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Phage therapy

phage therapy, phage therapy treatment
Phage therapy or viral phage therapy is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections Phage therapy has many potential applications in human medicine as well as dentistry, veterinary science, and agriculture If the target host of a phage therapy treatment is not an animal, the term "biocontrol" as in phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria is usually employed, rather than "phage therapy"

Bacteriophages are much more specific than antibiotics They are typically harmless not only to the host organism, but also to other beneficial bacteria, such as the gut flora, reducing the chances of opportunistic infections They have a high therapeutic index, that is, phage therapy would be expected to give rise to few side effects Because phages replicate in vivo, a smaller effective dose can be used On the other hand, this specificity is also a disadvantage:a phage will only kill a bacterium if it is a match to the specific strain Consequently, phage mixtures are often applied to improve the chances of success, or samples can be taken and an appropriate phage identified and grown

Phages tend to be more successful than antibiotics where there is a biofilm covered by a polysaccharide layer, which antibiotics typically cannot penetrate In the West, no therapies are currently authorized for use on humans, although phages for killing food poisoning bacteria Listeria are now in use

Phages are currently being used therapeutically to treat bacterial infections that do not respond to conventional antibiotics, particularly in Russia and Georgia There is also a phage therapy unit in Wrocław, Poland, established 2005, the only such centre in a European Union country

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Potential benefits
  • 3 Application
    • 31 Collection
    • 32 Treatment
    • 33 Administration
  • 4 Obstacles
  • 5 Legislation
    • 51 Safety
  • 6 Efficacy
  • 7 Other animals
  • 8 Cultural impact
  • 9 See also
  • 10 Notes
  • 11 References
  • 12 External links

History

Frederick TwortPhage in action on cultured Bacillus anthracis

The discovery of bacteriophages was reported by the Englishman Frederick Twort in 1915 and the Frenchman Felix d'Hérelle in 1917 D'Hérelle said that the phages always appeared in the stools of Shigella dysentery patients shortly before they began to recover He "quickly learned that bacteriophages are found wherever bacteria thrive:in sewers, in rivers that catch waste runoff from pipes, and in the stools of convalescent patients" Phage therapy was immediately recognized by many to be a key way forward for the eradication of pathogenic bacterial infections A Georgian, George Eliava, was making similar discoveries He travelled to the Pasteur Institute in Paris where he met d'Hérelle, and in 1923 he founded the Eliava Institute in Tbilisi, Georgia, devoted to the development of phage therapy Phage therapy is used in Russia, Georgia and Poland

In Russia, extensive research and development soon began in this field In the United States during the 1940s commercialization of phage therapy was undertaken by Eli Lilly and Company

While knowledge was being accumulated regarding the biology of phages and how to use phage cocktails correctly, early uses of phage therapy were often unreliable When antibiotics were discovered in 1941 and marketed widely in the US and Europe, Western scientists mostly lost interest in further use and study of phage therapy for some time

Isolated from Western advances in antibiotic production in the 1940s, Russian scientists continued to develop already successful phage therapy to treat the wounds of soldiers in field hospitals During World War II, the Soviet Union used bacteriophages to treat many soldiers infected with various bacterial diseases eg dysentery and gangrene Russian researchers continued to develop and to refine their treatments and to publish their research and results However, due to the scientific barriers of the Cold War, this knowledge was not translated and did not proliferate across the world A summary of these publications was published in English in 2009 in "A Literature Review of the Practical Application of Bacteriophage Research"

There is an extensive library and research center at the George Eliava Institute in Tbilisi, Georgia Phage therapy is today a widespread form of treatment in that region

As a result of the development of antibiotic resistance since the 1950s and an advancement of scientific knowledge, there has been renewed interest worldwide in the ability of phage therapy to eradicate bacterial infections and chronic polymicrobial biofilm including in industrial situations

Phages have been investigated as a potential means to eliminate pathogens like Campylobacter in raw food and Listeria in fresh food or to reduce food spoilage bacteria In agricultural practice phages were used to fight pathogens like Campylobacter, Escherichia and Salmonella in farm animals, Lactococcus and Vibrio pathogens in fish from aquaculture and Erwinia and Xanthomonas in plants of agricultural importance The oldest use was, however, in human medicine Phages have been used against diarrheal diseases caused by E coli, Shigella or Vibrio and against wound infections caused by facultative pathogens of the skin like staphylococci and streptococci Recently the phage therapy approach has been applied to systemic and even intracellular infections and the addition of non-replicating phage and isolated phage enzymes like lysins to the antimicrobial arsenal However, actual proof for the efficacy of these phage approaches in the field or the hospital is not available

Some of the interest in the West can be traced back to 1994, when Soothill demonstrated in an animal model that the use of phages could improve the success of skin grafts by reducing the underlying Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection Recent studies have provided additional support for these findings in the model system

Although not "phage therapy" in the original sense, the use of phages as delivery mechanisms for traditional antibiotics constitutes another possible therapeutic use The use of phages to deliver antitumor agents has also been described in preliminary in vitro experiments for cells in tissue culture

In June 2015 the European Medicines Agency hosted a one-day workshop on the therapeutic use of bacteriophages and in July 2015 the National Institutes of Health USA hosted a two-day workshop "Bacteriophage Therapy:An Alternative Strategy to Combat Drug Resistance"

Potential benefits

Bacteriophage treatment offers a possible alternative to conventional antibiotic treatments for bacterial infection It is conceivable that, although bacteria can develop resistance to phage, the resistance might be easier to overcome than resistance to antibiotics Just as bacteria can evolve resistance, viruses can evolve to overcome resistance

Bacteriophages are very specific, targeting only one or a few strains of bacteria Traditional antibiotics have more wide-ranging effect, killing both harmful bacteria and useful bacteria such as those facilitating food digestion The species and strain specificity of bacteriophages makes it unlikely that harmless or useful bacteria will be killed when fighting an infection

Some evidence shows the ability of phages to travel to a required site—including the brain, where the blood brain barrier can be crossed—and multiply in the presence of an appropriate bacterial host, to combat infections such as meningitis

A few research groups in the West are engineering a broader spectrum phage, and also a variety of forms of MRSA treatments, including impregnated wound dressings, preventative treatment for burn victims, phage-impregnated sutures Enzybiotics are a new development at Rockefeller University that create enzymes from phage Purified recombinant phage enzymes can be used as separate antibacterial agents in their own right

Application

Collection

The simplest method of phage treatment involves collecting local samples of water likely to contain high quantities of bacteria and bacteriophages, for example effluent outlets, sewage and other sources The samples are taken and applied to the bacteria that are to be destroyed which have been cultured on growth medium

If the bacteria die, as usually happens, the mixture is centrifuged; the phages collect on the top of the mixture and can be drawn off

The phage solutions are then tested to see which ones show growth suppression effects lysogeny or destruction lysis of the target bacteria The phage showing lysis are then amplified on cultures of the target bacteria, passed through a filter to remove all but the phages, then distributed

Treatment

Phages are "bacterium-specific" and it is therefore necessary in many cases to take a swab from the patient and culture it prior to treatment Occasionally, isolation of therapeutic phages can require a few months to complete, but clinics generally keep supplies of phage cocktails for the most common bacterial strains in a geographical area

Phages in practice are applied orally, topically on infected wounds or spread onto surfaces, or used during surgical procedures Injection is rarely used, avoiding any risks of trace chemical contaminants that may be present from the bacteria amplification stage, and recognizing that the immune system naturally fights against viruses introduced into the bloodstream or lymphatic system

In 2007 a Phase 1/2 clinical trial was completed at the Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, London, for Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections otitis Documentation of the Phase-1/Phase-2 study was published in August 2009 in the journal Clinical Otolaryngology

Phase 1 clinical trials have now been completed in the Southwest Regional Wound Care Center, Lubbock, Texas for an approved cocktail of phages against bacteria, including P aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli better known as E coli The cocktail of phages for the clinical trials was developed and supplied by Intralytix

Reviews of phage therapy indicate that more clinical and microbiological research is needed to meet current standards

Administration

Phages can usually be freeze-dried and turned into pills without materially reducing efficiency Temperature stability up to 55 °C and shelf lives of 14 months have been shown for some types of phages in pill form

Application in liquid form is possible, stored preferably in refrigerated vials

Oral administration works better when an antacid is included, as this increases the number of phages surviving passage through the stomach

Topical administration often involves application to gauzes that are laid on the area to be treated

IV phage drip therapy was successfully used to treat a patient with MDR Acinetobacter baumannii in Thornton Hospital at UC San Diego

Obstacles

The high bacterial strain specificity of phage therapy may make it necessary for clinics to make different cocktails for treatment of the same infection or disease because the bacterial components of such diseases may differ from region to region or even person to person In addition, this means that 'banks' containing many different phages must be kept and regularly updated with new phages

Further, bacteria can evolve different receptors either before or during treatment; this can prevent phages from completely eradicating bacteria

The need for banks of phages makes regulatory testing for safety harder and more expensive under current rules in most countries Such a process would make difficult the large-scale use of phage therapy Additionally, patent issues specifically on living organisms may complicate distribution for pharmaceutical companies wishing to have exclusive rights over their "invention", which would discourage a commercial corporation from investing capital in this

As has been known for at least thirty years, mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis have specific bacteriophages No lytic phage has yet been discovered for Clostridium difficile, which is responsible for many nosocomial diseases, but some temperate phages integrated in the genome, also called lysogenic are known for this species; this opens encouraging avenues but with additional risks as discussed below

To work, the virus has to reach the site of the bacteria, and viruses can sometimes reach places antibiotics cannot For example, jazz bassist Alfred Gertler had a bacterial infection in his bones after breaking an ankle A physician in the US told him that the foot must be amputated He refused and was largely bed ridden for four years until phage therapy at the Eliava Institute in Tbilisi, Georgia, eliminated the bacterial infection Then he had surgery to repair his ankle and resumed his career and family life

Funding for phage therapy research and clinical trials is generally insufficient and difficult to obtain, since it is a lengthy and complex process to patent bacteriophage products Scientists comment that 'the biggest hurdle is regulatory', whereas an official view is that individual phages would need proof individually because it would be too complicated to do as a combination, with many variables Due to the specificity of phages, phage therapy would be most effective with a cocktail injection, which is generally rejected by the US Food and Drug Administration FDA Researchers and observers predict that for phage therapy to be successful the FDA must change its regulatory stance on combination drug cocktails Public awareness and education about phage therapy are generally limited to scientific or independent research rather than mainstream media

The negative public perception of viruses may also play a role in the reluctance to embrace phage therapy

Legislation

Approval of phage therapy for use in humans has not been given in Western countries with a few exceptions In the United States, Washington and Oregon law allows naturopathic physicians to use any therapy that is legal any place in the world on an experimental basis, and in Texas phages are considered natural substances and can be used in addition to but not as a replacement for traditional therapy they have been used routinely in a wound care clinic in Lubbock, TX, since 2006

In 2013 "the 20th biennial Evergreen International Phage Meetingconference drew 170 participants from 35 countries, including leaders of companies and institutes involved with human phage therapies from France, Australia, Georgia, Poland and the United States"

Safety

Much of the difficulty in obtaining regulatory approval is proving to be the risks of using a self-replicating entity which has the capability to evolve

As with antibiotic therapy and other methods of countering bacterial infections, endotoxins are released by the bacteria as they are destroyed within the patient Herxheimer reaction This can cause symptoms of fever; in extreme cases toxic shock a problem also seen with antibiotics is possible Janakiraman Ramachandran argues that this complication can be avoided in those types of infection where this reaction is likely to occur by using genetically engineered bacteriophages which have had their gene responsible for producing endolysin removed Without this gene the host bacterium still dies but remains intact because the lysis is disabled On the other hand, this modification stops the exponential growth of phages, so one administered phage means one dead bacterial cell Eventually these dead cells are consumed by the normal house-cleaning duties of the phagocytes, which utilise enzymes to break down the whole bacterium and its contents into harmless proteins, polysaccharides and lipids

Temperate or Lysogenic bacteriophages are not generally used therapeutically, as this group can act as a way for bacteria to exchange DNA; this can help spread antibiotic resistance or even, theoretically, make the bacteria pathogenic see Cholera Carl Merril claimed that harmless strains of corynebacterium may have been converted into c diphtheriae that "probably killed a third of all Europeans who came to North America in the seventeenth century" Fortunately, many phages seem to be lytic only with negligible probability of becoming lysogenic

Efficacy

In Russia, mixed phage preparations may have a therapeutic efficacy of 50% This equates to the complete cure of 50 of 100 patients with terminal antibiotic-resistant infection The rate of only 50% is likely to be due to individual choices in admixtures and ineffective diagnosis of the causative agent of infection

Other animals

Brigham Young University is currently researching the use of phage therapy to treat American foulbrood in honeybees Phage therapy is also being investigated for potential applications in aquaculture

Cultural impact

The 1925 novel and 1926 Pulitzer prize winner Arrowsmith used phage therapy as a plot point

Greg Bear's 2002 novel Vitals features phage therapy, based on Soviet research, used to transfer genetic material

The 2012 collection of military history essays about the changing role of women in warfare, "Women in War – from home front to front line" includes a chapter featuring phage therapy:"Chapter 17:Women who thawed the Cold War"

See also

  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Lysin
  • Enzybiotics
  • Phage monographs
  • Phage display
  • Phagoburn

Notes

  1. ^ "Silent Killers:Fantastic Phages" 
  2. ^ McAuliffe et al "The New Phage Biology:From Genomics to Applications" introduction in Mc Grath, S and van Sinderen, D eds Bacteriophage:Genetics and Molecular Biology Caister Academic Press ISBN 978-1-904455-14-1
  3. ^ Phage Therapy:Concept to Cure Frontiers in Microbiology doi:103389/fmicb201200238 PMC 3400130  PMID 22833738 
  4. ^ Aguita, Maria "Combatting Bacterial Infection" LabNewscouk Archived from the original on 28 February 2009 Retrieved 5 May 2009 
  5. ^ Pirisi A 2000 "Phage therapy—advantages over antibiotics" Lancet 356 9239:1418 doi:101016/S0140-67360574059-9 PMID 11052592 
  6. ^ "Eaters of bacteria:Is phage therapy ready for the big time" Discover Magazine Retrieved 2013-04-12 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h BBC Horizon:Phage — The Virus that Cures 1997-10-09
  8. ^ Parfitt T 2005 "Georgia:an unlikely stronghold for bacteriophage therapy" Lancet 365 9478:2166–7 doi:101016/S0140-67360566759-1 PMID 15986542 
  9. ^ a b Thiel, Karl January 2004 "Old dogma, new tricks—21st Century phage therapy" Nature Biotechnology London UK:Nature Publishing Group 22 1:31–36 doi:101038/nbt0104-31 PMID 14704699 Retrieved 2007-12-15 
  10. ^ "IITD PAN Wrocław -" wwwiitdpanwrocpl 
  11. ^ Shasha SM, Sharon N, Inbar M 2004 "" Harefuah in Hebrew 143 2:121–5, 166 PMID 15143702 
  12. ^ a b Häusler 2006, ch 1, at the limits of medicine
  13. ^ Kuchment 2012, p 11
  14. ^ Kutter, E; De Vos, D; Gvasalia, G; Alavidze, Z; Gogokhia, L; Kuhl, S; Abedon, ST January 2010 "Phage therapy in clinical practice:treatment of human infections" Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 11 1:69–86 doi:102174/138920110790725401 PMID 20214609 
  15. ^ Hanlon GW 2007 "Bacteriophages:an appraisal of their role in the treatment of bacterial infections" Int J Antimicrob Agents 30 2:118–28 doi:101016/jijantimicag200704006 PMID 17566713 
  16. ^ "Stalin's Forgotten Cure" Science, 25 October 2002 v298
  17. ^ Summers WC 2001 "Bacteriophage therapy" Annu Rev Microbiol 55:437–51 doi:101146/annurevmicro551437 PMID 11544363 
  18. ^ Nina Chanishvili, 2009, "A Literature Review of the Practical Application of Bacteriophage Research", 184p
  19. ^ Kuchment, Anna 2011; Häusler, Thomas 2006
  20. ^ a b "KERA Think! Podcast:Viruses are Everywhere!" 2011-06-16 Retrieved 2012-06-04  audio
  21. ^ Mangen MJ, Havelaar AH, Poppe KP, de Wit GA 2007 "Cost-utility analysis to control Campylobacter on chicken meat:dealing with data limitations" Risk Anal 27 4:815–30 doi:101111/j1539-6924200700925x PMID 17958494 
  22. ^ a b Mc Grath S and van Sinderen D editors 2007 Bacteriophage:Genetics and Molecular Biology 1st ed Caister Academic Press ISBN 978-1-904455-14-1  
  23. ^ Soothill JS 1994 "Bacteriophage prevents destruction of skin grafts by Pseudomonas aeruginosa" Burns 20 3:209–11 doi:101016/0305-41799490184-8 PMID 8054131 
  24. ^ McVay CS, Velásquez M, Fralick JA 2007 "Phage therapy of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in a mouse burn wound model" Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51 6:1934–8 doi:101128/AAC01028-06 PMC 1891379  PMID 17387151 
  25. ^ Yacoby I, Bar H, Benhar I 2007 "Targeted drug-carrying bacteriophages as antibacterial nanomedicines" Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51 6:2156–63 doi:101128/AAC00163-07 PMC 1891362  PMID 17404004 
  26. ^ Yacoby I, Shamis M, Bar H, Shabat D, Benhar I 2006 "Targeting antibacterial agents by using drug-carrying filamentous bacteriophages" Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50 6:2087–97 doi:101128/AAC00169-06 PMC 1479106  PMID 16723570 
  27. ^ Bar H, Yacoby I, Benhar I 2008 "Killing cancer cells by targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines" BMC Biotechnol 8:37 doi:101186/1472-6750-8-37 PMC 2323368  PMID 18387177 
  28. ^ "European Medicines Agency – News and Events – Workshop on the therapeutic use of bacteriophages" wwwemaeuropaeu 
  29. ^ "Bacteriophage Therapy:An Alternative Strategy to Combat Drug Resistance" respondniaidnihgov 
  30. ^ Górski A, Miedzybrodzki R, Borysowski J, Weber-Dabrowska B, Lobocka M, Fortuna W, Letkiewicz S, Zimecki M, Filby G August 2009 "Bacteriophage therapy for the treatment of infections" Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs 10 8:766–74 PMID 19649921 
  31. ^ "What is Phage Therapy" phagetherapycentercom Retrieved 2014-11-29 
  32. ^ Abedon ST 2012 Salutary contributions of viruses to medicine and public health In:Witzany G ed Viruses:Essential Agents of Life Springer 389-405 ISBN 978-94-007-4898-9
  33. ^ Duckworth DH, Gulig PA 2002 "Bacteriophages:potential treatment for bacterial infections" BioDrugs 16 1:57–62 doi:102165/00063030-200216010-00006 PMID 11909002 
  34. ^ "Scientists Engineer Viruses To Battle Bacteria" 
  35. ^ Borysowski J, Weber-Dabrowska B, Górski A April 2006 "Bacteriophage endolysins as a novel class of antibacterial agents" Experimental Biology and Medicine Maywood, NJ 231 4:366–77 PMID 16565432 
  36. ^ "Press & News" Archived from the original on 30 November 2007 Retrieved 13 December 2007 
  37. ^ "biocontrolltduk" Archived from the original on 15 April 2009 Retrieved 13 December 2007 
  38. ^ "biocontrol-ltdcom" Archived from the original on 26 May 2008 Retrieved 30 April 2008 
  39. ^ Wright, A; Hawkins, CH; Änggård, EE; Harper, DR 2009 "A controlled clinical trial of a therapeutic bacteriophage preparation in chronic otitis due to antibiotic-resistantPseudomonas aeruginosa; a preliminary report of efficacy" Clinical Otolaryngology 34 4:349–57 doi:101111/j1749-4486200901973x PMID 19673983 
  40. ^ Rhoads DD, Wolcott RD, Kuskowski MA, Wolcott BM, Ward LS, Sulakvelidze A 2009 Bacteriophage therapy of venous leg ulcers in humans:results of a phase I safety trial J Wound Care 2009 Jun;186:237-8, 240-3
  41. ^ Brüssow, H 2005 "Phage therapy:The Escherichia coli experience" Microbiology 151 Pt 7:2133–40 doi:101099/mic027849-0 PMID 16000704 
  42. ^ "Novel Phage Therapy Saves Patient with Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infection – UC San Diego Health" 25 April 2017 
  43. ^ a b Keen, E C 2012 "Phage Therapy:Concept to Cure" Frontiers in Microbiology 3:238 doi:103389/fmicb201200238 PMC 3400130  PMID 22833738 
  44. ^ Graham F HATFULL 12 – Mycobacteriophages :Pathogenesis and Applications, pages 238-255 in Waldor, MK, DI Friedman, and SL Adhya, Phages:Their role in bacterial pathogenesis and biotechnology, 2005, University of Michigan; Sankar L Adhya, National Institutes of Health:ASM Press
  45. ^ Kutter, Betty c 2009, Our First Adventure With Phage Therapy:Alfred's Story, Olympia, WA:Evergreen College, retrieved 2015-04-27 
  46. ^ Brüssow, H 2007 Phage Therapy:The Western Perspective in S McGrath and D van Sinderen eds Bacteriophage:Genetics and Molecular Biology, Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, UK ISBN 978-1-904455-14-1
  47. ^ Verbeken G, De Vos D, Vaneechoutte M, Merabishvili M, Zizi M, Pirnay JP 2007 "European regulatory conundrum of phage therapy" Future Microbiol 2 5:485–91 doi:102217/1746091325485 PMID 17927471 
  48. ^ Faltys, Doris 4 August 2013, "Evergreen Researcher Dr Kutter Announces 'There's a Phage for That'", Thurston Talk, Olympia, Washington, retrieved 2015-03-01 
  49. ^ Kuchment 2011, ch 12, pp 115-118:In addition to mentioning that Texas law allows physicians to use "natural substances" like phages in addition to but not in lieu of standard medical practice, Kuichment says, "In June 2009study was published in the Journal of Wound Care"
  50. ^ December 2013 Faculty Spotlight, Olympia, WA:Evergreen College, December 2013, retrieved 2015-03-01 
  51. ^ "Evergreen PHAGE THERAPY:BACTERIOPHAGES AS ANTIBIOTICS" Archived from the original on 2 March 2007 
  52. ^ "Stone, Richard "Stalin's Forgotten Cure" Science Online 282 25 October 2002" Archived from the original on 4 July 2008 
  53. ^ Fox, Stuart Ira 1999 Human Physiology -6th ed McGraw-Hill pp :50,55,448,449 ISBN 0-697-34191-7 
  54. ^ Kuchement 2011, p 94
  55. ^ Kuchement 2011, ch 6, p 63:"he Hirszfeld Institutehas almost always done its research studies in the absence of double-bind controls But the sheer quantity of cases, combined with the fact that nearly all the cases involve patients who failed to respond to antibiotics, is persuasive"
  56. ^ ВНКрылов 5 April 2007 "фаготерапия" PDF Retrieved 2014-11-29 
  57. ^ "Bee Killers:Using Phages Against Deadly Honeybee Diseases" youtubecom Retrieved 2014-11-29 
  58. ^ "Using microscopic bugs to save the bees" newsbyuedu Retrieved 2014-12-01 
  59. ^ Richards, Gary P 2014 "Bacteriophage remediation of bacterial pathogens in aquaculture:a review of the technology" Bacteriophage 4 4:e975540 doi:104161/215970812014975540 ISSN 2159-7081 PMC 4590005  PMID 26713223 
  60. ^ Summers WC 1991 "On the origins of the science in Arrowsmith:Paul de Kruif, Felix d'Herelle, and phage" J Hist Med Allied Sci 46 3:315–32 doi:101093/jhmas/463315 PMID 1918921 
  61. ^ "Phage Findings" Time 1938-01-03 Retrieved 2007-12-13 
  62. ^ "SparkNotes:Arrowsmith:Chapters 31–33" Retrieved 2007-12-13 
  63. ^ "Churchill the Wartime Feminist" 3 June 2012 

References

  • Kuchment, Anna 2011, The Forgotten Cure:The Past and Future of Phage Therapy, Springer, ISBN 978-1-4614-0250-3 
  • Häusler, Thomas 2006, Virus vs Superbug:A solution to the antibiotic crisis, Macmillan, p 48, ISBN 978-0-230-55193-0 

External links

  • iBiology video:Phage Therapy 2016
  • Elkadi, Omar Anwar 2014 "Phage therapy:The new old antibacterial therapy" El Mednifico Journal 2 3:311 doi:1018035/emjv2i3202 
  • Popular Science:The Next Phage 2009
  • Thiel, Karl 2004 "Old dogma, new tricks—21st Century phage therapy" Nature Biotechnology 22 1:31–6 doi:101038/nbt0104-31 PMID 14704699 

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