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picts, picts scotland
The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods They are thought to have been ethnolinguistically Celtic Where they lived and what their culture was like can be inferred from the geographical distribution of brochs, Brittonic place name elements, and Pictish stones Picts are attested to in written records from before the Roman conquest of Britain to the 10th century, when they are thought to have merged with the Gaels They lived to the north of the rivers Forth and Clyde, and spoke the now-extinct Pictish language, which is thought to have been closely related to the Celtic Brittonic language spoken by the Britons who lived to the south of them

Picts are assumed to have been the descendants of the Caledonii and other tribes that were mentioned by Roman historians or on the world map of Ptolemy Pictland, also called Pictavia by some sources, gradually merged with the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata to form the Kingdom of Alba Scotland Alba then expanded, absorbing the Brittonic kingdom of Strathclyde and Bernician Lothian, and by the 11th century the Pictish identity had been subsumed into the "Scots" amalgamation of peoples

Pictish society was typical of many Iron Age societies in northern Europe, having "wide connections and parallels" with neighbouring groups Archaeology gives some impression of the society of the Picts While very little in the way of Pictish writing has survived, Pictish history since the late 6th century is known from a variety of sources, including Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, saints' lives such as that of Columba by Adomnán, and various Irish annals


  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 History
  • 3 Kings and kingdoms
  • 4 Society
  • 5 Religion
  • 6 Art
  • 7 Language
  • 8 Legacy
  • 9 In literature and popular culture
  • 10 See also
  • 11 Notes
  • 12 References
  • 13 Further reading
  • 14 External links


What the Picts called themselves is unknown The Latin word Picti first occurs in a panegyric written by Eumenius in AD 297 and is taken to mean "painted or tattooed people" from Latin pingere "to paint"; pictus, "painted", cf Greek "πυκτίς" pyktis, "picture" As Sally M Foster noted, "Much ink has been spilt over what the ancient writers meant by Picts, but it seems to be a generic term for people living north of the Forth–Clyde isthmus who raided the Roman Empire"

Their Old English name gave the modern Scots form Pechts and the Welsh word Fichti In writings from Ireland, the name Cruthin, Cruthini, Cruthni, Cruithni or Cruithini Modern Irish: Cruithne was used to refer both to the Picts and to another group of people who lived alongside the Ulaid in eastern Ulster It is generally accepted that this is derived from Qritani, which is the Goidelic/Q-Celtic version of the Britonnic/P-Celtic Pritani From this came Britanni, the Roman name for those now called the Britons It has been suggested that Cruthin referred to all Britons not conquered by the Romans—those who lived outside Roman Britannia, north of Hadrian's Wall


The so-called Daniel Stone, cross slab fragment found at Rosemarkie, Easter Ross

A Pictish confederation was formed in Late Antiquity from a number of tribes—how and why is not known Some scholars have speculated that it was partly in response to the growth of the Roman Empire

Pictland had previously been described by Roman writers and geographers as the home of the Caledonii These Romans also used other names to refer to tribes living in that area, including Verturiones, Taexali and Venicones But they may have heard these other names only second- or third-hand, from speakers of Brittonic or Gaulish languages, who may have used different names for the same group or groups

Pictish recorded history begins in the Dark Ages It appears that Picts were not the dominant power in Northern Britain for that entire period The Gaels of Dál Riata controlled what is present day Argyll for a time, although they suffered a series of defeats in the first third of the 7th century The Angles of Bernicia overwhelmed the adjacent British kingdoms, one of which, the Anglian kingdom of Deira, later became the most powerful kingdom in Britain Deira and Bernicia together were called Northumbria The Picts were probably tributary to Northumbria until the reign of Bridei mac Beli, when, in 685, the Anglians suffered a defeat at the Battle of Dun Nechtain that halted their northward expansion The Northumbrians continued to dominate southern Scotland for the remainder of the Pictish period

The Whitecleuch Chain, high status Pictish Silver chain, one of ten known to exist, dating from between 400 and 800 AD

Dál Riata was subject to the Pictish king Óengus mac Fergusa during his reign 729–761, and though it had its own kings beginning in the 760s, does not appear to have recovered its political independence from the Picts A later Pictish king, Caustantín mac Fergusa 793–820, placed his son Domnall on the throne of Dál Riata 811–835 Pictish attempts to achieve a similar dominance over the Britons of Alt Clut Dumbarton were not successful

The Viking Age brought great changes in Britain and Ireland, no less in Scotland than elsewhere By the middle of the 9th century, when Ketil Flatnose is said to have founded the Kingdom of the Isles, the Vikings had destroyed the kingdom of Northumbria, greatly weakened the Kingdom of Strathclyde, and founded the Kingdom of York In a major battle in 839, the Vikings killed the king of Fortriu, Eógan mac Óengusa, the king of Dál Riata Áed mac Boanta, and many others In the aftermath, in the 840s, Cínaed mac Ailpín Kenneth MacAlpin became king of the Picts

During the reign of Cínaed's grandson, Caustantín mac Áeda 900–943, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than the kingdom of the Picts, but we do not know whether this was because a new kingdom was established or Alba was simply a closer approximation of the Pictish name for the Picts However, though the Pictish language did not disappear suddenly, a process of Gaelicisation which may have begun generations earlier was clearly underway during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors By a certain point, probably during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become fully Gaelicised Scots, and Pictish identity was forgotten Later, the idea of Picts as a tribe was revived in myth and legend

Kings and kingdoms

See also: List of Kings of the Picts Approximate location of Pictish kingdoms, based on the information given here

The early history of Pictland is unclear In later periods multiple kings existed, ruling over separate kingdoms, with one king, sometimes two, more or less dominating their lesser neighbours De Situ Albanie, a late document, the Pictish Chronicle, the Duan Albanach, along with Irish legends, have been used to argue the existence of seven Pictish kingdoms These are as follows; those in bold are known to have had kings, or are otherwise attested in the Pictish period:

  • Cait, or Cat, situated in modern Caithness and Sutherland
  • Ce, situated in modern Mar and Buchan
  • Circinn, perhaps situated in modern Angus and the Mearns
  • Fib, the modern Fife, known to this day as 'the Kingdom of Fife'
  • Fidach, location unknown, but possibly near Inverness
  • Fotla, modern Atholl Ath-Fotla
  • Fortriu, cognate with the Verturiones of the Romans; recently shown to be centred on Moray

More small kingdoms may have existed Some evidence suggests that a Pictish kingdom also existed in Orkney De Situ Albanie is not the most reliable of sources, and the number of kingdoms, one for each of the seven sons of Cruithne, the eponymous founder of the Picts, may well be grounds enough for disbelief Regardless of the exact number of kingdoms and their names, the Pictish nation was not a united one

Map showing the approximate areas of the kingdom of Fortriu and neighbours c 800, and the kingdom of Alba c 900

For most of Pictish recorded history the kingdom of Fortriu appears dominant, so much so that king of Fortriu and king of the Picts may mean one and the same thing in the annals This was previously thought to lie in the area around Perth and the southern Strathearn, whereas recent work has convinced those working in the field that Moray a name referring to a very much larger area in the High Middle Ages than the county of Moray, was the core of Fortriu

The Picts are often said to have practised matrilineal kingship succession on the basis of Irish legends and a statement in Bede's history The kings of the Picts when Bede was writing were Bridei and Nechtan, sons of Der Ilei, who indeed claimed the throne through their mother Der Ilei, daughter of an earlier Pictish king

In Ireland, kings were expected to come from among those who had a great-grandfather who had been king Kingly fathers were not frequently succeeded by their sons, not because the Picts practised matrilineal succession, but because they were usually followed by their own brothers or cousins, more likely to be experienced men with the authority and the support necessary to be king This was similar to tanistry

The nature of kingship changed considerably during the centuries of Pictish history While earlier kings had to be successful war leaders to maintain their authority, kingship became rather less personalised and more institutionalised during this time Bureaucratic kingship was still far in the future when Pictland became Alba, but the support of the church, and the apparent ability of a small number of families to control the kingship for much of the period from the later 7th century onwards, provided a considerable degree of continuity In much the same period, the Picts' neighbours in Dál Riata and Northumbria faced considerable difficulties, as the stability of succession and rule that previously benefited them ended

The later Mormaers are thought to have originated in Pictish times, and to have been copied from, or inspired by, Northumbrian usages It is unclear whether the Mormaers were originally former kings, royal officials, or local nobles, or some combination of these Likewise, the Pictish shires and thanages, traces of which are found in later times, are thought to have been adopted from their southern neighbours


The harpist on the Dupplin Cross, Scotland, c 800 AD

The archaeological record provides evidence of the material culture of the Picts It tells of a society not readily distinguishable from its British, Gaelic, or Anglo-Saxon neighbours Although analogy and knowledge of other so-called 'Celtic' societies a term they never used for themselves may be a useful guide, these extended across a very large area Relying on knowledge of pre-Roman Gaul, or 13th century Ireland, as a guide to the Picts of the 6th century may be misleading if analogy is pursued too far

As with most peoples in the north of Europe in Late Antiquity, the Picts were farmers living in small communities Cattle and horses were an obvious sign of wealth and prestige, sheep and pigs were kept in large numbers, and place names suggest that transhumance was common Animals were small by later standards, although horses from Britain were imported into Ireland as breed-stock to enlarge native horses From Irish sources it appears that the élite engaged in competitive cattle-breeding for size, and this may have been the case in Pictland also Carvings show hunting with dogs, and also, unlike in Ireland, with falcons Cereal crops included wheat, barley, oats and rye Vegetables included kale, cabbage, onions and leeks, peas and beans and turnips, and some types no longer common, such as skirret Plants such as wild garlic, nettles and watercress may have been gathered in the wild The pastoral economy meant that hides and leather were readily available Wool was the main source of fibres for clothing, and flax was also common, although it is not clear if they grew it for fibres, for oil, or as a foodstuff Fish, shellfish, seals, and whales were exploited along coasts and rivers The importance of domesticated animals suggests that meat and milk products were a major part of the diet of ordinary people, while the élite would have eaten a diet rich in meat from farming and hunting

No Pictish counterparts to the areas of denser settlement around important fortresses in Gaul and southern Britain, or any other significant urban settlements, are known Larger, but not large, settlements existed around royal forts, such as at Burghead Fort, or associated with religious foundations No towns are known in Scotland until the 12th century

The technology of everyday life is not well recorded, but archaeological evidence shows it to have been similar to that in Ireland and Anglo-Saxon England Recently evidence has been found of watermills in Pictland Kilns were used for drying kernels of wheat or barley, not otherwise easy in the changeable, temperate climate

Reconstructed crannóg on Loch Tay

The early Picts are associated with piracy and raiding along the coasts of Roman Britain Even in the Late Middle Ages, the line between traders and pirates was unclear, so that Pictish pirates were probably merchants on other occasions It is generally assumed that trade collapsed with the Roman Empire, but this is to overstate the case There is only limited evidence of long-distance trade with Pictland, but tableware and storage vessels from Gaul, probably transported up the Irish Sea, have been found This trade may have been controlled from Dunadd in Dál Riata, where such goods appear to have been common While long-distance travel was unusual in Pictish times, it was far from unknown as stories of missionaries, travelling clerics and exiles show

Brochs are popularly associated with the Picts Although these were built earlier in the Iron Age, with construction ending around 100 AD, they remained in use into and beyond the Pictish period Crannóg, which may originate in Neolithic Scotland, may have been rebuilt, and some were still in use in the time of the Picts The most common sort of buildings would have been roundhouses and rectangular timbered halls While many churches were built in wood, from the early 8th century, if not earlier, some were built in stone

The Picts are often said to have tattooed themselves, but evidence for this is limited Naturalistic depictions of Pictish nobles, hunters and warriors, male and female, without obvious tattoos, are found on monumental stones These stones include inscriptions in Latin and ogham script, not all of which have been deciphered The well known Pictish symbols found on stones, and elsewhere, are obscure in meaning A variety of esoteric explanations have been offered, but the simplest conclusion may be that these symbols represent the names of those who had raised, or are commemorated on, the stones Pictish art can be classed as 'Celtic' a term not coined till the 1850s, and later as Insular Irish poets portrayed their Pictish counterparts as very much like themselves


Main article: Christianisation of Scotland An early 20th century depiction of Saint Columba's miracle at the gate of King Bridei's fortress, described in Adomnán's late 7th century Vita Columbae Animal head from St Ninian's Isle Treasure

Early Pictish religion is presumed to have resembled Celtic polytheism in general, although only place names remain from the pre-Christian era When the Pictish elite converted to Christianity is uncertain, but traditions place Saint Palladius in Pictland after he left Ireland, and link Abernethy with Saint Brigid of Kildare Saint Patrick refers to "apostate Picts", while the poem Y Gododdin does not remark on the Picts as pagans Bede wrote that Saint Ninian confused by some with Saint Finnian of Moville, who died c 589, had converted the southern Picts Recent archaeological work at Portmahomack places the foundation of the monastery there, an area once assumed to be among the last converted, in the late 6th century This is contemporary with Bridei mac Maelchon and Columba, but the process of establishing Christianity throughout Pictland will have extended over a much longer period

Pictland was not solely influenced by Iona and Ireland It also had ties to churches in Northumbria, as seen in the reign of Nechtan mac Der Ilei The reported expulsion of Ionan monks and clergy by Nechtan in 717 may have been related to the controversy over the dating of Easter, and the manner of tonsure, where Nechtan appears to have supported the Roman usages, but may equally have been intended to increase royal power over the church Nonetheless, the evidence of place names suggests a wide area of Ionan influence in Pictland Likewise, the Cáin Adomnáin Law of Adomnán, Lex Innocentium counts Nechtan's brother Bridei among its guarantors

The importance of monastic centres in Pictland was not, perhaps, as great as in Ireland In areas that have been studied, such as Strathspey and Perthshire, it appears that the parochial structure of the High Middle Ages existed in early medieval times Among the major religious sites of eastern Pictland were Portmahomack, Cennrígmonaid later St Andrews, Dunkeld, Abernethy and Rosemarkie It appears that these are associated with Pictish kings, which argues for a considerable degree of royal patronage and control of the church Portmahomack in particular has been the subject of recent excavation and research, published by Martin Carver

The cult of Saints was, as throughout Christian lands, of great importance in later Pictland While kings might patronise great Saints, such as Saint Peter in the case of Nechtan, and perhaps Saint Andrew in the case of the second Óengus mac Fergusa, many lesser Saints, some now obscure, were important The Pictish Saint Drostan appears to have had a wide following in the north in earlier times, although he was all but forgotten by the 12th century Saint Serf of Culross was associated with Nechtan's brother Bridei It appears, as is well known in later times, that noble kin groups had their own patron saints, and their own churches or abbeys


The Rogart brooch, National Museums of Scotland, FC2 Pictish penannular brooch, 8th century, silver with gilding and glass Classified as Fowler H3 type The Aberlemno Kirkyard Stone, Class II Pictish stone

Pictish art appears on stones, metalwork and small objects of stone and bone It uses a distinctive form of the general Celtic Early Medieval development of La Tène style with increasing influences from the Insular art of 7th and 8th century Ireland and Northumbria, and then Anglo-Saxon and Irish art as the Early Medieval period continues The most conspicuous survivals are the many Pictish stones that are located all over Pictland, from Inverness to Lanarkshire An illustrated catalogue of these stones was produced by J Romilly Allen as part of The Early Church Monuments of Scotland, with lists of their symbols and patterns The symbols and patterns consist of animals including the Pictish Beast, the "rectangle", the "mirror and comb", "double-disk and Z-rod" and the "crescent and V-rod," among many others There are also bosses and lenses with pelta and spiral designs The patterns are curvilinear with hatchings The so-called cross-slabs are carved with Pictish symbols, Insular-derived interlace and Christian imagery, though interpretation is often difficult due to wear and obscurity Several of the Christian images carved on various stones, such as David the harpist, Daniel and the lion, or scenes of St Paul and St Anthony meeting in the desert, have been influenced by the Insular manuscript tradition

Pictish metalwork is found throughout Pictland modern-day Scotland and also further south; the Picts appeared to have a considerable amount of silver available, probably from raiding further south, or the payment of subsidies to keep them from doing so The very large hoard of late Roman hacksilver found at Traprain Law may have originated in either way The largest hoard of early Pictish metalwork was found in 1819 at Norrie's Law in Fife, but unfortunately much was dispersed and melted down Scottish law on treasure finds has always been unhelpful to preservation Two famous 7th century silver and enamel plaques from the hoard, one shown above, have a "Z-rod", one of the Pictish symbols, in a particularly well-preserved and elegant form; unfortunately few comparable pieces have survived Over ten heavy silver chains, some over 05m long, have been found from this period; the double-linked Whitecleuch Chain is one of only two that have a penannular ring, with symbol decoration including enamel, which shows how these were probably used as "choker" necklaces

In the 8th and 9th centuries, after Christianization, the Pictish elite adopted a particular form of the Celtic brooch from Ireland, preferring true penannular brooches with lobed terminals Some older Irish pseudo-penannular brooches were adapted to the Pictish style, for example the Breadalbane Brooch British Museum The St Ninian's Isle Treasure contains the best collection of Pictish forms Other characteristics of Pictish metalwork are dotted backgrounds or designs and animal forms influenced by Insular art The 8th century Monymusk Reliquary has elements of Pictish and Irish style


Main article: Pictish language

The Pictish language is extinct Evidence is limited to place names, the names of people found on monuments, and the contemporary records The evidence of place-names and personal names argues strongly that the Picts spoke Insular Celtic languages related to the more southerly Brittonic languages A number of Ogham inscriptions have been argued to be unidentifiable as Celtic, and on this basis, it has been suggested that non-Celtic languages were also in use

The absence of surviving written material in Pictish—if the ambiguous "Pictish inscriptions" in the Ogham script are discounted—does not indicate a pre-literate society The church certainly required literacy in Latin, and could not function without copyists to produce liturgical documents Pictish iconography shows books being read, and carried, and its naturalistic style gives every reason to suppose that such images were of real life Literacy was not widespread, but among the senior clergy, and in monasteries, it would have been common enough

Place-names often allow us to deduce the existence of historic Pictish settlements in Scotland Those prefixed with the Brittonic prefixes "Aber-", "Lhan-", or "Pit-" = "peth", a thing are claimed to indicate regions inhabited by Picts in the past for example: Aberdeen, Lhanbryde, Pitmedden, etc Some of these, such as "Pit-" portion, share, may have been formed after Pictish times, and may refer to previous "shires" or "thanages"

The evidence of place-names may also reveal the advance of Gaelic into Pictland As noted, Atholl, meaning New Ireland, is attested in the early 8th century This may be an indication of the advance of Gaelic Fortriu also contains place-names suggesting Gaelic settlement, or Gaelic influences A pre-Gaelic interpretation of the name as Athfocla meaning 'north pass' or 'north way', as in gateway to Moray, suggests that the Gaelic Athfotla may be a Gaelic misreading of the minuscule c for t


Medieval Welsh tradition credited the founding of Gwynedd to the Picts and traced their principal royal families—the Houses of Aberffraw and Dinefwr—to Cunedda Wledig, said to have invaded northern Wales from Lothian

In literature and popular culture

Main article: Picts in literature and popular culture

See also


  1. ^ It has been proposed that they called themselves albidosi, a name found in the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba during the reign of Máel Coluim mac Domnaill, but this idea has been disputed See: Broun, "Alba", p 258, note 95; Woolf, Pictland to Alba, pp 177–181


  1. ^ Katherine Forsyth, Language in Pictland The case against non-Indo-European Pictisch, Studia Hamelina 2, Utrecht 1997
  2. ^ Foster 1996 p 17
  3. ^ pingo, Charlton T Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus Digital Library
  4. ^ πυκτίς, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  5. ^ Foster 1996 p 11
  6. ^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle has pihtas and pehtas
  7. ^ a b Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí A New History of Ireland: Prehistoric and Early Ireland Oxford University Press, 2008 Page 213
  8. ^ a b Chadwick, Hector Munro Early Scotland: the Picts, the Scots & the Welsh of southern Scotland CUP Archive, 1949 Page 66-80
  9. ^ a b Dunbavin, Paul Picts and ancient Britons: an exploration of Pictish origins Third Millennium Publishing, 1998 Page 3
  10. ^ See the discussion of the creation of the Frankish Confederacy in Geary, Before France, chapter 2
  11. ^ eg by Tacitus, Ptolemy, and as the Dicalydonii by Ammianus Marcellinus Ptolemy called the sea to the west of Scotland the Oceanus Duecaledonius
  12. ^ eg Ptolemy, Ammianus Marcellinus
  13. ^ Caledonii is attested from a grave marker in Roman Britain
  14. ^ At Degsastan in the first decade of that century, and several times under Domnall Brecc in its third and fourth decades
  15. ^ For more on Bernicia and Northumbria, see eg Higham, The Kingdom of Northumbria
  16. ^ Broun, "Pictish Kings", attempts to reconstruct the confused late history of Dál Riata The silence in the Irish Annals is ignored by Bannerman in "The Scottish Takeover of Pictland and the relics of Columba"
  17. ^ According to Broun, "Pictish Kings"--but the history of Dál Riata after that is obscure
  18. ^ Cf the failed attempts by Óengus mac Fergusa
  19. ^ Annals of Ulster sa 839: "The Vikings won a battle against the men of Fortriu, and Eóganán son of Aengus, Bran son of Óengus, Aed son of Boanta, and others almost innumerable fell there"
  20. ^ Broun, "Dunkeld", Broun, "National Identity", Forsyth, "Scotland to 1100", pp 28–32, Woolf, "Constantine II"; cf Bannerman, "Scottish Takeover", passim, representing the "traditional" view
  21. ^ For example, Pechs, and perhaps Pixies However, Sally Foster quotes John Toland in 1726: "they are apt all over Scotland to make everything Pictish whose origin they do not know" The same could be said of the Picts in myth
  22. ^ Broun, "Kingship", for Ireland see, eg Byrne, Irish Kings and High-Kings, and more generally Ó Cróinín, Early Medieval Ireland
  23. ^ Forsyth, "Lost Pictish Source", Watson, Celtic Place Names, pp 108–109
  24. ^ Scotland in the Middle Ages#Minor kingdoms
  25. ^ earls of moray Irvinemcleancom 2010-12-15 Retrieved on 2014-06-20
  26. ^ earls of ross Irvinemcleancom 2011-04-22 Retrieved on 2014-06-20
  27. ^ Bruford, "What happened to the Caledonians", Watson, Celtic Place Names, pp 108–113
  28. ^ Woolf, "Dun Nechtain"; Yorke, Conversion, p 47 Compare earlier works such as Foster, Picts, Gaels and Scots, p 33
  29. ^ Adomnán, "Life of Columba", editor's notes on pp 342–343
  30. ^ Broun, "Seven Kingdoms"
  31. ^ Woolf, "Dun Nechtain"
  32. ^ Bede, I, c 1
  33. ^ The Female Royal Line: matrilineal succession amongst the Picts
  34. ^ Clancy, "Nechtan"
  35. ^ Byrne, Irish Kings and High-Kings, pp 35–41 & pp 122–123, also p 108 & p 287, stating that derbfhine was practised by the cruithni in Ireland
  36. ^ Byrne, Irish Kings and High-Kings, p 35, "Elder for kin, worth for rulership, wisdom for the church" See also Foster, Picts, Gaels and Scots, pp 32–34, Smyth, Warlords and Holy Men, p 67ff
  37. ^ Broun, "Kingship", Broun, "Pictish Kings"; for Dál Riata, Broun, "Dál Riata", for a more positive view Sharpe, "The thriving of Dalriada"; for Northumbria, Higham, Kingdom of Northumbria, pp 144–149
  38. ^ Woolf, "Nobility"
  39. ^ Barrow, "Pre-Feudal Scotland", Woolf, "Nobility"
  40. ^ See, eg Campbell, Saints and Sea-kings for the Gaels of Dál Riata, Lowe, Angels, Fools and Tyrants for Britons and Anglians
  41. ^ Foster, Picts, Gaels and Scots, pp 49–61 Fergus Kelly, Early Irish Farming: a study based mainly on the law-texts of the 7th and 8th centuries AD School of Celtic Studies/DAIS, Dublin, 2000 ISBN 1-85500-180-2 provides an extensive review of farming in Ireland in the middle Pictish period
  42. ^ The interior of the fort at Burghead was some 12 acres 5 hectares in size, see Driscoll, "Burghead"; for Verlamion later Roman Verulamium, a southern British settlement on a very much larger scale, see eg Pryor, Britain AD, pp 64–70
  43. ^ Dennison, "Urban settlement: medieval"
  44. ^ Carver 2008
  45. ^ Foster, Picts, Gaels and Scots, pp 52–53
  46. ^ Trade, see Foster, Picts, Gaels and Scots, pp 65–68; seafaring in general, eg Haywood, Dark Age Naval Power, Rodger, Safeguard of the Sea
  47. ^ Armit, Towers In The North, chapter 7
  48. ^ Crone, "Crannogs and Chronologies", PSAS, vol 123, pp 245–254
  49. ^ Foster, Picts, Gaels and Scots, pp 52–61
  50. ^ See Clancy, "Nechtan", Foster, Picts, Gaels and Scots, p 89
  51. ^ For art in general see Foster, Picts, Gaels and Scots, pp 26–28, Laing & Laing, p 89ff, Ritchie, "Picto-Celtic Culture"
  52. ^ Forsyth, "Evidence of a lost Pictish Source", pp 27–28
  53. ^ Clancy, "'Nennian recension'", pp 95–96, Smyth, Warlords and Holy Men, pp 82–83
  54. ^ Markus, "Conversion to Christianity"
  55. ^ Bede, III, 4 For the identities of Ninian/Finnian see Yorke, p 129
  56. ^ Mentioned by Foster, but more information is available from the Tarbat Discovery Programme: see under External links
  57. ^ Bede, IV, cc 21–22, Clancy, "Church institutions", Clancy, "Nechtan"
  58. ^ Taylor, "Iona abbots"
  59. ^ Clancy, "Church institutions", Markus, "Religious life"
  60. ^ See Carver, Portmahomack
  61. ^ Clancy, "Cult of Saints", Clancy, "Nechtan", Taylor, "Iona abbots"
  62. ^ Markus, "Religious life"
  63. ^ Youngs, no 111, with a plate showing the decoration much better; Laing, 310
  64. ^ Henderson, Isabel,‘"The "David Cycle" in Pictish Art' Early Medieval Sculpture Ed JHiggitt Oxford, 1986 pp 87-113, ‘The Meeting of Saint Paul and Saint Anthony: Visual and Literary Uses of a Eucharistic Motif' Keimelia Eds P Wallace and G M Niocaill Galway, 1989 pp 1-58
  65. ^ Youngs, 26-28; Poor image of 19th-century illustration
  66. ^ Youngs, 28
  67. ^ Youngs, 109-113
  68. ^ Forsyth, Language in Pictland, Price "Pictish", Taylor, "Place names", Watson, Celtic Place Names For KH Jackson's views, see "The Language of the Picts" in Wainwright ed The Problem of the Picts
  69. ^ Jackson, "The Language of the Picts", discussed by Forsyth, Language in Pictland
  70. ^ Forsyth, "Literacy in Pictland"
  71. ^ For place names in general, see Watson, Celtic Place Names; Nicolaisen, Scottish Place Names, pp 156–246 For shires and thanages see Barrow, "Pre-Feudal Scotland"
  72. ^ Watson, Celtic Place Names, pp 225–233
  73. ^ James E Fraser, The New Edinburgh History Of Scotland Vol1 - From Caledonia To Pictland, Edinburgh University Press2009 ISBN 978-0-7486-1232-1
  74. ^ The statement Nid oedhynt y Picteit onyd yr hen Gymry "The Picts were none other than the old Cymry" ie, Welsh is recorded in Peniarth MS 118 Op cit Wade-Evans, Arthur Welsh Medieval Law "Introduction" Oxford Univ, 1909 Accessed 30 Jan 2013
  • Alcock, Leslie 2003 Kings & Warriors, Craftsmen & Priests: In Northern Britain AD 550-850 Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Monograph Series ISBN 978-0-903903-24-0 
  • Foster, Sally M 1996 Picts, Gaels and Scots London: BT Batsford/Historic Scotland ISBN 978-0-7134-7486-2 
  • Adomnán, Life of St Columba, tr & ed Richard Sharpe Penguin, London, 1995 ISBN 0-14-044462-9
  • Armit, Ian, Towers In The North: The Brochs Of Scotland Tempus, Stroud, 2002 ISBN 0-7524-1932-3
  • Bannerman, John, "The Scottish Takeover of Pictland and the relics of Columba" in Dauvit Broun & Thomas Owen Clancy eds, Spes Scotorum: Hope of Scots Saint Columba, Iona and the Scotland T & T Clark, Edinburgh, 1999 ISBN 0-567-08682-8
  • Barrow, G W S "Pre-feudal Scotland: shires and thanes" in The Kingdom of the Scots Edinburgh UP, Edinburgh, 2003 ISBN 0-7486-1803-1
  • Broun, Dauvit 2005, "Alba: Pictish homeland or Irish offshoot", in O'Neill, Pamela, Exile and Homecoming Papers from the Fifth Australian Conference of Celtic Studies, University of Sydney, July 2004, Sydney Series in Celtic Studies, 8, Sydney: The Celtic Studies Foundation, University of Sydney, pp 234–275, ISBN 1-86487-742-1 
  • Broun, Dauvit, "Dál Riata" in Lynch 2001
  • Broun, Dauvit, "Dunkeld and the origin of Scottish identity" in Broun & Clancy 1999
  • Broun, Dauvit, "National identity: early medieval and the formation of Alba" in Lynch 2001
  • Broun, Dauvit, "Pictish Kings 761–839: Integration with Dál Riata or Separate Development" in Sally M Foster ed, The St Andrews Sarcophagus: A Pictish masterpiece and its international connections Four Courts, Dublin, 1998 ISBN 1-85182-414-6
  • Broun, Dauvit 2007, Scottish Independence and the Idea of Britain From the Picts to Alexander III, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-2360-0 
  • Broun, Dauvit, "The Seven Kingdoms in De situ Albanie: A Record of Pictish political geography or imaginary map of ancient Alba" in EJ Cowan & R Andrew McDonald eds, Alba: Celtic Scotland in the Medieval Era John Donald, Edinburgh, 2005 ISBN 0-85976-608-X
  • Bruford, Alan, "What happened to the Caledonians " in Cowan & McDonald 2005
  • Byrne, Francis John, Irish Kings and High-Kings Batsford, London, 1973 ISBN 0-7134-5882-8
  • Campbell, Ewan, Saints and Sea-kings: The First Kingdom of the Scots Canongate, Edinburgh, 1999 ISBN 0-86241-874-7
  • Carver, MOH 2008, Portmahomack: monastery of the Picts, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-2442-3, retrieved February 6, 2010 
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen, "Church institutions: early medieval" in Lynch 2001
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen, "Ireland: to 1100" in Lynch 2001
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen, "Nechtan son of Derile" in Lynch 2001
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen, "Scotland, the 'Nennian' Recension of the Historia Brittonum and the Libor Bretnach in Simon Taylor ed, Kings, clerics and chronicles in Scotland 500–1297 Fourt Courts, Dublin, 2000 ISBN 1-85182-516-9
  • Clancy, Thomas Owen, "Columba, Adomnán and the Cult of Saints in Scotland" in Broun & Clancy 1999
  • Cowan, E J, "Economy: to 1100" in Lynch 2001
  • Cowan, E J, "The Invention of Celtic Scotland" in Cowan & McDonald 2005
  • Crone, B A, "Crannogs and Chronologies", PSAS, vol 123 1993, pp 245–254
  • Cummins, W A, The Age of the Picts Sutton, Stroud, 1998 ISBN 0-7509-1608-7
  • Dennison, Patricia, "Urban settlement: to 1750" in Lynch 2001
  • Driscoll, Stephen T, "Burghead" in Lynch 2001
  • Dyer, Christopher, Making a Living in the Middle Ages: The People of Britain 850–1520 Penguin, London, 2003 ISBN 0-14-025951-1
  • Forsyth, Katherine, Language in Pictland : the case against 'non-Indo-European Pictish' Studia Hameliana no 2 De Keltische Draak, Utrecht, 1997 ISBN 90-802785-5-6
  • Forsyth, Katherine, "Literacy in Pictland" in Huw Pryce ed, Literacy in Medieval Celtic Societies Cambridge UP, Cambridge, 1998
  • Forsyth, Katherine, "Evidence of a lost Pictish Source in the Historia Regum Anglorum of Symeon of Durham", with an appendix by John T Koch, in Taylor 2000
  • Forsyth, Katherine, "Picts" in Lynch 2001
  • Forsyth, Katherine, "Origins: Scotland to 1100" in Jenny Wormald ed, Scotland: A History, Oxford UP, Oxford, 2005 ISBN 0-19-820615-1
  • Foster, Sally M, Picts, Gaels, and Scots: Early Historic Scotland Batsford, London, 2004 ISBN 0-7134-8874-3
  • Fraser, James E 2009 From Caledonia to Pictland: Scotland to 795 New Edinburgh History of Scotland 1 Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press ISBN 978-0-7486-1232-1 
  • Geary, Patrick J, Before France and Germany: The creation and transformation of the Merovingian World Oxford UP, Oxford, 1988 0-19-504457-6
  • Hanson, W, "North England and southern Scotland: Roman occupation" in Lynch 2001
  • Haywood, John, Dark Age Naval Power Anglo-Saxon Books, Hockwold-cum-Wilton, 1999 ISBN 1-898281-22-X
  • Henderson, Isabel, "Primus inter pares: the St Andrews Sarcophagus and Pictish Sculpture" in Foster 1999
  • Higham, N J, The Kingdom of Northumbria AD 350–1100 Sutton, Stroud, 1993 ISBN 0-86299-730-5
  • Jackson, Kenneth H, "The Pictish Language" in FT Wainwright ed, The Problem of the Picts Nelson, Edinburgh, 1955 Reprinted Melven Press, Perth, 1980 ISBN 0-906664-07-1
  • Laing, Lloyd & Jenny Lloyd, The Picts and the Scots Sutton, Stroud, 2001 ISBN 0-7509-2873-5
  • Lowe, Chris, Angels, Fools and Tyrants: Britons and Angles in Southern Scotland Canongate, Edinburgh, 1999 ISBN 0-86241-875-5
  • Lynch, Michael ed, The Oxford Companion to Scottish History Oxford UP, Oxford, 2001 ISBN 0-19-211696-7
  • Markus, Fr Gilbert, OP, "Religious life: early medieval" in Lynch 2001
  • Markus, Fr Gilbert, OP, "Conversion to Christianity" in Lynch 2001
  • Nicolaisen, WFH, Scottish Place-Names John Donald, Edinburgh, 2001 ISBN 0-85976-556-3
  • Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí, Early Medieval Ireland: 400–1200 Longman, London, 1995 ISBN 0-582-01565-0
  • Oram, Richard, "Rural society: medieval" in Lynch 2001
  • Price, Glanville, "Pictish" in Glanville Price ed, Languages in Britain & Ireland Blackwell, Oxford, 2000 ISBN 0-631-21581-6
  • Pryor, Francis, Britain AD Harper Perennial, London, 2005ISBN 0-00-718187-6
  • Ritchie, Anna, "Culture: Picto-Celtic" in Lynch 2001
  • Rodger, NAM, The Safeguard of the Sea A Naval History of Great Britain, volume one 660–1649 Harper Collins, London, 1997 ISBN 0-00-638840-X
  • Sellar, WDH, "Gaelic laws and institutions" in Lynch 2001
  • Sharpe, Richard, "The thriving of Dalriada" in Taylor 2000
  • Smyth, Alfred P, Warlords and Holy Men: Scotland AD 80–1000 Edinburgh UP, Edinburgh, 1984 ISBN 0-7486-0100-7
  • Snyder, Christopher A 2003 The Britons Blackwell Publishing ISBN 0-631-22260-X
  • Taylor, Simon, "Place names" in Lynch 2001
  • Taylor, Simon, "Seventh-century Iona abbots in Scottish place-names" in Broun & Clancy 1999
  • Watson, WJ The History of the Celtic Place-names of Scotland
  • Woolf, Alex, "Dun Nechtain, Fortriu and the Geography of the Picts" in The Scottish Historical Review, Volume 85, Number 2 Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006 ISSN 0036-9241
  • Woolf, Alex, "Nobility: early medieval" in Lynch 2001
  • Woolf, Alex 2007, From Pictland to Alba, 789–1070, The New Edinburgh History of Scotland, 2, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 0-7486-1234-3 
  • Woolf, Alex, "Ungus Onuist son of Uurgust" in Lynch 2001
  • Yorke, Barbara, The Conversion of Britain: Religion, Politics and Society c600–800 Longman, London, 2006 ISBN 0-582-77292-3
  • Youngs, Susan ed, "The Work of Angels", Masterpieces of Celtic Metalwork, 6th–9th centuries AD, 1989, British Museum Press, London, ISBN 0-7141-0554-6

Further reading

  • James E Fraser, The New Edinburgh History Of Scotland Vol1 - From Caledonia To Pictland, Edinburgh University Press2009 ISBN 978-0-7486-1232-1
  • Fraser Hunter, Beyond the Edge of Empire: Caledonians, Picts and Romans, Groam House Museum, Rosemarkie 2007 ISBN 978-0-9540999-2-3
  • Alex Woolf, The New Edinburgh History Of Scotland Vol2 - From Pictland To Aba, Edinburgh University Press,2007 ISBN 978-0-7486-1234-5
  • Benjamin Hudson: The Picts Wiley Blackwell, 2014 ISBN 978-1-4051-8678-0 cloth; ISBN 978-1-118-60202-7 paperback

External links

  • Glasgow University ePrints server, including Katherine Forsyth's
    • Language in Pictland pdf and
    • Literacy in Pictland pdf
  • CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork
    • The Corpus of Electronic Texts includes the Annals of Ulster, Tigernach, the Four Masters and Innisfallen, the Chronicon Scotorum, the Lebor Bretnach, Genealogies, and various Saints' Lives Most are translated into English, or translations are in progress
  • Scotland Royalty
  • The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba
  • Annals of Clonmacnoise at Cornell
  • Bede's Ecclesiastical History and its Continuation pdf, at CCEL, translated by AM Sellar
  • Annales Cambriae translated at the Internet Medieval Sourcebook
  • Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland PSAS through 1999 pdf
  • Tarbat Discovery Programme with reports on excavations at Portmahomack
  • SPNS the Scottish Place-Name Society Comann Ainmean-Áite na h-Alba, including commentary on and extracts from Watson's The History of the Celtic Place-names of Scotland
  • The Picts and Scots in history
  • Historic Scotland website on Pictish stones
  • Ancient Scotland: Caledonia and Pictavia

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