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Pine Bluff, Arkansas

pine bluff arkansas demographics, pine bluff arkansas obituaries for this week
Pine Bluff is the ninth largest city in the state of Arkansas it is the county seat of Jefferson County,3 Arkansas It is also the principal city of the Pine Bluff Metropolitan Statistical Area and part of the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Pine Bluff Combined Statistical Area The population of the city was 49,083 in the 2010 Census,4 however 2011 estimates show the population has since declined to 48,3395

The city is situated in the Southeast section of the Arkansas Delta and straddles the Arkansas Timberlands region to its west6 Its topography is flat with wide expanses of farmland consistent with other places in the Delta Lowlands Pine Bluff is home to a number of creeks, streams, bayous Bayou Bartholomew is the longest bayou in the world and is the second most diverse stream in the United States,7 and larger bodies of water such as Lake Pine Bluff, Lake Langhofer Slack Water Harbor and the Arkansas River

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 Pine Bluff's beginnings
    • 12 Civil War, Reconstruction and beyond 1861-1900
    • 13 1900 through the Great Depression 1900-1941
    • 14 World War II & economic diversification 1941-1960
    • 15 The modern era 1960–present
  • 2 Geography
    • 21 Metropolitan statistical area
    • 22 Climate
  • 3 Demographics
  • 4 Economy
  • 5 Government
  • 6 Crime
  • 7 Arts and culture
    • 71 Annual cultural events
  • 8 Education
    • 81 Colleges and universities
    • 82 Public schools
    • 83 Private schools
    • 84 Public libraries
  • 9 Infrastructure
    • 91 Highways
    • 92 Water
    • 93 Air
    • 94 Buses
    • 95 Railroad
    • 96 Correctional facilities
    • 97 Utilities
      • 971 Water
      • 972 Wastewater
  • 10 Notable people
  • 11 Sister city
  • 12 See also
  • 13 References
  • 14 Further reading
  • 15 External links

Historyedit

Pine Bluff is home to over three-quarters of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Arkansas

Pine Bluff's beginningsedit

The area along the Arkansas River had been inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous peoples of various cultures They used the river for transportation like settlers after them, and for fishing By the time of encounter with Europeans, the historical Quapaw were the chief people in the area, having migrated from the Ohio River valley centuries beforecitation needed

The city of Pine Bluff was founded by Europeans on a high bank of the Arkansas River heavily forested with tall pine trees8 The high ground furnished settlers a safe haven from annual flooding8 Joseph Bonne, a Métis fur trader and trapper of mixed Quapaw and French ancestry, settled on this bluff in 18198

After the Quapaw signed a treaty with the United States in 1824 relinquishing their title to all the lands which they claimed in Arkansas, many other American settlers began to join Bonne on the bluff In 1829 Thomas Phillips claimed a half section of land where Pine Bluff is located Jefferson County was established by the Territorial Legislature on November 2, 1829 and began functioning as a county April 19, 1830

At the August 13, 1832 county election, the pine bluff was chosen as the county seat The Quorum Court voted to name the village "Pine Bluff Town" on October 16, 18328 Pine Bluff was incorporated January 8, 1839, by the order of County Judge Taylor At the time, the village had about 50 residents Improved transportation facilities aided in the growth of Pine Bluff during the 1840s and 1850s

With its proximity to the Arkansas River, the small town served as a port for travel and shipping Steamships provided the primary mode of transport, arriving from downriver ports such as New Orleans From 1832-1838, Pine Bluff residents would see Native American migrants on the Trail of Tears waterway who were being forcibly removed from the American Southeast to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River9 From 1832-1858, Pine Bluff was also a station on the passage of Seminole and Black Seminoles who were forcibly removed from Florida to the Territory They included the legendary John Horse, who landed in the city on the steamboat Swan in 1842101112

Civil War, Reconstruction and beyond 1861-1900edit

Pine Bluff was prospering by the outbreak of the Civil War with wealth built on the commodity crop of cotton; it was cultivated on large plantations by hundreds and thousands of enslaved Africans The city had one of the largest slave populations in the state by 186013 and Jefferson County, Arkansas was second in cotton production in the state14 When Union forces occupied Little Rock, a group of Pine Bluff residents asked commanding Major General Frederick Steele to send Union forces to occupy their town to protect them from bands of Confederate bushwhackers15 Union troops under Colonel Powell Clayton arrived September 17, 1863 and stayed until the war was over15

Confederate General JS Marmaduke tried to expel the Union Army in the Battle of Pine Bluff October 25, 1863, but was repulsed by a combined effort of soldiers and freedmen former slaves freed by the Emancipation Proclamation16 In the final year of the war, the 1st Regiment Kansas Volunteer Infantry Colored composed primarily of escaped slaves from Arkansas and Missouri,17 was the first African-American regiment in the civil war to go into combat It was dispatched to guard Pine Bluff and was eventually mustered out there18

Because of the Union forces, Pine Bluff attracted many refugees and freedmen after the Emancipation Proclamation was issued in early 1863 The Union forces set up a contraband camp there to house the runaway slaves and refugees behind Confederate lines19 After the war, freed slaves worked with the American Missionary Association to start schools for the education of blacks, who had been prohibited from learning to read and write by southern laws Both adults and children eagerly started learning By September 1872, Professor Joseph C Corbin opened the Branch Normal School of the Arkansas Industrial University, a historically black college Founded as Arkansas's first black public college, today it is the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff

Pine Bluff and the region suffered lasting effects from defeat, the aftermath of war, and the trauma of slavery and exploitation Recovery was slow at first Construction of railroads improved access to markets, and with increased production of cotton as more plantations were reactivated, the economy began to recover The first railroad reached Pine Bluff in December 1873citation needed This same year Pine Bluff's first utility was formed when Pine Bluff Gas Company began furnishing manufactured gas from coke fuel for lighting purposes The state's economy remained highly dependent on cotton and agriculture, which suffered a decline through the 19th century

As personal fortunes increased from the 1870s onward, community leaders constructed large Victorian-style homes west of Main Street Meanwhile, the Reconstruction era of the 1870s brought a stark mix of progress and challenge for African Americans Most blacks joined the Republican Party, and several were elected in Pine Bluff to county offices and the state legislature for the first time in history Several black-owned businesses were also opened, including banks, bars, barbershops, and other establishments But in postwar violence in 1866, an altercation with whites ensued at a refugee camp, and 24 black men, women and children were found hanging from trees in one of the worst mass lynchings in US history20

The rate of lynchings of black males was high across the South during this period of social tensions and white resistance to Reconstruction Armistad Johnson was lynched in 1889,21 and John Kelly and Gulbert Harris in 1892 in front of the Jefferson County Courthouse, after a mob of hundreds rapidly escalated to thousands of whites vehemently demanding execution, despite Kelly's pleas of innocence and lack of trial The angry mob eventually forced over his custody from an Officer adamantly attempting to deliver the suspect to the jail house, then the crowd watched enthusiastically as he was hung and riddled with bullets 22 That same year the state adopted a poll tax amendment that disenfranchised many African-American and poor white voters The Election Law of 1891 had already made voting more difficult and also caused voter rolls to decrease With the Democratic Party consolidating its power in what became a one-party state,23 the atmosphere was grim toward the end of the 19th century for many African Americans Democrats imposed legal segregation and other Jim Crow laws

Bishop Henry McNeal Turner's "Back to Africa" movement attracted numbers of local African-American residents who purchased tickets and/or sought information on emigration Arkansas had 650 emigrants depart to the colony of Liberia in West Africa; more than from any other state in the United States The majority of these emigrants came from the black-majority Jefferson, St Francis, Pulaski, Pope, and Conway counties2425

According to historian James Leslie, Pine Bluff entered its "Golden Era" in the 1880s26 Cotton production and river commerce helped the city draw industries, public institutions and residents to the area, making it by 1890 the state's third-largest city The first telephone system was placed in service March 31, 1883 Wiley Jones, a freedman who achieved wealth by his own business, built the first mule-drawn, street-car line in October 188627 The first light, power and water plant was completed in 1887; a more dependable light and water system was put in place in 1912 Throughout the 1880s and 1890s, economic expansion was also fueled by the growing lumber industry in the region

1900 through the Great Depression 1900-1941edit

Situated on the Arkansas River, Pine Bluff depended on river traffic and trade Community leaders were concerned that the main channel would leave the city The United States Army Corps of Engineers built a levee opposite Pine Bluff to try to keep the river flowing by the citycitation needed

During a later flood, the main channel of the river moved away from the city, leaving a small oxbow lake later expanded into Lake Pine Bluffcitation needed River traffic diminished, even as the river was a barrier separating one part of the county from the other After many years of regional haggling, because the bond issue involved raised taxes, the county built the Free Bridge, which opened in 1914 For the first time, it united the county on a permanent basiscitation needed

African Americans in Pine Bluff were damaged by the state's disfranchisement in 1891-1892 and exclusion from the political system But they continued to work for their rights; they joined activists in Little Rock and Hot Springs in a sustained boycott of streetcars, protesting passage in 1903 of the Segregated Streetcar Act, part of a series of Jim Crow laws passed by the white-dominated legislature They did not achieve change then28

Development in the city's business district grew rapidly The Masonic Lodge, built by and for the African-American chapter in the city, was the tallest building in Pine Bluff when completed in 190429 The Hotel Pines, constructed in 1912, had an intricate marble interior and classical design, and was considered one of Arkansas' showcase hotels30 The 1,500-seat Saenger Theater, built in 1924, was one of the largest such facilities in the state; it operated the state's largest pipe organ31 When Dollarway Road was completed in 1914, it was the longest continuous stretch of concrete road in the United States32 The first radio station WOK broadcast in Arkansas occurred in Pine Bluff on February 18, 192233

Two natural disasters had devastating effects on the area's economy The first was the Great Flood of 1927, a 100-year flood Due to levee breaks, most of northern and southeastern Jefferson County were flooded The severe drought of 1930 caused another failure of crops, adding to the problems of economic conditions during the Great Depression Pine Bluff residents scrambled to survive In 1930, two of the larger banks failed

The state's highway construction program in the later 1920s and early 1930s, facilitating trade between Pine Bluff and other communities throughout southeast Arkansas, was critical to Jefferson County, too After the inauguration of President Franklin D Roosevelt in 1933, he launched many government programs to benefit local communities Through the Works Progress Administration WPA and public works funding, Pine Bluff built new schools and a football stadium, and developed Oakland Park as its first major recreation facility To encourage diversification in agriculture, the county built a stockyard in 1936 to serve as a sales outlet for farmers' livestockcitation needed

From 1936-1938, the WPA through the Federal Writers Project initiated a project to collect and publish oral histories of former slaves Writers were sent throughout the South to interview former slaves, most of whom had been children before the Civil War34 When the project was complete, Arkansas residents had contributed more oral slave histories approximately 780 than any other state, although Arkansas' slave population was less than those of neighboring Deep South states34 African-American residents of Pine Bluff/Jefferson County contributed more oral interviews of Arkansas-born slaves than any other city/county in the state35 The city served to compile a valuable storehouse of oral slave narrative material

During the 1933 Mississippi River flood, country singer Johnny Cash evacuated to Pine Bluff36

World War II & economic diversification 1941-1960edit

Desegregated Freedom Train line in 1947

World War II brought profound changes to Pine Bluff and its agriculture, timber and railroad-oriented economy The Army built Grider Field Airport which housed the Pine Bluff School of Aviation and furnished flight training for air cadets for the Army Air Corps At one time 275 aircraft were being used to train 758 pilots Approximately 9,000 pilots had been trained by the time the school closed in October 194437

The Army broke ground for the Pine Bluff Arsenal on December 2, 1941, on 15,000 acres 61 km2 bought north of the city The arsenal and Grider Field changed Pine Bluff to a more diversified economy with a mixture of industry and agriculture The addition of small companies to the industrial base helped the economy remain steady in the late 1940scitation needed Defense spending in association with the Korean War was a stabilizing factor after 1950

In December 1953, KATV television station, then based in Pine Bluff, transmitted Arkansas' first VHF broadcast the first UHF broadcast had occurred a few months prior38 In 1957, Richard Anderson announced the construction of a kraft paper mill north of the citycitation needed International Paper Co shortly afterward bought a plant site five miles east of Pine Bluff Residential developments followed for expected workers The next year young minister Dr Martin Luther King, Jr addressed students at the commencement program for Arkansas AM&N College now the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff39

The modern era 1960–presentedit

The decade of the 1960s brought heightened activism in the civil rights movement: through boycotts and demonstrations, African Americans demanded an end to segregated public facilities and jobs40 Some whites responded with violence, attacking demonstrators, and bombing a black church in Pine Bluff in 196341 Some civil rights demonstrators were shot42 Local leaders worked tirelessly, at times enlisting the support of national figures such as Dick Gregory and Stokely Carmichael, to help bring about change over the period4344 Voter registration drives that enabled increased black political participation, selective buying campaigns, student protests, and a desire among white local business leaders to avoid damaging negative media portrayals in the national media led to reforms in public accommodations

During the 1960s and 1970s, major construction projects in the region included private and public sponsors: Jefferson Hospital now Jefferson Regional Medical Center, the dams of the McClellan-Kerr Navigation System on the Arkansas River which was diverted from the city to create Lake Langhofer, a Federal building, the Pine Bluff Convention Center complex including The Royal Arkansas Hotel & Suites, Pine Bluff Regional Park, two industrial parks and several large churches

The 1980s and 1990s brought a number of significant construction projects Benny Scallion Park was created, named for the alderman who brought a Japanese garden to the Pine Bluff Civic Center Sadly, the city has not maintained the garden, but a small plaque remainscitation needed In the late 1980s, The Pines, the first large, enclosed shopping center, was constructed on the east side of the city The mall attracted increased shopping traffic from southeast Arkansascitation needed

Mural in downtown Pine Bluff

The most important construction project of the 1990s was completion of a southern bypass, designated part of Interstate 530 In addition, a highway and bridge across Lock and Dam #4 were completed, providing another link between farm areas in northeastern Jefferson County and the transportation system radiating from Pine Bluff Through a private matching grant, a multimillion-dollar Arts and Science Center for Southeast Arkansas was completed downtown in 1994citation needed

In 2000, construction was completed on the 43,000-square-foot 4,000 m2 Donald W Reynolds Community Services Center45 Carl Redus became the first African American mayor in the city's history in 200546 The University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff recently opened a $3 million business incubator in downtown Pine Bluff47 Also, a new $2 million farmers market pavilion was opened in 2010 on Lake Pine Bluff in downtown Pine Bluff48

On November 6, 2012, Debe Hollingsworth was elected to be the next mayor of Pine Bluff, winning 49% of the vote Mayor-elect Hollingsworth assumed office January 2, 201349 She has said her administration plans to lead using a five-point plan; combating crime in the city, economic development and job creation, city government reform, improving education, and enhancing the image of Pine Bluff50

Geographyedit

Bayou Bartholomew

Pine Bluff is on the Arkansas River; the community was named for a bluff along that river Both Lake Pine Bluff and Lake Langhofer are situated within the city limits, as these are bodies of water which are remnants of the historical Arkansas River channel The former is a man-made expansion of a natural oxbow; the latter was created by diking the old channel after a man-made diversion Consequently, the Mississippi Alluvial Plain or the Arkansas Delta runs well into the city with Bayou Bartholomew picking up the western border as a line of demarcation between the Arkansas Delta and the Arkansas Timberlands

A series of levees and dams surrounds the area to provide for flood control and protect from channel shift One of the world's longest individual levees at 380 miles runs from Pine Bluff to Venice, Louisiana51

Metropolitan statistical areaedit

Main articles: Pine Bluff metropolitan area and Little Rock – North Little Rock – Pine Bluff combined statistical area

Pine Bluff is the largest city in a three-county MSA as defined by the US Census Bureau including Jefferson, Cleveland, and Lincoln counties The Pine Bluff MSA population in 2000 was 107,341 people The Pine Bluff MSA population in 2007 dropped to 101,484 Pine Bluff was the fastest-declining Arkansas MSA from 2000-2007 The Pine Bluff area is also a component of the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Pine Bluff Combined Statistical Area which had a population of 902,443 people in the 2014 US census estimate

Climateedit

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 468 square miles 121 km2, of which 456 square miles 118 km2 is land and 12 square miles 31 km2 265% is water

Climate data for Pine Bluff
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F °C 51
11
56
13
65
18
75
24
82
28
89
32
92
33
91
33
85
29
76
24
64
18
54
12
733
229
Average low °F °C 30
−1
33
1
42
6
51
11
60
16
68
20
71
22
70
21
63
17
51
11
42
6
33
1
512
109
Average precipitation inches mm 38
97
44
112
51
130
50
127
53
135
42
107
40
102
37
94
38
97
41
104
46
117
55
140
524
1,331
Source: 52

Demographicsedit

Census
Historical population
Pop
1850 460
1860 1,396 2035%
1870 2,081 491%
1880 3,203 539%
1890 9,952 2107%
1900 11,496 155%
1910 15,100 314%
1920 19,300 278%
1930 20,800 78%
1940 21,300 24%
1950 37,200 746%
1960 44,000 183%
1970 57,400 305%
1980 56,600 −14%
1990 57,100 09%
2000 55,085 −35%
2010 49,083 −109%
Est 2016 43,841 −107%
sources:5354

As of the census55 of 2010, there were 49,083 people, 18,071 households, and 11,594 families residing in the city The population density was 1,0488 people per square mile 4046/km² There were 20,923 housing units at an average density of 4471 per square mile 1725/km² The racial makeup of the city was 756% Black or African American, 218% White, 02% Native American, 063% Asian, 001% Pacific Islander, 068% from other races, and 11% from two or more races 15% of the population were Latino of any race

There were 18,071 households out of which 288% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 313% were married couples living together, 277% had a female householder with no husband present, and 358% were non-families 313% of all households were made up of individuals and 106% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older The average household size was 249 and the average family size was 314

In the city, the population was spread out with 255% under the age of 18, 134% from 18 to 24, 243% from 25 to 44, 244% from 45 to 64, and 124% who were 65 years of age or older The median age was 334 years For every 100 females there were 906 males For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 856 males

The median income for a household in the city was $30,415, and the median income for a family was $39,993 Males had a median income of $38,333 versus $28,936 for females The per capita income for the city was $17,334 About 243% of families and 306% of the population were below the poverty line, including 456% of those under age 18 and 137% of those age 65 or over

Economyedit

Agriculture is a mainstay in Pine Bluff Jefferson County is located in the heart of a rich agricultural area in the Arkansas River Basin56 The leading products include cotton, soybeans, cattle, rice, poultry, timber and catfish Principal industries in the area are engaged in processing cotton; production of cottonseed oil, paper and wood products; the manufacture of wire products; poultry processing; the manufacture of electric transformers; and metal fabrication

Major area employers include Jefferson Regional Medical Center, Simmons First National Corp, Tyson Foods, Evergreen Packaging, the Pine Bluff Arsenal and the Union Pacific Railroad It is the large number of paper mills in the area that give Pine Bluff its, at times, distinctive odor, a feature known prominently among Arkansans57

In 2009, Pine Bluff was included on the Forbes list of America's ten most impoverished cities58

Governmentedit

Jefferson County Courthouse in downtown Pine Bluff

The City of Pine Bluff is governed by the mayor–council government system, with the mayor, city attorney, city clerk and treasurer are all elected at large The Pine Bluff City Council is the legislative body of the city This group is constituted of eight members, with two members representing each of the city's four wards59 Each council member serves a four-year term, and elections are staggered every two years Meetings of the city council are held in the Pine Bluff City Council Chambers on the first and third Monday of every month unless otherwise scheduled60

The city also has ten commissions for citizens to serve upon, with approval required by both the mayor and city council They are: Advertising and Promotion, Aviation, Civic Auditorium Complex, Civil Service, Historic District, Historical Railroad Preservation, Parks and Recreation, Pine Bluff / Jefferson County Port Authority, Planning and Wastewater Utility The city also has four boards and one commission that fills their own vacancies: Arkansas River Regional Intermodal Facilities Board, Arts and Science Center for Southeast Arkansas Board of Trustees, Cemetery Committee, Library Board and Taylor Field Operations Facilities Board

As the county seat of Jefferson County, Pine Bluff also hosts all functions of county government at the Jefferson County Courthouse in downtown Pine Bluff

Crimeedit

In 2013, CNNMoney included Pine Bluff on a list of "7 fastest shrinking cities," saying almost a third of the metro area population lived below the poverty line and the city's crime rate was second only to Detroit61

Arts and cultureedit

See also: Culture of Arkansas

The Pine Bluff Convention Center is one of the state's largest meeting facilities The Arts and Science Center features theatrical performances and workshops for children and adults Pine Bluff did also boast the only Band Museum in the country but it has closed Other areas of interest include downtown murals depicting the history of Pine Bluff, the Pine Bluff/Jefferson County Historical Museum, Arkansas Entertainers Hall of Fame and the Arkansas Railroad Museum

Recreational opportunities in Pine Bluff range from water sports and some of the best bass fishing in the state on the Arkansas Rivercitation needed, to golf or tennis As host to 30-35 bass tournaments each yearcitation needed, Pine Bluff/Jefferson County Regional Park has earned Pine Bluff the nickname of "Bass Capital of the World" A hunting and fishing exhibit features dioramas of outdoor activities and collections of hunting, fishing and conservation memorabilia in the Governor Mike Huckabee Delta Rivers Nature Center at Regional Park and the Arkansas Entertainers Hall of Fame at the Pine Bluff Convention Center both of which will draw thousands to the area each year

Annual cultural eventsedit

UAPB's M4 marching band
  • Harbor City Gumbo Festival
  • Smoke on the Water Barbecue Festival
  • Enchanted Land of Lights and Legends
  • UAPB Homecoming
  • Boo on the Bayou Halloween Celebration
  • King Cotton Classic- Running from 1982 to 1999, the King Cotton Classic was one of the premier high school basketball tournaments in the country It featured many future NBA players, including Corliss Williamson and Jason Kidd

Educationedit

The University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff UAPB is the second oldest public educational institution in the state of Arkansas, and the oldest with a black heritage It maintains one of the nation's few aquaculture research programs and the only one in the state of Arkansas62 It also houses the University Museum and Cultural Center dedicated to preserving the history of UAPB and the Arkansas Delta

The newly accredited Southeast Arkansas College features technical career programs as well as a 2-year college curriculum

Pine Bluff has a full complement of educational facilities The Pine Bluff School District includes elementary magnet schools to meet special interests in the fields of mathematics, science, foreign language, communications, and fine and performing arts Watson Chapel School District, White Hall School District, and Dollarway School District, as well as a number of charter schools and the Ridgeway Christian School also serve the city

The Main Library of the Pine Bluff/Jefferson County Library System contains an extensive genealogy collection, including the online obituary index of the Pine Bluff Commercial, Arkansas census records, and digital collections, which consists of many county and city records for much of southeast Arkansas In addition to downtown Pine Bluff's Main Library, PBJCLS branch libraries can also be found in the city's Watson Chapel area, as well as in White Hall, Redfield, and Altheimer

Colleges and universitiesedit

  • University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
  • Southeast Arkansas College

Public schoolsedit

  • Pine Bluff School District, including Pine Bluff High School
  • Dollarway School District, including Dollarway High School
  • Watson Chapel School District, including Watson Chapel High School
  • White Hall School District includes parts of Pine Bluff; White Hall High School is in neighboring White Hall

Private schoolsedit

There is one private school in Pine Bluff, Ridgway Christian School K3-12th

The city formerly hosted Catholic schools:

  • St Joseph Catholic School - Grades 5-12, opened in 1993,63 closed in 201364
  • St Peter's Catholic School - The first school in Arkansas for black children to be established,65 was established in 1889 by St Joseph Church Pastor Monsignor John Michael "JM" Lucey as the Colored Industrial Institute and in 1897 became St Peter Academy aka St Peter High School It closed in 1975, and reopened as an elementary school Grades Preschool through 6 operated by the School Sisters of Notre Dame in 1985 It closed permanently in 2012 It was the last Catholic school established for black students in the State of Arkansas66
  • St Raphael School - A majority black school, it closed in 196066

Public librariesedit

The Pine Bluff-Jefferson County Library System maintains its main library in the Civic Center in downtown The city received its first library in 191367 The library system also operates the Watson Chapel Dave Burdick Library in the Watson Chapel neighborhood68

Infrastructureedit

Highwaysedit

  • Interstate 530
  • US Route 63
  • US Route 65
  • US Route 79
  • US Highway 270
  • US Highway 425
  • Highway 15
  • Highway 54
  • Highway 81
  • Highway 190
  • Highway 365

Pine Bluff is served by a network of five US and five state highways radiating from the city Interstate 530, formerly part of US 65, connects Little Rock to southeast Pine Bluff multiple Interstates can be accessed in approximately 40 minutes from any point in the city

Wateredit

Located on the navigable Arkansas River, with a slackwater harbor, Pine Bluff is accessible by water via the Port of Pine Bluff, the anchor of the city's Harbor Industrial District

Airedit

Pilot preparing to dust crops near Pine Bluff

Daily commercial air freight and passenger services, along with scheduled commuter flights, are available at the Clinton National Airport formerly Little Rock National Airport, Adams Field, LIT, some 40 minutes driving time from Pine Bluff via Interstate 530 and interstate connectors

Pine Bluff's municipal airport, Grider Field PBF, is located four miles southeast of the city69 The airport serves as home base for corporate and general aviation aircraft Charter, air ambulance and cargo airline services are also available

Busesedit

Royal Coach Lines offers local access to intrastate, regional, and charter services

The city-owned Pine Bluff Transit operates six routes on a 12-hour/day, weekday basis, to various points including government, medical, educational and shopping centers70 Two of the buses have professional-quality murals advertising the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff

Railroadedit

Union Station, listed on the NRHP

Current freight rail service to and through Pine Bluff is provided by the Union Pacific Railroad

Correctional facilitiesedit

In 1972, the City of Pine Bluff and the "Fifty for the Future," a business leader group, donated 80 acres 32 ha of land to the Arkansas Department of Correction ADC This parcel was developed as the Pine Bluff Complex71

Since 1979 it has included the ADC state headquarters;727374 the administrative Annex East is on Harding Avenue south of city hall75 The Ester Unit formerly the Diagnostic Unit,76 the Pine Bluff Unit, and the Randall L Williams Correctional Facility are in the "Pine Bluff Complex," 7778 as are the headquarters of the Arkansas Correctional School system7879

The ADC Southeast Arkansas Community Corrections Center is in Pine Bluff80

Utilitiesedit

Wateredit

Liberty Utilities formerly United Water, a subsidiary of Algonquin Power & Utilities, a privately held company, treats potable water and operates the water distribution system in Pine Bluff including Watson Chapel, as well as Hardin, Ladd, and White Hall81 This partnership began in 1942 between the City of Pine Bluff and Arkansas Municipal Water Company, which has been acquired and merged to become Liberty Utilities82

Water is pumped from 12 wells that pump from the Sparta Sand Aquifer to three water treatment plants capable of producing 20,000,000 US gallons 76,000,000 L per day total Each plant uses a process of pre-chlorination, aeration, filtration, and chlorine residual Hydrofluosilic acid and zinc orthophosphate are also added in addition to chlorine The water is then distributed to approximately serving over 18,000 customers via 388 miles 624 km of water distribution mains83 A Source Water Vulnerability Assessment was conducted by the Arkansas Department of Health in 2013; it concluded that Pine Bluff's water supply is at medium susceptibility to contamination84

Wastewateredit

The Pine Bluff Wastewater Utility provides operation and maintenance of the city's municipally owned sewage collection and conveyance system This system includes over 450 miles 720 km of pipe and 48 lift stations to collect municipal and industrial wastewater and convey it to the Boyd Point Treatment Facility BPTF This facility treats and discharges treated effluent in accordance with a permit issued by the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality ADEQ The BPTF was most recently renovated in 2010 and is currently permitted to discharge a maximum daily flow of 30,000,000 US gallons 110,000,000 L85

The utility has been awarded by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies for its performance In an Enforcement Compliance review completed in March 2014, it was noted that zero permit violations had occurred within the past three years86

Notable peopleedit

  • Larry D Alexander, Visual Artist, Writer, Bible Teacher
  • Broncho Billy Anderson, actor, honorary Academy Award winner
  • Camille Bennett, Democratic member of the Arkansas House of Representatives for District 14; former Pine Bluff resident
  • John Barfield, Major League Baseball player
  • Mark Bradley, National Football League player
  • Clifton R Breckinridge, US Representative from Arkansas
  • Big Bill Broonzy, Grammy Award-nominated blues musician, member-Blues Hall of Fame
  • Charles Brown, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductee, blues musician/singer
  • Jim Ed Brown, Grammy Award-nominated country music artist
  • The Browns, Grammy Award-nominated country music trio
  • Bill Carr, 1932 Olympic double gold medalist
  • Harvey C Couch, founder, Arkansas Power & Light
  • Joe Barry Carroll, National Basketball Association player
  • Monte Coleman, National Football League player
  • Junior Collins, jazz musician
  • CeDell Davis, blues musician, nominee, National Heritage Award
  • Janette Davis, singer
  • Larry Davis, blues musician
  • Jay Dickey, lawyer and politician
  • The Buddy Deane Show, national television program of a local popular radio deejay
  • Jeff Donaldson, visual artist
  • Marty Embry, retired professional basketball player, chef, author
  • Kenneth B Ferguson, Democratic member of the Arkansas House of Representatives for Jefferson and Lincoln counties since 2015
  • Stephanie Flowers, African-American Democratic member of the Arkansas State Senate since 2011; former member of the Arkansas House of Representatives; Pine Bluff lawyer
  • Vivian Flowers, African-American Democratic member of the Arkansas House of Representatives from Pine Bluff since 2015; diversity officer at the UAMS Medical Center in Little Rock87
  • Rodney Shelton Foss, possibly the first American killed in World War II
  • Charles Greene, Olympic gold medalist
  • Leon Griffith, 1976 Republican gubernatorial nominee; plumber in Pine Bluff
  • George W Haley, US ambassador
  • Isaac Scott Hathaway, visual artist
  • George Edmund Haynes, first executive director of the National Urban League, and first African-American to receive a PhD from Columbia University
  • Chester Himes, novelist
  • George Howard, Jr, federal judge
  • Mike Huckabee born 1955, 44th Governor of Arkansas
  • Bobby Hutton, founding member of the Black Panther Party
  • Torii Hunter, Major League Baseball player
  • Don Hutson, National Football League player
  • George GM James, author
  • Joseph Jarman, jazz saxophonist
  • Charles Johnson, Negro League baseball player
  • David Johnson, football player
  • Kenneth Johnson, television producer
  • E Fay Jones, architect and designer
  • J Lomax Jordan, Louisiana State Senator
  • Camille Keaton, actress
  • Carl Kidd, football player in the Canadian and National Football Leagues
  • Lafayette Lever, NBA player
  • Henry Jackson Lewis, political cartoonist
  • Kay Linaker, actress
  • Tom Lister, Jr, actor
  • Dallas Long, Olympic gold medalist
  • Martell Mallett, football player in the Canadian and National Football Leagues
  • Andy Mayberry, member of the Arkansas House of Representatives from District 27
  • Carl McVoy, rock 'n' roll pianist
  • Peter McGehee, novelist
  • Dwight McKissic, Southern Baptist minister
  • Constance Merritt, poet
  • Martha Mitchell, second wife of US attorney general John Newton Mitchell
  • Mary Matilyn Mouser, actress
  • Bitsy Mullins, jazz trumpeter
  • Smokie Norful, Grammy Award-winning gospel singer
  • Freeman Harrison Owens, inventor
  • Ben Pearson, bowyer
  • Edward J Perkins, US ambassador
  • Elizabeth Rice, actress
  • Andree Layton Roaf, justice of the Arkansas Supreme Court mother of Wille Roaf
  • Willie Roaf, NFL Hall of Famer son of Andree Layton Roaf
  • John Roane 1817–1867, 4th Governor of Arkansas; Brigadier-General in the Provisional Army of the Confederate States
  • Bobby Rush, Grammy Award-nominated musician, member of Blues Hall of Fame
  • Peggy Shannon, actress
  • William Seawell, brigadier general in the US Air Force
  • Les Spann, jazz musician
  • Katherine Stinson, aviator
  • James L Stone, Medal of Honor recipient
  • Francis Cecil Sumner, psychologist
  • Jerry Taylor, businessman, Arkansas legislator, and Mayor of Pine Bluff
  • Clark Terry, Grammy Award-winning jazz musician
  • Sue Bailey Thurman, African-American author, lecturer, and historian
  • Casey Bill Weldon, blues musician
  • J Mayo Williams, blues/gospel/jazz producer, member of Blues Hall of Fame
  • Krista White, winner of America's Next Top Model Cycle 14

Sister cityedit

  • Bandō, Ibaraki, Japan– sister city since October 9, 1989 88

See alsoedit

  • Arkansas portal
  • List of cities and towns in Arkansas
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Arkansas

Referencesedit

  1. ^ "2016 US Gazetteer Files" United States Census Bureau Retrieved Jul 18, 2017 
  2. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" Retrieved June 9, 2017 
  3. ^ "Find a County" National Association of Counties Archived from the original on May 10, 2015 Retrieved 2011-06-07 
  4. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010" 1 April 2010 Retrieved 9 November 2012 
  5. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011" CSV 1 July 2011 Retrieved 9 November 2012 
  6. ^ "Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain" PDF Retrieved 2010-10-07 
  7. ^ "Arkansas Lakes and Rivers" Retrieved September 6, 2010 
  8. ^ a b c d "History of Pine Bluff" Retrieved 2010-10-01 
  9. ^ "Arkansas City Listings" Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  10. ^ "The Seminoles" PDF Retrieved 2009-10-20 
  11. ^ "Rebellion: John Horse and the Black Seminoles" Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  12. ^ "Sequoyah Research Center: A Chronicle, 1830-1849" Retrieved 2011-04-04 
  13. ^ "Slavery In Arkansas" Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  14. ^ "Antioch Missionary Baptist Church Cemetery,Sherrill, Jefferson County" Retrieved 2010-09-07 
  15. ^ a b "Pine Bluff Jefferson County" Retrieved 2010-09-07 
  16. ^ "Pine Bluff, Ark" Retrieved 2010-09-07 
  17. ^ "Facts About US Colored Troops: American Civil War" Retrieved 2010-09-07 
  18. ^ "1st Kansas Colored Volunteer Infantry" Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  19. ^ "Action At Pine Bluff" Retrieved 2010-09-08 
  20. ^ "Reconstruction Historiography: A Source of Ideas" Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  21. ^ "A Partial List of Lynchings" Retrieved 2010-09-10 
  22. ^ "Two Murderers Lynched" The New York Times 1892-02-15 Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  23. ^ "Separate Coach Law of 1891" Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  24. ^ "Back to Africa" Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  25. ^ Barnes, Kenneth C Journey of Hope: The Back-to-Africa Movement in Arkansas in the Late 1800s Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2004 ISBN 0807828793 Google Books Retrieved June 6, 2014
  26. ^ Leslie, James W 1981 Pine Bluff and Jefferson County: A Pictorial History Norfolk, Va: Donning Co ISBN 978-0898651485 
  27. ^ Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Pulaski, Jefferson, Lonoke, Faulkner, Grant, Saline, Perry, Garland and Hot Spring Counties, Arkansas Chicago, Nashville and St Louis: Goodspeed Publishing Co 1889 
  28. ^ John A Kirk, "Civil Rights Movement Twentieth Century", Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture, 2015
  29. ^ "Things To Do: African American History" Archived from the original on February 5, 2010 Retrieved 2010-09-07 
  30. ^ "Hotel Pines" Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  31. ^ "Saenger Theater" Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  32. ^ "Dollarway Road" Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  33. ^ "WOK Radio Station" Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  34. ^ a b "WPA Slave Narratives" Retrieved 2010-09-08 
  35. ^ "Bearing Witness:Memories of Arkansas Slavery" Retrieved 2010-09-08 
  36. ^ Streissguth, Michael 2006 Johnny Cash: The Biography Da Capo Press p 15 ISBN 978-0-306-81368-9 Retrieved 22 January 2015 
  37. ^ "Grider Army Airfield" Retrieved 2010-11-30 
  38. ^ "KATV" Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  39. ^ "Geleve Grice:1922-2004" PDF Retrieved 2010-09-07 
  40. ^ "Land of Unequal Opportunity" Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  41. ^ Michele M Simmsparris Spring 1998 "What Does it Mean to See a Black Church Burning" 1 University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law: 127–151 Archived from the original on November 17, 2009 Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  42. ^ "Civil Rights Movement: 20th Century History" Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  43. ^ "Leaders call 72 Hour Truce" PDF Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  44. ^ "Driving for Attorney CB King" Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  45. ^ "Lights Not Out Yet at Pine Bluff" Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  46. ^ "Arkansas Black History Quiz Bowl Association" Archived from the original on October 26, 2011 Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  47. ^ "Hopes for Pine Bluff Pinned on Two Projects" Retrieved 2010-09-21 
  48. ^ "Market on Lake Part of Revitalization Plan" Retrieved 2010-09-21 
  49. ^ "Pine Bluff's mayor-elect Debe Hollingsworth speaks out" Retrieved 9 November 2012 
  50. ^ "Hollingsworth is apparent winner" Retrieved 9 November 2012 
  51. ^ "Artificial Levees" Archived from the original on May 23, 2009 Retrieved 2010-10-29 
  52. ^ weatherbasecom
  53. ^ "Census of Population and Housing" United States Census Bureau, Population Division Retrieved 2009-07-02 
  54. ^ Bearden, Russell E "Pine Bluff Jefferson County" Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  55. ^ "American FactFinder" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2008-01-31 
  56. ^ "Arkansas River Basin" Archived from the original on January 30, 2010 Retrieved 2010-10-04 
  57. ^ "Pine BluffCom" Retrieved 2010-10-04 
  58. ^ "America's Most Impoverished Cities", Forbes, October 12, 2009
  59. ^ "Government" City of Pine Bluff Retrieved January 25, 2015 
  60. ^ "City Council Page" City of Pine Bluff Retrieved January 25, 2015 
  61. ^ "7 fastest shrinking cities", CNNMoneycom, April 5, 2013
  62. ^ "University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff" Retrieved 2010-09-06 
  63. ^ SJCHS "SJC: History & Heritage" Retrieved 2012-07-27 
  64. ^ Hebda, Dwain 2013-05-16 "The last class graduates from St Joseph in Pine Bluff" Arkansas Catholic Retrieved 2017-07-31 
  65. ^ "Pine Bluff Catholic school to Close" KATV 2012-05-02 Retrieved 2017-07-31 
  66. ^ a b Hargett, Malea 2012-05-12 "State's last black Catholic school to close" Arkansas Catholic Retrieved 2017-07-31 
  67. ^ "Pine Bluff Public Library" Pine Bluff-Jefferson County Library System Retrieved on August 2, 2017
  68. ^ "Watson Chapel Public Library" Pine Bluff-Jefferson County Library System Retrieved on August 2, 2017
  69. ^ "KPBF - Grider Field Airport" AirNav Retrieved 2016-10-31 
  70. ^ "Pine Bluff Transit" Cityofpinebluffcom Retrieved 2016-10-31 
  71. ^ "Prison History and Gallery" Arkansas Department of Correction Retrieved on September 7, 2010
  72. ^ "Pine Bluff city, Arkansas" US Census Bureau Retrieved on September 7, 2010
  73. ^ "Central Office" Arkansas Department of Correction Retrieved on June 28, 2010
  74. ^ "2006 Facts Brochure" Arkansas Department of Correction July 1, 2005-June 30, 2006 25 25/38 Retrieved on August 15, 2010
  75. ^ "Facilities" Arkansas Department of Correction Retrieved on June 28, 2010
  76. ^ "Barbara Ester Unit" Arkansas Department of Correction Retrieved on August 1, 2017
  77. ^ "Pine Bluff Unit/Randall L Williams Correctional Facility" Arkansas Department of Correction Retrieved on June 28, 2010
  78. ^ a b "School Sites" Arkansas Correctional School Retrieved on July 18, 2010
  79. ^ "Contact Us" Arkansas Correctional School Retrieved on July 18, 2010
  80. ^ "Locations" Arkansas Department of Community Corrections Retrieved on March 5, 2011 "7301 West 13th Street, Pine Bluff, Arkansas 71602"
  81. ^ "Community" Liberty Utilities Retrieved January 25, 2015 
  82. ^ "Water Quality Information" PDF United Water Arkansas 2007 Retrieved January 25, 2015 
  83. ^ "Water Quality Information" PDF United Water Arkansas June 2011 Retrieved January 25, 2015 
  84. ^ "Annual Drinking Water Quality Report" PDF Liberty Utilities 2013 Retrieved January 25, 2015 
  85. ^ "Boyd Point Treatment Facility" PDF NPDES Permit AR0033316 Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality Retrieved January 25, 2015 
  86. ^ "Enforcement Compliance Review" PDF NPDES Permit AR0033316 Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality March 20, 2014 Retrieved January 25, 2015 
  87. ^ "Vivian Flowers" arkansashouseorg Retrieved April 15, 2015 
  88. ^ "US-Japan Sister Cities by State" Asia Matters for America Honolulu, HA: East-West Center Retrieved 20 November 2015 

Further readingedit

  • Pine Bluff and Jefferson County, Arkansas: Descriptive Pamphlet Jefferson County Exposition and Bureau of Agriculture, Manufactures and Immigration Feb 22, 1895 – via Graphic Printing Company, Pine Bluff, Ark 
  • Pine Bluff and Jefferson County, Arkansas: Full Description World's Fair ed Jefferson County Bureau of Agriculture, Manufactures and Immigration May 1893 

External linksedit

Find more aboutPine Bluff, Arkansasat Wikipedia's sister projects
  • Media from Commons
  • Travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Data from Wikidata
  • Official website


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