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Pendleton, Oregon

pendleton oregon round up rodeo, pendleton oregon
Pendleton is a city in Umatilla County, Oregon, United States Developed along the Umatilla River, Pendleton was named in 1868 by the county commissioners for George H Pendleton, Democratic candidate for vice-president in the 1864 presidential campaign6 The population was 16,612 at the 2010 census3 The city is the county seat of Umatilla County7

Pendleton is the smaller of the two principal cities of the Hermiston-Pendleton Micropolitan Statistical Area This micropolitan area covers Morrow and Umatilla counties8 and had a combined population of 87,062 at the 2010 census3

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Economy
  • 3 Geography and climate
  • 4 Demographics
    • 41 2010 census
  • 5 Arts and culture
    • 51 Annual events
    • 52 Museums and other points of interest
  • 6 Sports and recreation
  • 7 Transportation
  • 8 Media
  • 9 Notable people
  • 10 Sister city
  • 11 See also
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

Historyedit

A European-American commercial center began to develop here in 1851, when Dr William C McKay established a trading post at the mouth of McKay Creek A United States Post Office named Marshall for the owner, and sometime gambler, of another local store was established April 21, 1865, and later renamed Pendleton The city was incorporated by the Oregon Legislative Assembly on October 25, 18809

By 1900, Pendleton had a population of 4,406 and was the fourth-largest city in Oregon The Pendleton Woolen Mills and Pendleton Round Up became features of the city captured in early paintings by Walter S Bowman Like many cities in Eastern Oregon, where thousands of Chinese immigrant workers built the transcontinental railroad, it had a flourishing Chinatown that developed as the workers settled here The sector is supposed to have been underlain by a network of tunnels, which are now a tourist attraction The authenticity as a Chinese tunnel system has been questioned10

The town is the cultural center of Eastern Oregon11 Pendleton's "Old town" is listed as a Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places12

The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation CTUIR have their property nearby They have established the Wild Horse Casino and golf course on the reservation to generate revenue for development and welfare They have also built the Tamástslikt Cultural Institute, for education and interpretation of their cultures11

Economyedit

Grain elevators in Pendleton

Pendleton Woolen Mills is a maker of wool blankets, shirts, and an assortment of other woolen goods Founded in 1909 by Clarence, Roy and Chauncey Bishop, the company built upon earlier businesses related to the many sheep ranches in the region A wool-scouring plant opened in Pendleton in 1893 to wash raw wool for shipping In 1895, the scouring mill was converted into a mill that made wool blankets and robes for Native Americans Both businesses failed to survive, but the Bishops, with the help of a local bond issue, enlarged the mill and improved its efficiency They developed a successful line of garments and blankets with "vivid colors and intricate patterns"13

St Anthony Hospital in Pendleton is a 25-bed medical center14

Eastern Oregon Correctional Institution EOCI in Pendleton is the only place in Oregon where inmates make "Prison Blues" denim clothing The prison also operates a commercial laundry serving customers that include EOCI, the Snake River Correctional Institution, Pendleton High School, a local flour mill, and other entities In addition, some EOCI inmates work as clerks or have jobs in food service or maintenance15

Geography and climateedit

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1052 square miles 2725 km2, all of it land2

The city was built on both sides of the Umatilla River, which has periodically flooded and caused some damage In the beginning, the river was vital as a transportation and trading route for settlers, as well as a water and power source It connected the city to the Columbia River

Pendleton has a semi-arid climate Köppen BSk with short, cool winters and hot summers Pendleton had the highest temperature recorded in Oregon at 119 °F 48 °C on August 10, 189816

Climate data for Pendleton Municipal Airport 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F °C 71
22
76
24
83
28
95
35
103
39
109
43
114
46
119
48
104
40
93
34
80
27
75
24
119
48
Average high °F °C 418
54
468
82
552
129
621
167
700
211
782
257
880
311
868
304
774
252
637
176
492
96
395
42
632
173
Average low °F °C 288
−18
303
−09
350
17
392
4
456
76
515
108
572
14
568
138
494
97
401
45
334
08
270
−28
412
51
Record low °F °C −26
−32
−21
−29
1
−17
17
−8
22
−6
28
−2
38
3
30
−1
21
−6
11
−12
−13
−25
−28
−33
−28
−33
Average precipitation inches mm 144
366
111
282
132
335
119
302
134
34
98
249
32
81
38
97
57
145
101
257
152
386
147
373
1265
3213
Average snowfall inches cm 37
94
32
81
6
15
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
03
14
36
58
147
148
376
Average precipitation days ≥ 001 in 121 93 116 90 93 63 29 24 39 68 123 120 979
Average snowy days ≥ 01 in 30 18 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 14 41 113
Source: NOAA extremes 1892–present17

Demographicsedit

Census
Historical population
Pop
1870 243
1880 730 2004%
1890 2,506 2433%
1900 4,406 758%
1910 4,460 12%
1920 6,837 533%
1930 6,621 −32%
1940 8,847 336%
1950 11,774 331%
1960 14,434 226%
1970 13,197 −86%
1980 14,521 100%
1990 15,126 42%
2000 16,354 81%
2010 16,612 16%
Est 2016 16,834 13%
source:319

As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $36,800, and the median income for a family was $47,410 Males had a median income of $31,763 versus $23,858 for females The per capita income for the city was $17,551 About 87% of families and 133% of the population were below the poverty line, including 164% of those under age 18 and 81% of those age 65 or over3

2010 censusedit

As of the census of 2010, there were 16,612 people, 6,220 households, and 3,789 families residing in the city The population density was 1,5791 inhabitants per square mile 6097/km2 There were 6,800 housing units at an average density of 6464 per square mile 2496/km2 The racial makeup of the city was 873% White, 14% African American, 32% Native American, 11% Asian, 02% Pacific Islander, 36% from other races, and 33% from two or more races Hispanic or Latino of any race were 97% of the population3

There were 6,220 households of which 305% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 429% were married couples living together, 126% had a female householder with no husband present, 55% had a male householder with no wife present, and 391% were non-families 313% of all households were made up of individuals and 111% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older The average household size was 237 and the average family size was 2963

The median age in the city was 369 years 219% of residents were under the age of 18; 111% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 28% were from 25 to 44; 263% were from 45 to 64; and 128% were 65 years of age or older The gender makeup of the city was 534% male and 466% female3

The EOCI prison is one of the largest employers in Pendleton

Arts and cultureedit

Annual eventsedit

In addition to the woolen mills, Pendleton is also famous for its annual rodeo, the Pendleton Round-Up202122 First held in 1910, it is part of the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association PRCA-sanctioned rodeo circuit23 It is among the top ten PRCA venues in terms of prize money23

The Festival of Trees is held in early December each year It is a fundraising event produced by the St Anthony Hospital Foundation24

Museums and other points of interestedit

Historic Rainbow Cafe in downtown Pendleton before 2006 façade restoration

Local arts institutions include the Pendleton Center for the Arts in the town's old Carnegie Library building25 and Crow's Shadow Institute of the Arts on the nearby Umatilla Indian Reservation26

The Pendleton Farmers' Market operates on Friday evenings from May through October on South Main Street27 Pendleton Underground Tours which features the history of Pendleton and a tour through the underground tunnels and the Brothels It is open year-round

Sports and recreationedit

The city hosts the annual Oregon School Activities Association 2A basketball tournament at the Pendleton Convention Center Eight teams of boys and eight of girls compete for their respective championships during a four-day tournament Civic leaders regard the influx of family and other fans the second-most important boost to the local economy, behind the Round-Up Total attendance at the tournament in 2010 exceeded 13,00028

The Pendleton Aquatic Center, managed by Pendleton Parks & Recreation, features two tower water slides as well tubes and smaller slides, three pools, a diving well, and picnic areas The aquatic center is adjacent to the high school29

Transportationedit

Highways serving Pendleton include Interstate 84 and US Route 30 running east–west and US Route 395 running north–south The city is also served by Oregon Route 37 and Oregon Route 1130

Pendleton lies along the Union Pacific Railroad UP, constructed originally through the area in the 1880s by the Oregon Railway and Navigation Company OR&N In 1880, the OR&N began construction of a rail line from Portland through the Columbia Gorge to eastern Oregon It reached Umatilla and Wallula in 1881, Pendleton in 1882, and then La Grande, Baker City, and Huntington, where by 1884 it met the UP line from Utah Since Pendleton was also connected by rail to the Northern Pacific line at Wallula and Walla Walla, by 1885 it was a stop on two transcontinental lines The UP absorbed the OR&N line in 188931

Between 1977 and 1997, the city was a regular stop along the former route of Amtrak's Pioneer between Chicago and Seattle via Salt Lake City and Portland32

Regional public aviation service is through Eastern Oregon Regional Airport, 3 miles 5 km outside Pendleton The airport is owned by the City of Pendleton33 Boutique Air will offer daily flights between Pendleton and Portland beginning late 201634

Mediaedit

Two newspapers are published in Pendleton The East Oregonian is a daily with a circulation of about 6,800 The Pendleton Record is a weekly with a circulation of about 90035

KFFX-TV Fox 11, a television station based in Pendleton, serves a market that also includes the Washington cities of Yakima, Pasco, Richland, and Kennewick36 Oregon radio stations based in or near Pendleton include: KTIX AM 1240, sports;37 KUMA AM 1290, news and talk;37 KRBM FM 909, Oregon Public Broadcasting, news and talk;38 KLKY FM 961, based in Stanfield and broadcasting by translator K237DS in Pendleton at FM 953, classic rock;39KZIU-FM 1019, based in Weston and broadcasting by translator K262CJ in Pendleton at 1003 FM, top 40;40 KWHT FM 1035, country;37 and KWVN-FM 1077, variety37

Notable peopleedit

  • Walter S Bowman, professional photographer based in Pendleton from the late 1880s to mid-1930s41
  • Tracy Baker – Major League Baseball player born in Pendleton42
  • John Bunnell – hosted World's Wildest Police Videos; born in Pendleton43
  • Dave Cockrum – comic book artist born in Pendleton44
  • Dave Kingman – former Major League Baseball player born in Pendleton45
  • Michael J Kopetski – former representative for Oregon's 5th congressional district, born in Pendleton46
  • Frances Moore Lappé – author and activist born in Pendleton47
  • James Lavadour – painter; lifelong resident of the Umatilla Reservation48
  • Bob Lilly – Pro Football Hall of Fame defensive tackle, graduated from Pendleton High School in 195749
  • Elaine Miles – actress who played Marilyn Whirlwind on Northern Exposure; early childhood on the Umatilla Reservation50
  • Roy Schuening – football player, Oregon State and National Football League, born in Pendleton51
  • Gordon Smith – former US Senator from Oregon, born in Pendleton52
  • Milan Smith – judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, born in Pendleton53 and brother to Gordon
  • Kenneth Snelson – sculptor and photographer; childhood in Pendleton54
  • Dan Straily – professional baseball player, former Pendleton High School pitcher55

Sister cityedit

Pendleton has a sister city relationship with Minamisoma, Japan Minamisoma is 16 miles 26 km north of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant damaged by an earthquake and tsunami in 2011 Since then, Japanese exchange students from Minamisoma have continued visiting Pendleton, but students from Pendleton have stopped going to Minamisoma because of concerns about radiation56

See alsoedit

  • McKay, Oregon
  • McKay Creek National Wildlife Refuge
  • McKay Reservoir

Referencesedit

  1. ^ "Mayor John Turner" Retrieved 5 May 2017 
  2. ^ a b "State and County Quick Facts" United States Census Bureau July 8, 2014 Retrieved August 27, 2014 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "American FactFinder" United States Census Bureau Retrieved August 28, 2014 
  4. ^ "2013 Population Estimates" United States Census Bureau Retrieved September 2, 2014 
  5. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names" United States Geological Survey October 25, 2007 Retrieved January 31, 2008 
  6. ^ "Profile for Pendleton, Oregon" ePodunk Retrieved May 27, 2010 
  7. ^ "Find a County" National Association of Counties Retrieved June 7, 2011 
  8. ^ "Counties in Micropolitan Statistical Areas" Bureau of Economic Analysis, US Department of Commerce November 21, 2013 Retrieved August 27, 2014 
  9. ^ Leeds, W H 1899 "Special Laws" The State of Oregon General and Special Laws and Joint Resolutions and Memorials Enacted and Adopted by the Twentieth Regular Session of the Legislative Assembly Salem, Oregon: State Printer: 747 
  10. ^ Wegars, Priscilla "Asian American Comparative Collection: Asian American Sites and Museum Exhibits in the Pacific Northwest, Great Basin, and Canada" University of Idaho Retrieved September 3, 2014 Pendleton – Pendleton Underground An interesting tour of downtown Pendleton basements However, some guides call them "Chinese tunnels" thus perpetuating a stereotype for which there is no basis in fact See "Ongoing Research" for a discussion of so-called "Chinese tunnels" 
  11. ^ a b Scanlan, John "Pendleton" The Oregon Encyclopedia Portland State University and the Oregon Historical Society Retrieved May 20, 2014 
  12. ^ Sargent, Gail James Lynch & Associates October 10, 1986 "National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: South Main Street Commercial Historic District" PDF National Park Service Retrieved August 29, 2014 
  13. ^ "Company History" Pendleton Woolen Mills 2014 Retrieved August 27, 2014 
  14. ^ "St Anthony Hospital" US News & World Report Best Hospitals 2014 Retrieved August 27, 2014 
  15. ^ "Eastern Oregon Correctional Institution" Oregon Department of Corrections Retrieved June 6, 2014 
  16. ^ "Record highest temperatures by state" PDF National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration December 2003 Retrieved June 23, 2011 
  17. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data" National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Retrieved June 30, 2013 
  18. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" Retrieved June 9, 2017 
  19. ^ Moffatt, Riley Moore 1996 Population History of Western US Cities and Towns, 1850–1990 Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press p 214 ISBN 978-0-8108-3033-2 
  20. ^ Furlong, Charles Wellington August 1916 "The Epic Drama of The West" Harper's Monthly Magazine CXXXIII 795: 368 Retrieved August 16, 2009 
  21. ^ "History" Pendleton Round-Up Retrieved August 28, 2014 
  22. ^ "Pendleton Round-Up" Travel Pendleton Pendleton Chamber of Commerce Retrieved August 28, 2014 
  23. ^ a b "Pendleton Round-Up" Pro Rodeo Hall of Fame Retrieved August 29, 2014 
  24. ^ "CHI St Anthony Hospital Foundation" St Anthony Hospital Foundation 2014 Retrieved August 31, 2014 
  25. ^ Donovan, Sally Donovan Associates August 15, 1997 "National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Umatilla County Library" PDF National Park Service Retrieved August 29, 2014 
  26. ^ "About Us" Crow's Shadow Institute of the Arts Retrieved August 29, 2014 
  27. ^ "Food for Oregon: Pendleton Farmers' Market" Oregon State University Extension Service Retrieved August 28, 2014 
  28. ^ Wright, Phil March 2, 2011 "Getting Ready for the Party; Pendleton Prepares for Basketball Invasion" East Oregonian Pendleton Retrieved August 27, 2014 
  29. ^ "Cool Fun at the Pool in Pendleton" Pendleton Parks & Recreation 2014 Retrieved August 27, 2014 
  30. ^ Oregon Road & Recreation Atlas 5th ed Santa Barbara, California: Benchmark Maps 2012 pp 42–43 ISBN 978-0-929591-62-9 
  31. ^ Minor, Woodruff August 31, 2012 "Ordinance 3835 Exhibit E" PDF City of Pendleton Retrieved August 27, 2014 
  32. ^ "Restore the Pioneer Train!" Pioneer Restoration Organization 2014 Retrieved August 27, 2014 
  33. ^ "AirportIQ 5010: Eastern Oregon Regional at Pendleton" GCR, Inc 2014 Retrieved August 27, 2014 
  34. ^ "Pendleton drops SeaPort for Boutique Air" eastoregoniancom Retrieved June 14, 2017 
  35. ^ "Newspapers Published in Oregon" Oregon Blue Book Oregon Secretary of State 2014 Retrieved September 5, 2014 
  36. ^ "KFFX Channel 11" Station Index Retrieved September 3, 2014 
  37. ^ a b c d "Oregon Radio Stations" Oregon Blue Book Oregon Secretary of State 2014 Retrieved September 5, 2014 
  38. ^ "Radio locator: Pendleton, Oregon" Theodric Technologies 2014 Retrieved September 5, 2014 
  39. ^ "Radio locator: Stanfield, Oregon" Theodric Technologies 2014 Retrieved September 5, 2014 
  40. ^ "Radio locator: Weston, Oregon" Theodric Technologies 2014 Retrieved September 5, 2014 
  41. ^ "Historical Photograph Collection: The Walter S Bowman collection, 1890-1925" University of Oregon Libraries Retrieved September 2, 2014 
  42. ^ "Tracy Baker" Baseball-Referencecom Retrieved September 2, 2014 
  43. ^ "John Bunnell Biography" Internet Movie Database Retrieved September 2, 2014 
  44. ^ "Dave Cockrum" IMDb Retrieved September 3, 2014 
  45. ^ "Dave Kingman" MLB Advanced Media Retrieved September 3, 2014 
  46. ^ "Kopetski, Michael J" Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Office of the Historian Retrieved September 3, 2014 
  47. ^ "Frances Moore Lappé" Americans Who Tell the Truth Retrieved September 1, 2014 
  48. ^ Farr, Sheila September 16, 2005 "Desolation, Transformation: James Lavadour's Landscapes of the Mind" The Seattle Times Archived from the original on October 21, 2012 Retrieved September 3, 2014 
  49. ^ "Biography" BobLillycom Retrieved March 13, 2016 
  50. ^ Taylor, Catherine "Marilyn Speaks!" Radiance Radiance: The Magazine for Large Women Fall 1993 Retrieved September 3, 2014 
  51. ^ "Roy Schuening" NFL Enterprises 2014 Retrieved August 31, 2014 
  52. ^ "Smith, Gordon Harold, 1952– " Biographical Directory of the United States Congress US Senate Historical Office Retrieved August 31, 2014 
  53. ^ "Smith, Milan Dale Jr" Biographical Directory of Federal Judges Federal Judicial Center Retrieved September 1, 2014 
  54. ^ "Kenneth Duane Snelson" Black Mountain College Project Retrieved September 1, 2014 
  55. ^ Mazzolini, A J April 4, 2012 "Pitcher Straily Climbs Ladder Towards MLB" East Oregonian Retrieved September 2, 2014 
  56. ^ "Pendleton Weighs Safety of Visits to Sister City" KGW September 14, 2013 Retrieved August 28, 2014 

External linksedit

  • Official website
  • Pendleton listing in the Oregon Blue Book
  • "Pendleton" The Oregon Encyclopedia 
  • Pendleton Chamber of Commerce

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