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Pembina County, North Dakota

pembina county north dakota highway department, pembina county north dakota historical society
Pembina County is a county located in the US state of North Dakota At the 2010 Census its population was 7,4131 The county seat is Cavalier2

The area along the Pembina and Red rivers was long inhabited by various indigenous peoples At the time of European contact, the dominant tribe were the Assiniboine and the Lakota or Sioux, as the French colonists called them Later the Ojibwe or Chippewa migrated into the area from the east and became the dominant tribe The people had a long trading relationship with French colonists and supported them during the Seven Years' War against Great Britain By the time of the War of 1812, the Ojibwe were allied with the British against the United States, hoping to forestall or slow European-American settlers' encroaching on their territory During the first half of the nineteenth century, continuing conflicts between the Lakota and Chippewa along the Red River slowed European-American settlement The Chippewa pushed the Lakota to the west and became dominant in the area

The county was created by the 1866–1867 Dakota territorial legislature, and was organized on August 12, 186734 "Pembina" is derived from the Chippewa term for high-bush cranberry, which grew in abundance along the Pembina River The city of Pembina, the oldest European-American settlement in the state, was the county seat from 1867 to 1911 The seat was relocated to Cavalier5

Cavalier Air Force Station and Icelandic State Park are both located in Pembina County The first Icelandic immigrant settlement in present-day North Dakota was in Pembina County in the late 1870s, when a colony of settlers from Iceland moved into the county from the New Iceland homesteads near Lake Winnipeg6

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Geography
    • 21 Major highways
    • 22 Adjacent counties and rural municipalities
  • 3 Demographics
    • 31 2000 census
    • 32 2010 census
  • 4 Communities
    • 41 Cities
    • 42 Townships
    • 43 Unincorporated communities
    • 44 American Indian reservations
  • 5 Politics
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

Historyedit

Frontier doctor Dr Charles Boarman Harris, one of the original pioneers to settle in Pembina, was the first county physician He delivered over 3,000 babies born in the region between 1882 and 1942

For thousands of years, various indigenous peoples inhabited the area along the Pembina and Red rivers At the time of European contact in the 16th century, the dominant tribes were the Assiniboine and the Lakota or Sioux, as the French colonists called them The Ojibwe, also known as Chippewa, a branch of the Anishinaabe-speaking language group, gradually migrated west along both sides of the Great Lakes They developed a long trading relationship with French trappers and colonists Throughout the Red River of the North area, French trappers married Native American women, and their descendants continued to hunt and trap A large mixed-race population developed, recognized as an ethnic First Nations group in Canada called the Métis The Ojibwe and Métis generally supported the French forces during the Seven Years' War in the mid-eighteenth century against Great Britain

With the British defeat of France and takeover of its colonial territory, the Chippewa learned to deal with a new trading culture Armed with guns by trading and having adopted the horse from the Mandan and Hidatsa, by the end of the eighteenth century the Chippewa had migrated from woodlands to the Great Plains and begun to push the Lakota west before them By the time of the War of 1812, the Ojibwe allied with the British against the United States, hoping to forestall European-American settlers' encroaching on their territory With the settlement of the northern boundary with Canada, the Chippewa within the Dakota Territory were forced to deal with the United States During the first half of the nineteenth century, the Chippewa had continued conflicts with the Lakota along the Red River, finally pushing them into present-day western North and South Dakota

Father George Belcourt, a Catholic Jesuit missionary who served them, described their territory in 1849 as the following:

"We understand here, that the district or department called Pembina, comprises all of the country or basin which is irrigated or traversed by the tributaries of the Red River, south of the line of the 49th parallel of latitude The prairies’ rivers and lakes which extend to the height of land of the Mississippi, and the immense plains which feed innumerable herds of bison to the westward and from which the Chippewa and half breeds Métis of this region obtain their subsistence, contains within their limits a country about 400 miles from north to south and more than five hundred miles from east to west"7

The Métis used two-wheeled, ox-drawn carts to transport great quantities of furs to market along the Red River Trails, between what is now Winnipeg, Canada and Mendota or St Paul, Minnesota They also used the ox-carts to transport food and shelter during extended buffalo hunts

Over time, the Ojibwe were persuaded to cede much of their land by treaty to the US, which in turn sold it to homesteaders They moved to relatively small Indian reservations within their earlier territory

The precursor to Pembina County was a county of the same name in the Minnesota Territory, extending from the Upper Mississippi River to the western boundary of the territory When Minnesota became a state in 1858, its western boundary was set at the Red River, and the land to its west was unorganized A new Pembina County was established as part of the Dakota Territory on January 9, 1867 At the time, it was much larger than it is today In 1871, the county was expanded to include much of the territory in what is now eastern North Dakota from Canada to the South Dakota border

Between 1873 and 1881, eleven new counties were created from Pembina, including Cass County and Grand Forks County Pembina took its current form in 1887, when Cavalier County was increased in size3

The first Icelandic settlements in what is now North Dakota were established in Pembina County in the late 1870s Many of the immigrants came from New Iceland near Lake Winnipeg, along with other Icelanders who moved into the area from colonies in Wisconsin The new settlers lived primarily in the so-called "Icelandic Townships" of Akra, Beaulieu, Gardar, and Thingwalla The State Historical Society of North Dakota reported fewer than 3 or 4 non-Icelandic families living there in the early 1900s6 Evidence of this heritage is found in several township and city names with Icelandic origins5 Akra was named after the town of Akranes, near Reykjavík; Gardar was named for Gardar Svavarsson, who was reportedly the first Scandinavian to visit Iceland; and Hallsson was named for an early settler, Johann P Hallson58

Icelandic State Park, located in Akra, was established to preserve evidence of this early pioneer heritage9

Geographyedit

According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,121 square miles 2,900 km2, of which 1,119 square miles 2,900 km2 is land and 27 square miles 70 km2 02% is water10 The lowest point in the state of North Dakota is located on the Red River of the North in Pembina Township in Pembina County, where it flows out of North Dakota and into the Canada–US border of Manitoba

Major highwaysedit

  • Interstate 29
  • US Highway 81
  • North Dakota Highway 5
  • North Dakota Highway 18
  • North Dakota Highway 32
  • North Dakota Highway 44
  • North Dakota Highway 66
  • North Dakota Highway 89

Adjacent counties and rural municipalitiesedit

  • Rural Municipality of Stanley, Canada north
  • Rural Municipality of Rhineland, Manitoba, Canada north
  • Town of Gretna, Manitoba north
  • Rural Municipality of Montcalm, Manitoba, Canada north
  • Town of Emerson, Manitoba north
  • Kittson County, Minnesota east
  • Walsh County south
  • Cavalier County west

Demographicsedit

Census
Historical population
Pop
1870 1,213
1880 4,862 3008%
1890 14,334 1948%
1900 17,869 247%
1910 14,749 −175%
1920 15,177 29%
1930 14,757 −28%
1940 15,671 62%
1950 13,990 −107%
1960 12,946 −75%
1970 10,728 −171%
1980 10,399 −31%
1990 9,238 −112%
2000 8,585 −71%
2010 7,413 −137%
Est 2016 7,069 −46%
US Decennial Census12
1790-196013 1900-199014
1990-200015 2010-20161

2000 censusedit

At the 2000 Census,16 there were 8,585 people, 3,535 households and 2,364 families residing in the county The population density was 8 per square mile 3/km², with the bulk of the population centered in the cities17 Housing density was 4 units per square mile 1/km² with 4,115 housing units in the county Racially, the county is predominately White, at more than 95% There is a small population 143% of Native Americans 143% in the county African Americans and Asian combined make up less than 1% of the total 021% 127% are from other races, and 144% from two or more races Hispanics or Latinos made up a little more than 3% of the population Early in the county's history, there was a large influx of settlers from Iceland6 By 2000 the Census Bureau reported that Icelanders made up just 79% of the population, third after Norwegian 250% and German 240% French and English and 66% ranked fourth and fifth, with 79% and 66% respectively16

There were 3,535 households of which 298% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 582% were married couples living together, 53% had a female householder with no husband present, and 331% were non-families 305% of all households were made up of individuals and 157% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older The average household size was 238 and the average family size was 298

Nearly 80% of the county was under the age of 65 at the 2000 census, with children under the age of 18 taking up nearly a quarter 249% of the population followed by 45- to 64-year-olds 248% and 25- to 44-year-olds 246% Those over the age of 65 were 195% the population, with 18- to 24-year-olds at 62% The median age was 42 years For every 100 females there were 1006 males For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 1002 males18

The median household income fwas $36,430 and the median family income was $45,338 Males had a median income of $30,400 compared with $21,340 for females The per capita income was $18,692 About 74% of families and 92% of the population were below the poverty line, including 107% of those under age 18 and 99% of those age 65 or over

2010 censusedit

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 7,413 people, 3,257 households, and 2,069 families residing in the county19 The population density was 66 inhabitants per square mile 25/km2 There were 3,859 housing units at an average density of 34 per square mile 13/km220 The racial makeup of the county was 955% white, 19% American Indian, 03% black or African American, 01% Asian, 08% from other races, and 13% from two or more races Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 26% of the population19 In terms of ancestry, 338% were German, 213% were Norwegian, 106% were Irish, 95% were English, 80% were American, and 55% were Swedish21

Of the 3,257 households, 245% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 542% were married couples living together, 56% had a female householder with no husband present, 365% were non-families, and 324% of all households were made up of individuals The average household size was 223 and the average family size was 282 The median age was 467 years19

The median income for a household in the county was $48,502 and the median income for a family was $61,804 Males had a median income of $40,334 versus $29,662 for females The per capita income for the county was $27,019 About 40% of families and 80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 95% of those under age 18 and 113% of those age 65 or over22

Communitiesedit

Citiesedit

  • Bathgate
  • Canton City
  • Cavalier county seat
  • Crystal
  • Drayton
  • Hamilton
  • Mountain
  • Neche
  • Pembina
  • St Thomas
  • Walhalla

Townshipsedit

  • Advance
  • Akra
  • Bathgate
  • Beaulieu
  • Carlisle
  • Cavalier
  • Crystal
  • Drayton
  • Elora
  • Felson
  • Gardar
  • Hamilton
  • Joliette
  • La Moure
  • Lincoln
  • Lodema
  • Midland
  • Neche
  • Park
  • Pembina
  • St Joseph
  • St Thomas
  • Thingvalla
  • Walhalla

Unincorporated communitiesedit

  • Backoo
  • Glasston
  • Hallson
  • Joliette
  • Pittsburgh

American Indian reservationsedit

  • Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians
  • Pembina Band of Chippewa Indians

Politicsedit

Presidential Elections Results23
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 700% 2,208 216% 681 84% 264
2012 583% 1,899 385% 1,253 32% 103
2008 521% 1,722 452% 1,494 28% 91
2004 640% 2,466 343% 1,321 18% 69
2000 643% 2,430 289% 1,093 68% 256
1996 509% 1,678 362% 1,191 129% 425
1992 465% 1,917 287% 1,186 248% 1,024
1988 596% 2,471 390% 1,616 15% 62
1984 660% 2,895 312% 1,367 29% 125
1980 657% 3,101 263% 1,239 80% 378
1976 540% 2,810 437% 2,274 24% 125
1972 638% 3,317 346% 1,801 16% 85
1968 560% 2,574 367% 1,686 73% 336
1964 380% 1,961 619% 3,198 02% 8
1960 576% 3,348 423% 2,460 00% 2
1956 618% 3,077 379% 1,887 03% 13
1952 675% 4,012 318% 1,891 07% 41
1948 467% 2,406 517% 2,666 16% 83
1944 450% 2,410 542% 2,903 09% 48
1940 439% 2,924 558% 3,711 03% 20
1936 315% 2,040 639% 4,139 47% 302
1932 342% 1,911 650% 3,636 08% 43
1928 608% 3,324 391% 2,141 01% 7
1924 590% 2,783 125% 588 285% 1,344
1920 732% 3,925 262% 1,405 05% 29
1916 507% 1,469 483% 1,400 10% 28
1912 248% 615 392% 975 360% 895
1908 526% 1,389 448% 1,185 26% 69
1904 700% 1,870 278% 743 22% 58
1900 553% 1,732 422% 1,321 25% 77

See alsoedit

  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Pembina County, North Dakota

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts" United States Census Bureau Retrieved November 1, 2013 
  2. ^ "Find a County" National Association of Counties Retrieved 2011-06-07 
  3. ^ a b Long, John H 2006 "Dakota Territory, South Dakota, and North Dakota: Individual County Chronologies" Dakota Territory Atlas of Historical County Boundaries The Newberry Library Archived from the original on 2007-11-11 Retrieved 2008-01-31 
  4. ^ "County History" North Dakotagov The State of North Dakota Retrieved February 4, 2015 
  5. ^ a b c Wick, Douglas A 1988 North Dakota Place Names Bismarck, North Dakota: Hedemarken Collectibles ISBN 0-9620968-0-6 OCLC 191277027 
  6. ^ a b c Johnson, Sveinbjorn 1906 Libby, Orin Grant, ed The Icelandic Settlement of Pembina County Collections of the State Historical Society of North Dakota 1 Bismarck, ND: Tribune, State Printers and Binders pp 89–130 OCLC 01773487 
  7. ^ About US: "Move to the Plains", Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians, accessed 27 June 2011
  8. ^ Williams, Mary Ann Barnes 1966 Origins of North Dakota Place Names Bismarck, North Dakota: Bismarck Tribune, 1966 OCLC 431626 
  9. ^ North Dakota Secretary of State 1989 North Dakota Centennial Blue Book Bismarck, ND: North Dakota Legislative Assembly p 539 
  10. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files" United States Census Bureau August 22, 2012 Retrieved February 1, 2015 
  11. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" Retrieved June 9, 2017 
  12. ^ "US Decennial Census" United States Census Bureau Retrieved February 1, 2015 
  13. ^ "Historical Census Browser" University of Virginia Library Retrieved February 1, 2015 
  14. ^ Forstall, Richard L, ed April 20, 1995 "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990" United States Census Bureau Retrieved February 1, 2015 
  15. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4 Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" PDF United States Census Bureau April 2, 2001 Retrieved February 1, 2015 
  16. ^ a b US Census Bureau Census 2000 "Census Demographic Profiles, Pembina County" PDF CenStats Databases Retrieved 2009-01-31 dead link
  17. ^ US Census Bureau Census 2000, Summary File 1 "GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2000 - County -- Subdivision and Place" American FactFinder <http://factfinder2censusgov> Retrieved 2008-01-31 
  18. ^ US Census Bureau Census 2000 "QT-P1 Age Groups and Sex, Pembina County" American FactFinder <http://factfindercensusgov> Retrieved 2009-01-31 
  19. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-04-03 
  20. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-04-03 
  21. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-04-03 
  22. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-04-03 
  23. ^ http://uselectionatlasorg/RESULTS

External linksedit

  • Pembina County official website
  • Icelandic State Park
  • Pembina County, North Dakota in the World War 1919 from the Digital Horizons website
  • Homestead maps of Pembina County from the Digital Horizons website
  • Pembina's pride- : our rambling court house : new county buildings--where 1910 from the Digital Horizons website
‹ The template below Geographic location is being considered for deletion See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus ›

Coordinates: 48°46′N 97°33′W / 4877°N 9755°W / 4877; -9755

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