: The Piper Cub Story, page 31 The Sports Car Press, 1963 SBN 87112-006-2
  • Andrade, John 1979 USMilitary Aircraft Designations and Serials since 1909 Midland Counties Publications ISBN 0-904597-22-9 
  • Bowers, Peter M 1993 Piper Cubs McGraw Hill ISBN 0-8306-2170-9 
  • Peperell, Roger W; Smith, Colin M 1987 Piper Aircraft and their Forerunners Tonbridge, Kent, England: Air-Britain ISBN 0-85130-149-5 
  • Gaillard, Pierre 1990 Les Avions Francais de 1944 a 1964 in French Paris: Editions EPA ISBN 2 85120 350 9 

External linksedit

  • Fixed Wing Piper at DMOZ
  • Fiddler's Green history of the J-3
  • Piper Aircraft, Inc - History - Brief timeline of the history of Piper Aircraft, starting with the Piper Cub
  • Sentimental Journey - Annual fly-in of Piper Cubs held in Lock Haven, Pennsylvania
  • TO No 01-140DA-1 Pilot's Flight Instructions L-4A and L-4B Airplanes 1943
  • 01-140DA-2 Erection and Maintenance Instructions for Airplanes Army Models L-4A, L-4B, L-4H and L-4J British Model Piper Cub 1945

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