Pinocytosispinocytosis, pinocytosis and phagocytosis
In cellular biology, pinocytosis, otherwise known as fluid endocytosis and bulk-phase pinocytosis, is a mode of endocytosis in which small particles suspended in extracellular fluid are brought into the cell through an invagination of the cell membrane, resulting in a suspension of the particles within a small vesicle inside the cell These pinocytotic vesicles subsequently fuse with lysosomes to hydrolyze break down the particles This process requires energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate ATP, the chemical compound mostly used as energy in the majority of animal cells
Pinocytosis is used primarily for clearing extracellular fluids ECF and as part of immune surveillance  In contrast to phagocytosis, it generates very small amounts of ATP from the wastes of alternative substances such as lipids fat Unlike receptor-mediated endocytosis, pinocytosis is nonspecific in the substances that it transports The cell takes in surrounding fluids, including all solutes present Pinocytosis also works as phagocytosis; the only difference is that phagocytosis is specific in the substances it transports Phagocytosis engulfs whole particles, which are later broken down by enzymes, such as cathepsins, and absorbed into the cells Pinocytosis, on the other hand, is when the cell engulfs already-dissolved or broken-down food
Pinocytosis is non-specific and non-absorptive Molecule-specific endocytosis is called receptor-mediated endocytosis
- 1 Etymology and pronunciation
- 2 Non-specific, adsorptive pinocytosis
- 3 See also
- 4 References
Etymology and pronunciation
The word pinocytosis /ˌpɪnəsaɪˈtoʊsɪs, ˌpaɪ-, -noʊ-, -sə-/ uses combining forms of pino- + cyto- + -osis, all New Latin from Greek, reflecting píno, to drink, and cytosis The term was proposed by W H Lewis in 1931
Non-specific, adsorptive pinocytosis
Non-specific, adsorptive pinocytosis is a form of endocytosis, a process in which small particles are taken in by a cell by splitting off small vesicles from the cell surface Cationic proteins bind to the negative cell surface and are taken up via the clathrin-mediated system, thus the uptake is intermediate between receptor-mediated endocytosis and non-specific, non-adsorptive pinocytosis The clathrin-coated pits occupy about 2% of the surface area of the cell and only last about a minute, with an estimated 2500 leaving the average cell surface each minute The clathrin coats are lost almost immediately, and the membrane is subsequently recycled to the cell surface
- Receptor-mediated endocytosis
- ^ Abbas, Abul, et al "Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune System" 5th ed Elsevier, 2016 p69
- ^ "Pinocytosis" Oxford Dictionaries Oxford University Press Retrieved 2016-01-22
- ^ "Pinocytosis" Merriam-Webster Dictionary Retrieved 2016-01-22
- ^ "Pinocytosis" Dictionarycom Unabridged Random House Retrieved 2016-01-22
- ^ Rieger, R; Michaelis, A; Green, MM 1991 Glossary of Genetics Classical and Molecular Fifth edition Springer-Verlag, Berlin,
- ^ Alberts, Johnson, Lewis, Raff, Roberts, Walter: "Molecular Biology of the Cell", Fourth Edition, Copyright 2002 P748
- Campbell, Reece, Mitchell: "Biology", Sixth Edition, Copyright 2002 P 151
- Marshall, Ben, Incredible Biological Advancements of the 20th Century, Copyright 2001 p 899
- Alrt, Pablo, Global Society Harvard study, copyright 2003 p 189
- Brooker, Robert: "Biology", Second Edition, Copyright 2011 p 116
- Cherrr, Malik, The Only Edition, Copyright 2012, p 256
- Abbas, Abul, et al "Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune System" 5th ed Elsevier, 2016 p69
|Mechanisms for chemical transport through biological membranes|
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