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Paul Robeson

paul robeson, paul robeson high school
Paul Leroy Robeson pronounced /ˈroʊbsən/ ROHB-sən;12 April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976 was an American bass singer and actor who became involved with the Civil Rights Movement At Rutgers College, he was an outstanding American football player, and then had an international career in singing, with a distinctive, powerful, deep bass voice, as well as acting in theater and movies He became politically involved in response to the Spanish Civil War, fascism, and social injustices His advocacy of anti-imperialism, affiliation with communism, and criticism of the United States government caused him to be blacklisted during the McCarthy era

In 1915 Robeson won an academic scholarship to Rutgers College, where he was twice named a consensus All-American and was the class valedictorian Almost eighty years later, he was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame He received his LLB from Columbia Law School, while playing in the National Football League NFL At Columbia, he sang and acted in off-campus productions; and, after graduating, he became a figure in the Harlem Renaissance with performances in The Emperor Jones and All God's Chillun Got Wings

Between 1925 and 1961, Robeson recorded and released some 276 distinct songs, many of which were recorded several times The first of these were the spirituals Steal Away backed with Were You There in 1925 Robeson's recorded repertoire spanned many styles, including Americana, popular standards, classical music, European folk songs, political songs, poetry and spoken excerpts from plays3 Robeson's politics did not prevent him from singing some songs which would subsequently be considered to have racist language or sentiment, such as The Little Pickaninny's Gone to Sleep 1928 and Old Folks at Home 1930

Robeson first appeared outside the United States in 1928 in the London premiere of Show Boat, settling in London for several years with his wife Essie Robeson next appeared as Othello in London before becoming an international cinema star during the 1930s through roles in Show Boat and Sanders of the River He became increasingly attuned to the sufferings of people of other cultures Despite being warned of his economic ruin if he became politically active, he set aside his theatrical career to advocate the cause of the Republican forces of the Spanish Civil War He then became active in the Council on African Affairs CAA

During World War II, he supported America's war efforts and won accolades for his portrayal of Othello on Broadway However, his history of supporting pro-Soviet policies brought scrutiny from the FBI After the war ended, the CAA was placed on the Attorney General's List of Subversive Organizations and Robeson was investigated during the age of McCarthyism Due to his decision not to recant his public advocacy of pro-Soviet policies, he was denied a passport by the US State Department, and his income, consequently, plummeted He moved to Harlem and published a periodical critical of United States policies His right to travel was eventually restored by the 1958 United States Supreme Court decision, Kent v Dulles, but his health had deteriorated In the early 1960s he retired and lived the remaining years of his life privately in Philadelphia

Contents

  • 1 Early life
    • 11 1898–1915: Childhood
    • 12 1915–1919: Rutgers College
    • 13 1919–1923: Columbia Law School and marriage
  • 2 Theatrical success and ideological transformation
    • 21 1923–1927: Harlem Renaissance
    • 22 1928–1932: Show Boat, Othello, and marriage difficulties
    • 23 1933–1937: Ideological awakening
    • 24 1937–1939: The Spanish Civil War and political activism
  • 3 World War II, the Broadway Othello, political activism, and McCarthyism
    • 31 1939–1945: World War II and the Broadway Othello
    • 32 1946–1949: Attorney General's List of Subversive Organizations
    • 33 1950–1955: Blacklisted
    • 34 1956–1957: End of McCarthyism
  • 4 Later years
    • 41 1958–1960: Comeback tours
    • 42 1961–1963: Health breakdown
    • 43 1963–1976: Retirement
    • 44 Death, funeral, and public response
  • 5 Legacy and honors
    • 51 In popular culture
  • 6 Filmography
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
    • 81 Primary materials
    • 82 Biographies
    • 83 Secondary materials
    • 84 Film biographies and documentaries about Robeson
  • 9 Further reading
  • 10 External links
    • 101 Biographical information
    • 102 Institutions associated
    • 103 Paul Robeson archives

Early lifeedit

1898–1915: Childhoodedit

Birthplace in Princeton

Paul Robeson was born in Princeton, New Jersey, in 1898, to Reverend William Drew Robeson and Maria Louisa Bustill4 His mother was from a prominent Quaker family of mixed ancestry: African, Anglo-American, and Lenape5 His father, William, whose family traced their ancestry to the Igbo people of present-day Nigeria,4 escaped from a plantation in his teens6 and eventually became the minister of Princeton's Witherspoon Street Presbyterian Church in 18817 Robeson had three brothers: William Drew, Jr born 1881, Reeve born c 1887, and Ben born c 1893; and one sister, Marian born c 18958

In 1900, a disagreement between William and white financial supporters of Witherspoon arose with apparent racial undertones,9 which were prevalent in Princeton10 William, who had the support of his entirely black congregation, resigned in 190111 The loss of his position forced him to work menial jobs12 Three years later when Robeson was six, his mother, who was nearly blind, died in a house fire13 Eventually, William became financially incapable of providing a house for himself and his children still living at home, Ben and Paul, so they moved into the attic of a store in Westfield, New Jersey14

William found a stable parsonage at the St Thomas A M E Zion in 1910,15 where Robeson would fill in for his father during sermons when he was called away16 In 1912, Robeson attended Somerville High School in Somerville, New Jersey,17 where he performed in Julius Caesar and Othello, sang in the chorus, and excelled in football, basketball, baseball and track18 His athletic dominance elicited racial taunts which he ignored19 Prior to his graduation, he won a statewide academic contest for a scholarship to Rutgers20 He took a summer job as a waiter in Narragansett Pier, Rhode Island, where he befriended Fritz Pollard, later to be the first African-American coach in the National Football League21

1915–1919: Rutgers Collegeedit

Robeson far left was Rutgers Class of 1919 and one of four students selected into Cap and Skull

In late 1915, Robeson became the third African-American student ever enrolled at Rutgers, and the only one at the time22 He tried out for the Rutgers Scarlet Knights football team,23 and his resolve to make the squad was tested as his teammates engaged in excessive play, during which his nose was broken and his shoulder dislocated24 The coach, Foster Sanford, decided he had overcome the provocation and announced that he had made the team25

Robeson joined the debating team26 and sang off-campus for spending money,27 and on-campus with the Glee Club informally, as membership required attending all-white mixers28 He also joined the other collegiate athletic teams29 As a sophomore, amidst Rutgers' sesquicentennial celebration, he was benched when a Southern team refused to take the field, because the Scarlet Knights had fielded a Negro, Robeson30

After a standout junior year of football,31 he was recognized in The Crisis for his athletic, academic, and singing talents32clarification needed At this time 33 his father fell grievously ill34 Robeson took the sole responsibility in caring for him, shuttling between Rutgers and Somerville35 His father, who was the "glory of his boyhood years"36 soon died, and at Rutgers, Robeson expounded on the incongruity of African Americans fighting to protect America in World War I but, contemporaneously, being without the same opportunities in the United States as whites37

He finished university with four annual oratorical triumphs38 and varsity letters in multiple sports39 His play at end40 won him first-team All-American selection, in both his junior and senior years Walter Camp considered him the greatest end ever41 Academically, he was accepted into Phi Beta Kappa42 and Cap and Skull43 His classmates recognized him44 by electing him class valedictorian45 The Daily Targum published a poem featuring his achievements46 In his valedictory speech, he exhorted his classmates to work for equality for all Americans47

1919–1923: Columbia Law School and marriageedit

Paul Robeson
Robeson in football uniform at Rutgers, c 1919
No 21, 17
Position: End / tackle
Personal information
Height: 6 ft 3 in 191 m
Weight: 219 lb 99 kg
Career information
High school: Somerville NJ
College: Rutgers
Career history
  • Akron Pros 1921
  • Milwaukee Badgers 1922
Career highlights and awards
  • 2× Consensus All-American 1917, 1918
Career NFL statistics
Games played: 15
Games started: 15
Touchdowns: 248
Player stats at NFLcom
Player stats at PFR
College Football Hall of Fame

Robeson entered New York University School of Law in fall 191949 To support himself, he became an assistant football coach at Lincoln,50 where he joined the Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity51 However, Robeson felt uncomfortable at NYU52 and moved to Harlem and transferred to Columbia Law School in February 192053 Already known in the black community for his singing,54 he was selected to perform at the dedication of the Harlem YWCA55

Robeson began dating Eslanda "Essie" Goode56 and after her coaxing,57 he gave his theatrical debut as Simon in Ridgely Torrence's Simon of Cyrene58 After a year of courtship, they were married in August 192159

He was recruited by Pollard to play for the NFL's Akron Pros while Robeson continued his law studies60 In the spring, Robeson postponed school61 to portray Jim in Mary Hoyt Wiborg's play Taboo62 He then sang in a chorus in an Off-Broadway production of Shuffle Along63 before he joined Taboo in Britain64 The play was adapted by Mrs Patrick Campbell to highlight his singing65 After the play ended, he befriended Lawrence Brown,66 a classically trained musician,67 before returning to Columbia while playing for the NFL's Milwaukee Badgers68 He ended his football career after 1922,69 and months later, he graduated from law school70

Theatrical success and ideological transformationedit

1923–1927: Harlem Renaissanceedit

Robeson worked briefly as a lawyer, but he renounced a career in law due to extant racism71 Essie financially supported them and they frequented the social functions at the future Schomburg Center72 In December 1924 he landed the lead role of Jim in Eugene O'Neill's All God's Chillun Got Wings,73 which culminated with Jim metaphorically consummating his marriage with his white wife by symbolically emasculating himself Chillun's opening was postponed due to nationwide controversy over its plot74

Chillun's delay led to a revival of The Emperor Jones with Robeson as Brutus, a role pioneered by Charles Sidney Gilpin75 The role terrified and galvanized Robeson, as it was practically a 90-minute soliloquy76 Reviews declared him an unequivocal success77 Though arguably clouded by its controversial subject, his Jim in Chillun was less well received78 He deflected criticism of its plot by writing that fate had drawn him to the "untrodden path" of drama and the true measure of a culture is in its artistic contributions, and the only true American culture was African-American79

The success of his acting placed him in elite social circles80 and his ascension to fame, which was forcefully aided by Essie,81 had occurred at a startling pace82 Essie's ambition for Robeson was a startling dichotomy to his indifference83 She quit her job, became his agent, and negotiated his first movie role in a silent race film directed by Oscar Micheaux, Body and Soul84 To support a charity for single mothers, he headlined a concert singing spirituals85 He performed his repertoire of spirituals on the radio86

Lawrence Brown, who had become renowned while touring as a pianist with gospel singer Roland Hayes, stumbled upon Robeson in Harlem87 The two ad-libbed a set of spirituals, with Robeson as lead and Brown as accompanist This so enthralled them that they booked Provincetown Playhouse for a concert88 The pair's rendition of African-American folk songs and spirituals was captivating,89 and Victor Records signed Robeson to a contract90

The Robesons went to London for a revival of Jones, before spending the rest of the fall on holiday on the French Riviera, socializing with Gertrude Stein and Claude McKay91 Robeson and Brown performed a series of concert tours in America from January 1926 until May 192792

During a hiatus in New York, Robeson learned that Essie was several months pregnant93 Paul Robeson, Jr was born in November 1927 in New York, while Robeson and Brown toured Europe94 Essie experienced complications from the birth,95 and by mid-December, her health had deteriorated dramatically Ignoring Essie's objections, her mother wired Robeson and he immediately returned to her bedside96 Essie completely recovered after a few monthscitation needed

1928–1932: Show Boat, Othello, and marriage difficultiesedit

In 1928, Robeson played "Joe" in the London production of the American musical Show Boat, at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane97 His rendition of "Ol' Man River" became the benchmark for all future performers of the song98 Some black critics were not pleased with the play due to its usage of the word nigger99 It was, nonetheless, immensely popular with white audiences100 He was summoned for a Royal Command Performance at Buckingham Palace101 and Robeson was befriended by MPs from the House of Commons102 Show Boat continued for 350 performances and, as of 2001, it remained the Royal's most profitable venture98 The Robesons bought a home in Hampstead103 He reflected on his life in his diary and wrote that it was all part of a "higher plan" and "God watches over me and guides me He's with me and lets me fight my own battles and hopes I'll win"104 However, an incident at the Savoy Grill, in which he was refused seating, sparked him to issue a press release describing the insult which subsequently became a matter of public debate105

Essie had learned early in their marriage that Robeson had been involved in extramarital affairs, but she tolerated them106 However, when she discovered that he was having another affair, she unfavorably altered the characterization of him in his biography,107 and defamed him by describing him with "negative racial stereotypes"108 Despite her uncovering of this tryst, there was no public evidence that their relationship had soured109

In early 1930, they both appeared in the experimental Swiss film Borderline,110 and Robeson then returned to the Savoy Theatre, in London's West End to play the lead in Shakespeare's Othello, opposite Peggy Ashcroft as Desdemona111 Robeson was the first black actor to play Othello in Britain since Ira Aldridge112 The production received mixed reviews which noted Robeson's "highly civilized quality but lacking the grand style"113 Robeson stated the best way to diminish the oppression African Americans faced was for his artistic work to be an example of what "men of my colour" could accomplish rather than to "be a propagandist and make speeches and write articles about what they call the Colour Question"114

After Essie discovered Robeson had been having an affair with Ashcroft, she decided to seek a divorce and they split up115 Robeson returned to Broadway as Joe in the 1932 revival of Show Boat, to critical and popular acclaim116 Subsequently, he received, with immense pride, an honorary master's degree from Rutgers117 Thereabout, his former football coach, Foster Sanford, advised him that divorcing Essie and marrying Ashcroft would do irreparable damage to his reputation118 Ashcroft and Robeson's relationship ended in 1932,119 following which Robeson and Essie reconciled, although their relationship was permanently scarred120

1933–1937: Ideological awakeningedit

In 1933 Robeson played the role of Jim in the London production of Chillun, virtually gratis;121 then returned to the United States to star as Brutus in the film The Emperor Jones,122 "a feat not repeated for more than two decades in the US"123clarification needed His acting in Jones—the first film to feature an African American in a starring role—was well received123 On the film set he rejected any slight to his dignity, despite the widespread Jim Crow atmosphere in the United States124 Upon returning to England he publicly criticized African Americans' rejection of their own culture125 Despite negative reactions from the press, such as a New York Amsterdam News retort that Robeson had made a "jolly well ass of himself",126 he also announced that he would reject any offers to perform European opera, because the music had no connection to his heritage127

In early 1934 Robeson enrolled in the School of Oriental and African Studies in London, where he studied some 20 African dialects His "sudden interest" in African history and its impact on culture128 coincided with his essay "I Want to be African", wherein he wrote of his desire to embrace his ancestry129

Robeson and actress Irén Ágay on the set of Sanders of the River, London, 1934

He undertook the role of Bosambo in the movie Sanders of the River,130 which he felt would render a realistic view of colonial African culturecitation needed His friends in the anti-imperialism movement and association with British socialists led him to visit the Soviet Union129 Robeson, Essie, and Marie Seton traveled to the Soviet Union on an invitation from Sergei Eisenstein in December 1934131 A stopover in Berlin enlightened Robeson to the racism in Nazi Germany132 and, on his arrival in Moscow, in the Soviet Union, Robeson said, "Here I am not a Negro but a human being for the first time in my life  I walk in full human dignity"133 Waldemar "Wally" Hille, who subsequently went on to do arrangements on the People's Songs Bulletin, got his start as an early touring pianist for Robeson

Sanders of the River, released in 1935, made Robeson an international movie star;134 but the stereotypical portrayal of a colonial African135 was seen as embarrassing to his stature as an artist136 and damaging to his reputation137 The Commissioner of Nigeria to London protested the film as slanderous to his country,138 and Robeson thereafter became more politically conscious of his roles139 He appeared in the play Stevedore at the Embassy Theatre in London in May 1935,140 which was favorably reviewed in The Crisis by Nancy Cunard, who concluded: "Stevedore is extremely valuable in the racial–social question — it is straight from the shoulder"141 In early 1936, he decided to send his son to school in the Soviet Union to shield him from racist attitudes142 He then played the role of Toussaint Louverture in the eponymous play by C L R James143 at the Westminster Theatre, and appeared in the films Song of Freedom,144 Show Boat,145 Big Fella,146 My Song Goes Forth,147 and King Solomon's Mines148 In 1938, he was named by Motion Picture Herald as the 10th most popular star in British cinema149

1937–1939: The Spanish Civil War and political activismedit

Robeson believed that the struggle against fascism during the Spanish Civil War was a turning point in his life and transformed him into a political activist150 In 1937, he used his concert performances to advocate the Republican cause and the war's refugees151 He permanently modified his renditions of Ol' Man River from a tragic "song of resignation with a hint of protest implied"citation needed into a battle hymn of unwavering defiance152 His business agent expressed concern about his political involvement,153 but Robeson overruled him and decided that contemporary events trumped commercialism154 In Wales,155 he commemorated the Welsh killed while fighting for the Republicans,156 where he recorded a message which would become his epitaph: "The artist must take sides He must elect to fight for freedom or slavery I have made my choice I had no alternative"157

After an invitation from J B S Haldane,158 he traveled to Spain in 1938 because he believed in the International Brigades's cause, 159 visited the hospital of the Benicàssim, singing to the wounded soldiers160 Also visited the battlefront161 and provided a morale boost to the Republicans at a time when their victory was unlikely162 Back in England, he hosted Jawaharlal Nehru to support Indian independence, whereat Nehru expounded on imperialism's affiliation with Fascism163 Robeson reevaluated the direction of his career and decided to focus his attention on utilizing his talents to bring attention to the ordeals of "common people",164 and subsequently he appeared in the pro-labor play Plant in the Sun165 by Herbert Marshall166 With Max Yergan, and the CAA, Robeson became an advocate in the aspirations of African colonialists for political independence167

World War II, the Broadway Othello, political activism, and McCarthyismedit

1939–1945: World War II and the Broadway Othelloedit

Robeson leading Moore Shipyard Oakland, California workers in singing the Star Spangled Banner, September 1942 Robeson, too, was a shipyard worker in World War I Paul Robeson with Uta Hagen in the Theatre Guild production of Othello 1943–4

Robeson's last British film was The Proud Valley released 1940, set in a Welsh coal-mining town168 After the outbreak of World War II, Robeson returned to the United States and became America's "no1 entertainer"169 with a radio broadcast of Ballad for Americans170 Nevertheless, during an ensuing tour, the Beverly Wilshire Hotel was the only hotel willing to accommodate him due to his race,citation needed and he therefore dedicated two hours every afternoon sitting in the lobby "to ensure that the next time Blacks come through, they'll have a place to stay"citation needed

Furthermore, Native Land was labeled by the FBI as communist propaganda171 After an appearance in Tales of Manhattan, a production that he felt was "very offensive to my people", he announced that he would no longer act in films because of the demeaning roles available to blacks172

Robeson participated in benefit concerts on behalf of the war effort and at a concert at the Polo Grounds, he met two emissaries from the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, Solomon Mikhoels and Itzik Feffer173 Subsequently, Robeson reprised his role of Othello at the Shubert Theatre in 1943,174 and became the first African American to play the role with a white supporting cast on Broadway During the same period of time, he addressed a meeting with Kenesaw Mountain Landis in a failed attempt to convince him to admit black players to Major League Baseball175 He toured North America with Othello until 1945,176 and subsequently, his political efforts with the CAA to get colonial powers to discontinue their exploitation of Africa were short-circuited by the United Nations177

1946–1949: Attorney General's List of Subversive Organizationsedit

After the lynchings of four African Americans, Robeson met with President Truman and admonished Truman that if he did not enact legislation to end lynching,178 "the Negroes will defend themselves"178179 Truman immediately terminated the meeting and declared the time was not right to propose anti-lynching legislation178 Subsequently, Robeson publicly called upon all Americans to demand that Congress pass civil rights legislation180 Taking a stance against lynching, Robeson founded the American Crusade Against Lynching organization in 1946 This organization was thought to be a threat to the NAACP antiviolence movement Robeson received support from W E B Du Bois regarding this matter and officially launched this organization on the anniversary day of the Emancipation Proclamation, September 23181

About this time, Robeson's belief that trade unionism was crucial to civil rights became a mainstay of his political beliefs as he became proponent of the union activist Revels Cayton182 Robeson was later called before the Tenney Committee where he responded to questions about his affiliation with the Communist Party USA CPUSA by testifying that he was not a member of the CPUSA183 Nevertheless, two organizations with which Robeson was intimately involved, the Civil Rights Congress CRCcitation needed and the CAA,184 were placed on the Attorney General's List of Subversive Organizations AGLOSO185 Subsequently, he was summoned before the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, and when questioned about his affiliation with the Communist Party, he refused to answer, stating: "Some of the most brilliant and distinguished Americans are about to go to jail for the failure to answer that question, and I am going to join them, if necessary"186

In 1948, Robeson was preeminent in Henry A Wallace's bid for the President of the United States,187 during which Robeson traveled to the Deep South, at risk to his own life, to campaign for him188 In the ensuing year, Robeson was forced to go overseas to work because his concert performances were canceled at the FBI's behest189 While on tour, he spoke at the World Peace Council,190 at which his speech was publicly reported as equating America with a Fascist state191—a depiction that he flatly denied192 Nevertheless, the speech publicly attributed to him was a catalyst for his becoming an enemy of mainstream America193 Robeson refused to subjugate himself to public criticism when he advocated in favor of twelve defendants, including his long-time friend, Benjamin J Davis, Jr charged during the Smith Act trials of Communist Party leaderscitation needed

Label of a record by Paul Robeson published by Soviet Ministry of Culture

Robeson traveled to Moscow in June, and was unable to find Itzik Feffer He let Soviet authorities know that he wanted to see him194 Reluctant to lose Robeson as a propagandist for the Soviet Union,195 the Soviets brought Feffer from prison to him Feffer told him that Mikhoels had been murdered, and he would be summarily executed196 To protect the Soviet Union's reputation,197 and to keep the right wing of the United States from gaining the moral high ground, Robeson denied that any persecution existed in the Soviet Union,198 and kept the meeting secret for the rest of his life, except from his son197 On June 20, 1949, Robeson spoke at the Paris Peace Congress saying that "We in America do not forget that it was on the backs of the white workers from Europe and on the backs of millions of Blacks that the wealth of America was built And we are resolved to share it equally We reject any hysterical raving that urges us to make war on anyone Our will to fight for peace is strong We shall not make war on anyone We shall not make war on the Soviet Union We oppose those who wish to build up imperialist Germany and to establish fascism in Greece We wish peace with Franco's Spain despite her fascism We shall support peace and friendship among all nations, with Soviet Russia and the people's Republics" He was blacklisted for saying this in the mainstream press within the United States, including in many periodicals of the Negro press such as The Crisis199

In order to isolate Robeson politically,200 the House Un-American Activities Committee HUAC subpoenad Jackie Robinson201 to comment on Robeson's Paris speech201 Robinson testified that Robeson's statements, "'if accurately reported', were silly'"200 Days later, the announcement of a concert headlined by Robeson in New York provoked the local press to decry the use of their community to support subversives202 and the Peekskill Riots ensued203

1950–1955: Blacklistededit

A book reviewed in early 1950 as "the most complete record on college football"204 failed to list Robeson as ever having played on the Rutgers team205 and as ever having been an All-American206 Months later, NBC canceled Robeson's appearance on Eleanor Roosevelt's television program207 Subsequently, the State Department denied Robeson a passport to travel abroad and issued a "stop notice" at all ports because it believed that an isolated existence inside United States borders would not only afford him less freedom of expression208 but also avenge his "extreme advocacy on behalf of the independence of the colonial peoples of Africa"209 However, when Robeson met with State and asked why he was denied a passport, he was told that "his frequent criticism of the treatment of blacks in the United States should not be aired in foreign countries"210

In 1951, an article titled "Paul Robeson – the Lost Shepherd" was published in The Crisis211 although Paul Jr suspected it was authored by Amsterdam News columnist Earl Brown212 J Edgar Hoover and the United States State Department arranged for the article to be printed and distributed in Africa213 in order to defame Robeson's reputation and reduce his and Communists' popularity in colonial countries214 Another article by Wilkins denounced Robeson as well as the Communist Party USA CPUSA in terms consistent with the anti-Communist FBI propaganda215

On December 17, 1951, Robeson presented to the United Nations an anti-lynching petition, "We Charge Genocide"216 The document asserted that the United States federal government, by its failure to act against lynching in the United States, was "guilty of genocide" under Article II of the UN Genocide Convention

In 1952, Robeson was awarded the International Stalin Prize by the Soviet Union217 Unable to travel to Moscow, he accepted the award in New York218 In April 1953, shortly after Stalin's death, Robeson penned To You My Beloved Comrade, praising Stalin as dedicated to peace and a guide to the world: "Through his deep humanity, by his wise understanding, he leaves us a rich and monumental heritage"219 Robeson's opinion on the Soviet Union kept his passport out of reach and stopped his return to the entertainment industry and the civil rights movement220 In his opinion, the Soviet Union was the guarantor of political balance in the world221

In a symbolic act of defiance against the travel ban, labor unions in the United States and Canada organized a concert at the International Peace Arch on the border between Washington state and the Canadian province of British Columbia222 Robeson returned to perform a second concert at the Peace Arch in 1953,223 and over the next two years, two further concerts were scheduled In this period, with the encouragement of his friend the Welsh politician Aneurin Bevan, Robeson recorded a number of radio concerts for supporters in Wales

1956–1957: End of McCarthyismedit

Main article: Paul Robeson Congressional Hearings

In 1956, Robeson was called before HUAC after he refused to sign an affidavit affirming that he was not a Communist In his testimony, he invoked the Fifth Amendment and refused to reveal his political affiliations When asked why he had not remained in the Soviet Union because of his affinity with its political ideology, he replied, "because my father was a slave and my people died to build the United States and, I am going to stay here, and have a part of it just like you and no fascist-minded people will drive me from it!"224 At that hearing, Robeson stated "Whether I am or not a Communist is irrelevant The question is whether American citizens, regardless of their political beliefs or sympathies, may enjoy their constitutional rights"225 Robeson's passport was subsequently revoked Campaigns were launched to protest the passport ban and the restriction of his right to travel over the next four years, but it was to no avail In 1957, unable to accept invitations to perform abroad, Paul Robeson sang for audiences in London, where 1,000 concert tickets for his telephone concert at St Pancras Town Hall sold out within an hour,226 and Wales via the transatlantic telephone cable TAT-1:227 "We have to learn the hard way that there is another way to sing"228

In 1956 in the United Kingdom, Topic Records, at that time part of the Workers Music Association, released a single of Robeson singing "Joe Hill", written by Alfred Hayes and Earl Robinson, backed with "John Brown's Body" Joe Hill 1879–1915 was a labor activist in the early 20th century, and "Joe Hill" sung by Robeson is the third most popular selection on the BBC radio programme Desert Island Discs among British Labour Party politicians, and in the top 14 most popular selections for all British politicians229

Nikita Khrushchev's denunciation of Stalinism at the 1956 Party Congress silenced Robeson on Stalin, though Robeson continued to praise the Soviet Union230 In 1956, after public pressure brought a one-time exemption to the travel ban, Robeson performed concerts in Canada in Marchcitation needed That year Robeson, along with close friend W E B Du Bois, compared the anti-Soviet uprising in Hungary to the "same sort of people who overthrew the Spanish Republican Government" and supported the Soviet invasion and suppression of the revolt231

An appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States to reinstate his confiscated passport had been rejected, but over the telephone Robeson was able to sing to the 5,000 gathered there as he had earlier in the year to London Due to the reaction to the promulgation of Robeson's political views,citation needed his recordings and films were removed from public distribution,citation needed and he was universally condemned in the US presscitation needed During the height of the Cold War, it became increasingly difficult in the United States to hear Robeson sing on commercial radio, buy his music or see his films232

Later yearsedit

1958–1960: Comeback toursedit

1958 saw the publication of Robeson's "manifesto-autobiography", Here I Stand233 His passport was restored in June 1958 via Kent v Dulles,234 and he embarked on a world tour using London as his basecitation needed235 In Moscow in August 1959, he received a tumultuous reception at the Lenin Stadium Khabarovsk where he sang classic Russian songs along with American standards236 Robeson and Essie then flew to Yalta to rest and spend time with Nikita Khrushchevcitation needed

On October 11, 1959, Robeson took part in a service at St Paul's Cathedral, the first black performer to sing there237 On a trip to Moscow, Robeson experienced bouts of dizziness and heart problems and was hospitalized for two months while Essie was diagnosed with operable cancer238 He recovered and returned to the UK to visit the National Eisteddfod

Meanwhile, the State Department had circulated negative literature about him throughout the media in India239

During his run at the Royal Shakespeare Company playing Othello in Tony Richardson's 1959 production at Stratford-upon-Avon, he befriended actor Andrew Faulds, whose family hosted him in the nearby village of Shottery In 1960, in what would prove to be his final concert performance in Great Britain, Robeson sang to raise money for the Movement for Colonial Freedom at the Royal Festival Hallcitation needed

In October 1960, Robeson embarked on a two-month concert tour of Australia and New Zealand with Essie, primarily to generate money,240 at the behest of Australian politician Bill Morrow241 While in Sydney, he became the first major artist to perform at the construction site of the future Sydney Opera House242 After appearing at the Brisbane Festival Hall, they went to Auckland where Robeson reaffirmed his support of Marxism,243 denounced the inequality faced by the Māori and efforts to denigrate their culture244 Thereabouts, Robeson publicly stated "the people of the lands of Socialism want peace dearly"245

During the tour he was introduced to Faith Bandler who interested the Robesons in the plight of the Australian Aborigines246 Robeson, consequently, became enraged and demanded the Australian government provide the Aborigines citizenship and equal rights247 He attacked the view of the Aborigines as being unsophisticated and uncultured,citation needed and declared, "there's no such thing as a backward human being, there is only a society which says they are backward"citation needed

1961–1963: Health breakdownedit

Back in London, he planned his return to the United States to participate in the Civil Rights Movement, stopping off in Africa, China and Cuba along the way Essie argued to stay in London, fearing that he'd be "killed" if he returned and would be "unable to make any money" due to harassment by the United States government Robeson disagreed and made his own travel arrangements, stopping off in Moscow in March 1961248

During an uncharacteristically wild party in his Moscow hotel room, he locked himself in his bedroom and attempted suicide by cutting his wrists249 Three days later, under Soviet medical care, he told his son that he felt extreme paranoia, thought that the walls of the room were moving and, overcome by a powerful sense of emptiness and depression, tried to take his own life250

Paul Jr believed that his father's health problems stemmed from attempts by CIA and MI5 to "neutralize" his father251252 He remembered that his father had had such fears prior to his prostate operation253 He said that three doctors treating Robeson in London and New York had been CIA contractors,251 and that his father's symptoms resulted from being "subjected to mind depatterning under MKULTRA", a secret CIA programme254 Martin Duberman claimed that Robeson's health breakdown was probably brought on by a combination of factors including extreme emotional and physical stress, bipolar depression, exhaustion and the beginning of circulatory and heart problems "Even without an organic predisposition and accumulated pressures of government harassment he might have been susceptible to a breakdown"255

Robeson stayed at the Barvikha Sanatorium until September 1961, when he left for London There his depression reemerged, and after another period of recuperation in Moscow, he returned to London Three days after arriving back, he became suicidal and suffered a panic attack while passing the Soviet Embassy256 He was admitted to The Priory hospital, where he underwent electroconvulsive therapy ECT and was given heavy doses of drugs for nearly two years, with no accompanying psychotherapy257

During his treatment at the Priory, Robeson was being monitored by the British MI5258 Both intelligence services were well aware of Robeson's suicidal state of mind An FBI memo described Robeson's debilitated condition, remarking that his "death would be much publicized" and would be used for Communist propaganda, necessitating continued surveillance259 Numerous memos advised that Robeson should be denied a passport renewal which would ostensibly jeopardize his fragile health and his recovery process249

In August 1963, disturbed about his treatment, friends had him transferred to the Buch Clinic in East Berlin260261 Given psychotherapy and less medication, his physicians found him still "completely without initiative" and they expressed "doubt and anger" about the "high level of barbiturates and ECT" that had been administered in London He rapidly improved, though his doctor stressed that "what little is left of Paul's health must be quietly conserved"262

1963–1976: Retirementedit

The Paul Robeson House in Philadelphia

In 1963, Robeson returned to the United States and for the remainder of his life lived in seclusion263 He momentarily assumed a role in the civil rights movement,251 making a few major public appearances before falling seriously ill during a tour Double pneumonia and a kidney blockage in 1965 nearly killed him263

Robeson was contacted by both Bayard Rustin and James Farmer about the possibility of becoming involved with the mainstream of the Civil Rights Movement264 Because of Rustin's past anti-Communist stances, Robeson declined to meet with him Robeson eventually met with Farmer, but because he was asked to denounce Communism and the Soviet Union in order to assume a place in the mainstream, Robeson adamantly declined265

After Essie, who had been his spokesperson to the media, died in December 1965,266 Robeson moved in with his son's family in New York City267261 He was rarely seen strolling near his Harlem apartment on Jumal Place sic, and his son responded to press inquiries that his "father's health does not permit him to perform or answer questions"261

In 1968, he settled at his sister's home in Philadelphia268261 Numerous celebrations were held in honor of Robeson over the next several years, including at public arenas that had previously shunned him, but he saw few visitors aside from close friends and gave few statements apart from messages to support current civil rights and international movements, feeling that his record "spoke for itself"269 At a Carnegie Hall tribute to mark his 75th birthday in 1973, he was unable to attend, but a taped message from him was played that said: "Though I have not been able to be active for several years, I want you to know that I am the same Paul, dedicated as ever to the worldwide cause of humanity for freedom, peace and brotherhood"270

Death, funeral, and public responseedit

On January 23, 1976, following complications of a stroke, Robeson died in Philadelphia at the age of 77271 He lay in state in Harlem272 and his funeral was held at his brother Ben's former parsonage, Mother Zion AME Zion Church,273 where Bishop J Clinton Hoggard performed the eulogy274 His twelve pall bearers included Harry Belafonte275 and Pollard276 He was interred in the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York275 According to biographer, Martin Duberman, contemporary post-mortem reflections on Robeson's life in "the white American pressignored the continuing inability of white America to tolerate a black maverick who refused to bend, downplayed the racist component central to his persecution during his life", as they "paid him gingerly respect and tipped their hat to him as a 'great American,'" while the black American press, "which had never, overall, been as hostile to Robeson as the white American press had, opined that his life 'would always be a challenge to white and Black America'"273

Legacy and honorsedit

The Robeson holdings in the archive of the Academy of the Arts of the German Democratic Republic, 1981

Early in his life, Robeson was one of the most influential participants in the Harlem Renaissance277 His achievements in sport and culture were all the more incredible given the barriers of racism he had to surmount278 Robeson brought Negro spirituals into the American mainstream 279 His theatrical performances have been recognized as the first to display dignity for black actors and pride in African heritage,280 and he was among the first artists to refuse to play live to segregated audiences

After McCarthyism, Robeson's stand on anti-colonialism in the 1940s would never again have a voice in American politics, but the African independence movements of the late 1950s and 1960s would vindicate his anti-colonial agenda281

Several public and private establishments he was associated with have been landmarked,282 or named after him283 His efforts to end Apartheid in South Africa were posthumously rewarded by the United Nations General Assembly284 Paul Robeson: Tribute to an Artist won an Academy Award for best short documentary in 1980285 In 1995, he was named to the College Football Hall of Fame286 In the centenary of his birth, which was commemorated around the world,287 he was awarded a Lifetime Achievement Grammy Award,288 as well as a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame289 Robeson is also a member of the American Theater Hall of Fame290

As of 2011update the run of Othello starring Robeson was the longest-running production of a Shakespeare play ever staged on Broadway291 He received a Donaldson Award for his performance292 His Othello was characterised by Michael A Morrison in 2011 as a high point in Shakespearean theatre in the 20th century293

Subsequently, he received the Spingarn medal from the NAACP294 His starring role as an African American in the film "was a feat not repeated for more than two decades in the US"123 Paul Robeson: Tribute to an Artist won an Academy Award for best short documentary in 1980

Robeson left Australia as a respected, albeit controversial, figure and his support for Aboriginal rights had a profound effect in Australia over the next decade295

Robeson archives exist at the Academy of Arts;296 Howard University,297 and the Schomburg Center298 In 2010, Susan Robeson launched a project by Swansea University and the Welsh Assembly to create an online learning resource in her grandfather's memory299

Robeson connected his own life and history not only to his fellow Americans and to his people in the South, but to all the people of Africa and its diaspora whose lives had been fundamentally shaped by the same processes that had brought his ancestors to America300 While a consensus definition of his legacy remains controversial,301 to deny his courage in the face of public and governmental pressure would be to defame his courage302

In 1976, the apartment building on Edgecombe Avenue in the Washington Heights section of Manhattan where Robeson lived during the early 1940s was officially renamed the Paul Robeson Residence, and declared a National Historic Landmark303304305 In 1993, the building was designated a New York City landmark as well306 Edgecombe Avenue itself was later co-named Paul Robeson Boulevard

In 1978, TASS announced that the Latvian Shipping Company had named one of its new 40,000-ton tankers Paul Robeson in honor of the singer TASS said the ship's crew would establish a Robeson museum aboard the tanker307

In 2002, a blue plaque was unveiled by English Heritage on the house in Hampstead where Robeson lived in 1929–1930308

In 2004, the US Postal Service issued a 37-cent stamp honoring Robeson309

In 2007, the Criterion Collection, a company that specializes in releasing special edition versions of classic and contemporary films, released a DVD boxed set of Robeson films310

In 2009, Robeson was inducted into the New Jersey Hall of Fame311

The main campus library at Rutgers University-Camden is named after Robeson,312 as is the campus center at Rutgers University-Newark313 The Paul Robeson Cultural Center is on the campus of Rutgers University-New Brunswickcitation needed

In popular cultureedit

Tom Rob Smith's novel Agent 6 2012 includes the character Jesse Austin, "a black singer, political activist and communist sympathizer modeled after real-life actor/activist Paul Robeson"314

In 1954, the Kurdish poet Abdulla Goran wrote the poem "Bangêk bo Pol Ropsin" "A Call for Paul Robeson" In the same year, another Kurdish poet, Cegerxwîn, also wrote a poem about him, "Heval Pol Robson" "Comrade Pol Robson", which was put to music by singer Şivan Perwer in 1976315

Black 47's album Home of The Brave includes the song "Paul Robeson Born To Be Free", which features spoken quotes of Robeson as part of the song316 These quotes are drawn from Robeson's testimony before the House Un-American Activities Committee in June 1956

In 1978, James Earl Jones performed his one-man show about Paul Robeson on Broadway317 This was made into a TV movie in 1979citation needed

In November 2014 it was reported that film director Steve McQueen's next film would be a biopic about Paul Robeson318 As of 2017, the film has not been made

In 2001, Welsh rock band Manic Street Preachers released a song titled "Let Robeson Sing" as a tribute to Robeson, which reached number 19 on the UK singles chart

Filmographyedit

Main article: Paul Robeson filmography

See alsoedit

  • African American portal
  • Human rights portal
  • Politics portal
  • Film portal
  • Biography portal
  • Political views of Paul Robeson

Referencesedit

  1. ^ "Paul Robeson Quotations" Paul Robeson Centennial Celebration Retrieved March 15, 2017 
  2. ^ Vizetelly, Frank H March 3, 1934 "What's the Name, Please" The Literary Digest Retrieved March 15, 2017 
  3. ^ http://wwwcpsrcsuchicagoedu/robeson/links/discographyhtml - accessed 12 June, 2017
  4. ^ a b Robeson, Jr 2001, p 3; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 18, Duberman 1989, pp 4–5
  5. ^ Brown 1997, pp 5–6, 145–149; cf Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 4–5; Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 10–12
  6. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 4, 337–338; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 4, Duberman 1989, p 4, Brown 1997, pp 9–10
  7. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 5–6, 14; cf Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 4–5, Duberman 1989, pp 4–6, Brown 1997, pp 17, 26
  8. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, p 3; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 18, Brown 1997, p 21
  9. ^ Duberman 1989, pp 6–7; cf Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 5–6, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 18–20
  10. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 16–17; cf Duberman 1989, p 12
  11. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 5–6; cf Duberman 1989, pp 6–9, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 18–20, Brown 1997, p 26
  12. ^ Duberman 1989, p 9; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 21, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 6–7, Brown 1997, p 28
  13. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 22–23; cf Duberman 1989, p 8, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 7–8, Brown 1997, pp 25–29; cf Robeson 1958, p 7
  14. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, p 11; cf Duberman 1989, p 9, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 27–29
  15. ^ Duberman 1989, pp 9–10; cf Brown 1997, p 39, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 13–14
  16. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, p 17; cf Duberman 1989, p 30, Brown 1997, pp 46–47
  17. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 37–38; cf Duberman 1989, p 12, Brown 1997, pp 49–51
  18. ^ Duberman 1989, pp 13–16; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 34–36, Brown 1997, pp 43, 46, 48–49
  19. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 37–38; cf Robeson, Jr 2001, p 16, Duberman 1989, pp 13–16, Brown 1997, pp 46–47
  20. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 41–42; cf Brown 1997, pp 54–55, Duberman 1989, p 17, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 17–18; contra The dispute is over whether it was a one-year or four-year scholarship Robeson Found Emphasis to Win Too Great in College Football 1926-03-13
  21. ^ Duberman 1989, p 11; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 40–41, Robeson 1958, pp 18–19, Brown 1997, pp 53–54, 65, Carroll 1998, p 58
  22. ^ Duberman 1989, p 19; cf Brown 1997, pp 60, 64, Gilliam 1978, Robeson, Jr 2001, p 20
  23. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 45–49; cf Duberman 1989, pp 19, 24, Brown 1997, pp 60, 65
  24. ^ Duberman 1989, pp 20–21; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 49–50, Brown 1997, pp 61–63
  25. ^ Van Gelder, Robert 1944-01-16 "Robeson Remembers: An interview with the Star of Othello, Partly about his Past" New York Times pp X1 ; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 49–50, Duberman 1989, pp 20–21, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 22–23
  26. ^ Yeakey, Lamont H Autumn 1973 "A Student Without Peer: The Undergraduate College Years of Paul Robeson" PDF Journal of Negro Education 42 4: 499 JSTOR 2966562 
  27. ^ Duberman 1989, p 24; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 54, Brown 1997, p 71, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 28, 31–32
  28. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 54; cf Duberman 1989, p 24, Levy 2000, pp 1–2, Brown 1997, p 71, Robeson, Jr 2001, p 28
  29. ^ Duberman 1989, p 24; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 54, Brown 1997, p 70, Robeson, Jr 2001, p 35
  30. ^ Brown & 1997, pp 68–70; Duberman 1989, pp 22–23, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 59–60, Robeson, Jr 2001, p 27, Pitt 1972, p 42
  31. ^ Duberman 1989, pp 22, 573; cf Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 29–30, Brown 1997, pp 74–82, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 65–66
  32. ^ Du Bois, W E B March 1918 "Men of the Month" 15 5 The Crisis Publishing Company, Inc: 229 ISSN 0011-1422 ; cf Marable 2005, p 171
  33. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 68
  34. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, p 33; cf Duberman 1989, p 25, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 68–69, Brown 1997, pp 85–87
  35. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 68–69
  36. ^ Robeson 1958, p 6
  37. ^ Duberman 1989, p 25; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 68–69, Brown 1997, pp 86–87, Robeson, Jr 2001, p 33
  38. ^ Duberman 1989, p 24; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 69, 74, 437, Robeson, Jr 2001, p 35
  39. ^ "Hall of Fame: Robeson" Record-Journal 1995-01-19 p 20 ; The number of letters varies between 12 and 15 based on author; Duberman 1989, p 22, Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 73, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 34–35
  40. ^ Jenkins, Burris 1922-09-28 "Four Coaches—O'Neill of Columbia, Sanderson of Rutgers, Gargan of Fordham, and Thorp of NYU—Worrying About Outcome of Impending Battles" The Evening World p 24 
  41. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 66; cf Duberman 1989, pp 22–23, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 30, 35
  42. ^ "Who Belongs to Phi Beta Kappa" The Phi Beta Kappa Society Archived from the original on 2012-01-21 , Brown 1997, p 94, Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 74, Duberman 1989, p 24
  43. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 74; cf Duberman 1989, p 26, Brown 1997, p 94
  44. ^ Brown 1997, pp 94–95; cf Duberman 1989, p 30, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 75–76, Harris 1998, p 47
  45. ^ Duberman 1989, p 26; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 75, Brown 1997, p 94, Robeson, Jr 2001, p 36
  46. ^ Kirshenbaum, Jerry 1972-03-27 "Paul Robeson: Remaking A Fallen Hero" Sports Illustrated 36 13: 75–77 
  47. ^ Robeson, Paul Leroy 1919-06-10 "The New Idealism" The Targum 50 1918–19: 570–571 ; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 76, Duberman 1989, pp 26–27, Brown 1997, p 95, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 36–39
  48. ^ "Thorpe-M'Millan Fight Great Duel: Robeson Scores Both Touchdowns for Locals Against Indians" The Milwaukee Sentinel 1922-11-20 p 7 ; cf Badgers Trim Thorpe's Team
  49. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, p 43; cf Boyle and Bunie; 78–82, Brown 1997, p 107
  50. ^ Duberman 1989, p 34; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 82, Robeson, Jr 2001, p 44, Carroll 1998, pp 140–141
  51. ^ Brown 1997, p 111; cf Gilliam 1978, p 25, Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 53, Duberman 1989, p 41
  52. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 82
  53. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 43–44; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 82, Brown 1997, pp 107–108
  54. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 143; cf Robeson, Jr 2001, p 45
  55. ^ Weisenfeld 1997, pp 161–162; cf Robeson 1958, p 2
  56. ^ Duberman 1989, pp 34–35, 37–38; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 87–89, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 46–48
  57. ^ Duberman 1989, p 43
  58. ^ Peterson 1997, p 93; cf Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 48–49; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 89, 104, Who's Who New York Times 1924-05-11
  59. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 50–52; cf Duberman 1989, pp 39–41; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 88–89, 94, Brown 1997, p 119
  60. ^ Levy 2000, p 30; cf Akron Pros 1920 by Bob Carrol, Carroll 1998, pp 147–148, Robeson, Jr 2001, p 53
  61. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 104–105
  62. ^ Darnton, Charles 1922-04-05 "'Taboo' Casts Voodoo Spell" The Evening World p 24 ; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 100–105, Review of TabooDuberman 1989, p 43
  63. ^ Wintz 2007, pp 6–8; cf Duberman 1989, pp 44–45, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 57–59, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 98–100
  64. ^ Duberman 1989, pp 44–45; cf Brown 1997, p 120, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 57–59, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 100–101
  65. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 105–107; cf Brown 1997, p 120, Duberman 1989, pp 47–48, 50, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 59, 63–64
  66. ^ Brown 1997, pp 120–121; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 105–106
  67. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 139
  68. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 108–109; cf Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 68–69, Duberman 1989, pp 34, 51, Carroll 1998, pp 151–152
  69. ^ Levy 2000, pp 31–32; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 111
  70. ^ Duberman 1989, pp 54–55; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 111–113, Robeson, Jr 2001, Brown 1997, p 122
  71. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 111–114; cf Duberman 1989, pp 54–55, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 71–72, Gilliam 1978, p 29
  72. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 115; cf History, Schomburg Unit Listed as Landmark: Spawning Ground of Talent 40 Seats Are Not Enough Plans for a Museum
  73. ^ Duberman 1989, pp 52–55; Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 111, 116–117; Robeson, Jr 2001, p 73
  74. ^ "All God's Chillun" Time March 17, 1924 The dramatic miscegenation will shortly be enacted  produced by the Provincetown Players, headed by O'Neill, dramatist; Robert Edmond Jones, artist, and Kenneth Macgowan, author Many white people do not like the plot Neither do many black ; Duberman 1989, pp 57–59, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 118–121, Gilliam 1978, pp 32–33
  75. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 73–76; cf Gilliam 1978, pp 36–37, Duberman 1989, pp 53, 57–59, 61–62, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 90–91, 122–123
  76. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 123
  77. ^ Madden, Will Anthony 1924-05-17 "Paul Robeson Rises To Supreme Heights In "The Emperor Jones" Pittsburgh Courier p 8 ; cf Corbin, John 1924-05-07 "The Play; Jazzed Methodism" New York Times p 18Duberman 1989, pp 62–63, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 124–125
  78. ^ Young, Stark 1924-08-24 "The Prompt Book" New York Times pp X1 ; Chicago Tribune entitled: "All God's Chillun" Plays Without a Single ProtestBoyle & Bunie 2005, pp 126–127, Duberman 1989, pp 64–65
  79. ^ "And there is an 'Othello' when I am readyOne of the great measures of a people is its culture Above all things, we boast that the only true artistic contributions of America are Negro in origin We boast of the culture of ancient AfricaIn any discussion of art or culture,one must include music and the drama and its interpretation So today Roland Hayes is infinitely more of a racial asset than many who 'talk' at great length Thousands of people hear him, see him, are moved by him, and are brought to a clearer understanding of human values If I can so something of a like nature, I shall be happy My early experiences give me much hope" cf Wilson 2000, p 292
  80. ^ Gilliam 1978, pp 38–40; cf Duberman 1989, pp 68–71, 76, Sampson 2005, p 9
  81. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 142–143; cf "I Owe My Success To My Wife," Says Paul Robeson, Star In O'Neill's Drama
  82. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, p 84
  83. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, p 84; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 149, 152
  84. ^ Nollen 2010, pp 14, 18–19; cf Duberman 1989, p 67, Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 160, Gilliam 1978, p 43
  85. ^ "Robeson to Sing for Nursery Fund: Benefit to Be Given in Greenwich Village Theatre March 15" New York Amsterdam News 1925-03-11 p 9 
  86. ^ Coates, Ulysses 1925-04-18 "Radio" Chicago Defender pp A8 ; cf Robeson to Sing Spirituals Over Radio 1925-04-08
  87. ^ Duberman 1989, p 78; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 139, Robeson, Jr 2001, p 85
  88. ^ Duberman 1989, p 79; cf Gilliam 1978, pp 41–42, Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 140, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 85–86
  89. ^ "Clara Young Loses $75,000 in Jewels" New York Times 1925-04-20 p 21 ; cf Paul Robeson, Lawrence Brown Score Big New York Success With Negro Songs, MusicDuberman 1989, pp 80–81
  90. ^ Duberman 1989, pp 82, 86; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 149, Robeson, Jr 2001, p 93, Robeson on Victor 1925-09-16
  91. ^ Gilliam 1978, pp 45–47; Duberman 1989, pp 83, 88–98, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 161–167, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 95–97
  92. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 169–184; cf Duberman 1989, pp 98–106, Gilliam 1978, pp 47–49
  93. ^ Duberman 1989, p 106; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 184
  94. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, p 143; cf Duberman 1989, p 106, Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 184
  95. ^ Duberman 1989, p 110; cf Robeson, Jr 2001, p 147, Gilliam 1978, p 49
  96. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 186; cf Duberman 1989, p 112, Robeson, Jr 2001, p 148
  97. ^ "Drury Lane Theatre: 'Showboat'" PDF The Times 1928-05-04 p 14 Mr Robeson's melancholy song about the 'old river' is one of the two chief hits of the evening ; Duberman 1989, pp 113–115, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 188–192, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 149–156
  98. ^ a b Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 192
  99. ^ Rogers, J A 1928-10-06 "'Show Boat' Pleasure-Disappointment": Rogers Gives New View Says Race Talent Is Submerged" Pittsburgh Courier pp A2 Show Boat is, so far as the Negro is concerned, a regrettable bit of American niggerism introduced into Europe ; Duberman 1989, p 114, Gilliam 1978, p 52
  100. ^ "Mrs Paul Robeson Majestic Passenger: Coming to Settle Business Affairs of Her Distinguished Husband" New York Amsterdam News 1928-08-22 p 8 ; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 193–197; cf Duberman 1989, p 114, Gilliam 1978, p 52
  101. ^ "Sings For Prince Of Wales" Pittsburgh Courier 1928-07-28 p 12 ; Duberman 1989, p 115, Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 196, Robeson, Jr 2001, p 153
  102. ^ "English Parliament Honors Paul Robeson" Chicago Defender 1928-12-01 pp A1 ; cf Seton 1958, p 30; cf Robeson, Jr 2001, p 155, Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 
  103. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 205–207; cf Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 153–156, Gilliam 1978, p 52, Duberman 1989, p 118
  104. ^ Duberman 1989, p 126–127
  105. ^ Duberman 1989, p 123-124
  106. ^ Duberman, Martin 1988-12-28 "Writing Robeson" The Nation 267 22: 33–38 ; cf Gilliam 1978, p 57, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 159–160, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 100–101
  107. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, p 163–165
  108. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 172–173; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 230–234, Duberman 1989, pp 139–140
  109. ^ Duberman 1989, pp 143–144; cf Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 165–166
  110. ^ Nollen 2010, p 24; cf Duberman 1989, pp 129–130, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 221–223
  111. ^ Duberman 1989, pp 133–138; cf Nollen 2010, pp 59–60
  112. ^ Morrison 2011, p 114; cf Swindall 2010, p 23, Robeson, Jr 2001, p 166
  113. ^ Nollen 2010, p 29; cf Gilliam 1978, p 60, Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 226–229
  114. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 176–177; cf Nollen 2010, p 29
  115. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 178–182; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 238–240, 257; cf Gilliam 1978, pp 62–64, Duberman 1989, pp 140–144
  116. ^ Oakley, Annie 1932-05-24 "The Theatre and Its People" Border Cities Star p 4 ; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 253–254, Duberman 1989, p 161, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 192–193
  117. ^ Duberman 1989, p 161; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 258–259, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 132, 194
  118. ^ Sources are unclear on this point Duberman 1989, p 145; cf Robeson, Jr 2001, p 182
  119. ^ Duberman 1989, pp 162–163; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 262–263, Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 194–196
  120. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 195–200; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 267–268, Duberman 1989, p 166
  121. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 271–274; Duberman 1989, p 167, Robeson, Jr 2001, p 204
  122. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 269–271
  123. ^ a b c Nollen 2010, pp 41–42; cf Robeson, Jr 2001, p 207; Duberman 1989, pp 168–169
  124. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 275–279; cf Duberman 1989, pp 167–168
  125. ^ "Black Greatness" The Border Cities Star 1933-09-08 p 4 ; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 284–285; Duberman 1989, pp 169–170
  126. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 285–286
  127. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 284–285
  128. ^ The rationale for Robeson's sudden interest in African history is viewed as inexplicable by one of his biographers and no biographers have stated an explanation for what Duberman terms a "sudden interest"; cf Cameron 1990, p 285
  129. ^ a b Nollen 2010, p 52
  130. ^ Nollen 2010, p 45
  131. ^ Duberman 1989, p 182–185
  132. ^ Smith, Ronald A Summer 1979 "The Paul Robeson—Jackie Robinson Saga and a Political Collision" Journal of Sport History 6 2 ; Duberman 1989, pp 184–185, 628–629
  133. ^ Robeson 1978, pp 94–96; cf Smith, Vern 1935-01-15 "'I am at Home,' Says Robeson at Reception in Soviet Union", Daily Worker
  134. ^ Nollen 2010, p 53–55
  135. ^ Nollen 2010, p 53; cf Duberman 1989, pp 78–182
  136. ^ Rotha, Paul Spring 1935 "Sanders on the River" Cinema Quarterly 3 3: 175–176 You may, like me, feel embarrassed for Robeson To portray on the public screen your own race as a smiling but cunning rogue, as clay in a woman's hands especially when she is of the sophisticated American Brand, as toady to the white man is no small featIt is important to remember that the multitudes of this country Britain who see Africa in this film, are being encouraged to believe this fudge is real It is a disturbing thought To exploit the past is the historian's loss To exploit the present means in this case, the disgrace of a Continent ; Duberman 1989, pp 180–182; contra: "Leicester Square Theatre: Sanders of the River", The Times: p 12 1935-04-03
  137. ^ Low 1985, p 257; cf Duberman 1989, pp 181–182
  138. ^ Low 1985, p 170–171
  139. ^ Sources are unclear if Robeson unilaterally took the final product of the film as insulting or if his distaste was abetted by criticism of the film Nollen 2010, p 53; Duberman 1989, p 182
  140. ^ Lucy Fischer and Marcia Landy eds, Stars: The Film Reader, Routledge, 2004, p 209
  141. ^ Nancy Cunard, "Stevedore in London", The Crisis, August 1935, p 238
  142. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, p 280-281
  143. ^ James, Høgsbjerg & Dubois 2012
  144. ^ Paul Robeson on Internet Movie Database
  145. ^ Paul Robeson on Internet Movie Database
  146. ^ Paul Robeson on Internet Movie Database
  147. ^ "Africa Sings" Villon Films Retrieved 2012-07-10 
  148. ^ Paul Robeson on Internet Movie Database
  149. ^ "Most Popular Stars of 1937: Choice of British Public" The Mercury Hobart, Tas: 1860–1954 Hobart, Tas: National Library of Australia 12 February 1938 p 5 Retrieved 25 April 2012 ; cf Richards 2001, p 18
  150. ^ Robeson 1958, p 53; cf Robeson 1981, p 38, Duberman 1989, p 220
  151. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, p 292; cf Boyle & Bunie 2005, pp 375–378
  152. ^ Glazer defines it as a change from a "lyric of defeat into a rallying cry" Glazer 2007, p 167; cf Robeson, Jr 2001, p 293, Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 381, Lennox 2011, p 124, Robeson 1981, p 37, Hopkins 1998, p 313 "At Manchester Free Trade Hall on September 28, 1938, Paul Robeson led in singing the famous verses of  the hymn Jerusalem  This suggests a very different spirit from that which the historian Gareth Stedman Jones found a generation earlier He had written of workers who buried their millennial dreams and adopted a defensive strategy to fend off the aggressions of employers of the 1890s  For those who sang Jerusalem then, it was not as a battle-cry but as a hymn For those caught up in the passion play of Spain, and still eager to recapture lost ideological positions it had become a battle cry"
  153. ^ Duberman 1989, p 222
  154. ^ "Paul Robeson at the Unity Theater", Daily Express June 20, 1938; cf Duberman 1989, pp 222–223
  155. ^ "Paul Robeson" Coalfield Web Materials University of Swansea 2002 
  156. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 396
  157. ^ "Spanish Relief Efforts: Albert Hall Meeting £1,000 Collected for Children" The Manchester Guardian 1937-06-25 p 6 ; cf Brown 1997, p 77, Robeson, Jr 2001, p 372
  158. ^ Beevor 2006, p 356
  159. ^ Weyden, p 433–434
  160. ^ "Paul Robeson" Rutas Culturales Retrieved 2016-10-29 
  161. ^ Beevor 2006, p 356; cf Eby 2007, pp 279–280, Landis 1967, pp 245–246
  162. ^ Wyden 1983, p 433–434
  163. ^ "India's Struggle for Freedom: Mr Nehru on Imperialism and Fascism" The Guardian 1938-06-28 ; Duberman 1989, p 225
  164. ^ Duberman 1989, p 223 "He explained to the press that 'something inside has turned',; Nollen 2010, p 122
  165. ^ Duberman 1989, p 223
  166. ^ "Robeson Joins London Workers' Theatre" Chicago Defender 1938-07-02 p 24 ; cf Nollen 2010, p 122
  167. ^ Boyle & Bunie 2005, p 320; cf Von Eschen 2014
  168. ^ Bourne, Stephen; Dr Hywel Francis "The Proud Valley" PDF Edinburgh Film Guide Archived from the original PDF on 2012-01-23 
  169. ^ Price & 8–9; cf Collier's 
  170. ^ Duberman 1989, p 236–238
  171. ^ FBI record, "Paul Robeson" FBI 100-25857, New York, December 8, 1942
  172. ^ Duberman 1989, p 259–261
  173. ^ Lustiger 2003, p 125–127
  174. ^ Paul Robeson at the Internet Broadway Database
  175. ^ Dorinson & Pencak 2004, p 1
  176. ^ Duberman 1989, p 295
  177. ^ Duberman 1989, p 296-297
  178. ^ a b c Duberman 1989, p 307
  179. ^ "Group Confers with Truman on Lynching" Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 1946-09-24 p 2 
  180. ^ Nollen 2010, p 157–156
  181. ^ Lewis 2000, p 522
  182. ^ Duberman 1989, p 249-250
  183. ^ Duberman 1989, p 241
  184. ^ Duberman 1989, p 296
  185. ^ Cornell, Douglas B 1947-12-05 "Attorney General's List of 'Subversive Groups' is Derided by Solon" The Modesto Bee p 1 ; cf Goldstein 2008, pp 62, 66, 88
  186. ^ Bay Area Paul Robeson Centennial Committee, Paul Robeson Chronology Part 5
  187. ^ Duberman 1989, p 324
  188. ^ Duberman 1989, p 326-327
  189. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, p 137
  190. ^ Robeson 1978, p 197–198
  191. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 142–143; Duberman 1989, pp 342–345, 687
  192. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, pp 142–143; cf Robeson 1978, pp 197–198, Seton 1958, p 179, Interview with Paul Robeson, Jnr
  193. ^ "Studs Terkel, Paul Robeson – Speak of Me As I Am, BBC, 1998"
  194. ^ Duberman 1989, p 352–353
  195. ^ Lustiger 2003, p 210–211
  196. ^ McConnell 2010, p 348
  197. ^ a b Seton 1958, p 210-211
  198. ^ Duberman 1989, p 353–354
  199. ^ Robeson Jr 2010, pp 142–143
  200. ^ a b Duberman 1989, pp 361–362; cf Robinson 1978, pp 94–98
  201. ^ a b Duberman 1989, pp 358–360; cf Robinson 1978, pp 94–98
  202. ^ Duberman 1989, p 364; cf Robeson 1981, p 181
  203. ^ Duberman 1989, pp 364–370; cf Robeson 1981, p 181
  204. ^ LA Times: Jan 1, 1950, p 
  205. ^ Walsh 1949, p 689
  206. ^ Brown 1997, p 162; cf Robeson 1971, p 5 Walsh only listed a ten man All-American team for the 1917 team and he lists no team due to World War I Walsh 1949, pp 16–18, 32 The information in the book was compiled by information from the colleges, " but many deserving names are missing entirely from the pages of the book because  their alma mater was unable to provide them – Glenn S Warner" Walsh 1949, p 6 The Rutgers University list was presented to Walsh by Gordon A McCoy, Director of Publicity for Rutgers, and although this list says that Rutgers had two All-Americans at the time of the publishing of the book, the book only lists the other All-American and does not list Robeson as being an All-American Walsh 1949, p 684
  207. ^ "Mrs Roosevelt sees a 'Misunderstanding'" New York Times 1950-03-15 
  208. ^ Wright 1975, p 97
  209. ^ Von Eschen 2014, p 181-185
  210. ^ Duberman 1989, p 388–389
  211. ^ Robert Alan, "Paul Robeson - the Lost Shepherd" The Crisis, November 1951 pp 569–573
  212. ^ Duberman 1989, p 396
  213. ^ Foner 2001, p 112–115
  214. ^ Von Eschen 2014, p 127
  215. ^ Duberman 1989, p 396; cf Foner 2001, pp 112–115
  216. ^ Duberman 1989, p 397–398
  217. ^ "Paul Robeson is Awarded Stalin Prize" The News and Courier 1952-12-22 p 6 
  218. ^ "Post Robeson Gets Stalin Peace Prize" The Victoria Advocate 1953-09-25 p 5 
  219. ^ Robeson 1978, p 347–349
  220. ^ Duberman 1989, p 354
  221. ^ Robeson 1978, p 236–241
  222. ^ Duberman 1989, p 400
  223. ^ Duberman 1989, p 411
  224. ^ "Testimony of Paul Robeson before the House Committee on Un-American Activities, June 12, 1956" History Matters Retrieved 30 January 2015 
  225. ^ "The Many Faces of Paul Robeson, June 12, 1956" US National Archives Retrieved 3 February 2017 
  226. ^ Presenters: Aleks Krotoski 5 January 2016 "Hidden Histories of the Information Age: TAT-1" Hidden Histories of the Information Age 9:50 minutes in BBC Radio 4 
  227. ^ Presenters: Aleks Krotoski 5 January 2016 "Hidden Histories of the Information Age: TAT-1" Hidden Histories of the Information Age 0:55 minutes in BBC Radio 4 
  228. ^ Howard, Tony 2009-01-29 "Showcase: Let Robeson Sing" University of Warwick 
  229. ^ Matthew Weaver and George Arnett 21 November 2014 "Will Theresa May toe party line on Desert Island Disks" The Guardian Retrieved 28 January 2015 
  230. ^ Duberman 1989, p 437
  231. ^ Barry Finger, "Paul Robeson: A Flawed Martyr", in: New Politics Vol 7 No 1 Summer 1998
  232. ^ Robeson 1978, p 3–8
  233. ^ Duberman 1989, p 458
  234. ^ Duberman 1989, p 463
  235. ^ "British Give Singer Paul Robeson Hero's Welcome" The Modesto Bee 1958-07-11 
  236. ^ Duberman 1989, p 469
  237. ^ Duberman 1989, p 471
  238. ^ Robeson 1981, p 218
  239. ^ Duberman 1989, p 472
  240. ^ Duberman 1989, p 487–491
  241. ^ Curthoys 2010, p 171
  242. ^ Steinke, Nicole "Paul Robeson: the singer who fought for justice and paid with his life" 
  243. ^ Duberman 1989, p 489
  244. ^ Curthoys 2010, p 168; Duberman 1989, p 489
  245. ^ Robeson 1978, pp 470–471
  246. ^ Curthoys 2010, pp 164, 173–175; cf Duberman 1989, p 490
  247. ^ Curthoys 2010, pp 175–177; cf Duberman 1989
  248. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, p 309
  249. ^ a b Duberman 1989, p 498-499
  250. ^ Nollen 2010, p 180
  251. ^ a b c Radio broadcast presented by Amy Goodman, Did the US Government Drug Paul Robeson Part 1 Democracy Now July 1, 1999 Did the US Government Drug Paul Robeson Part 2 Democracy Now July 6, 1999
  252. ^ Duberman 1989, p 563–564
  253. ^ Duberman 1989, p 438–442
  254. ^ Robeson, Paul Jr 1999-12-20 "Time Out: The Paul Robeson Files" The Nation 269 21: 9 
  255. ^ Duberman 1989, p 498–499
  256. ^ Duberman 1989, p 735–736
  257. ^ Nollen 2010, p 180–181
  258. ^ Travis, Alan 2003-03-06 "Paul Robeson was tracked by MI5" The Guardian Guardian News and Media Limited ; cf Western Mail, 1
  259. ^ Duberman 1989, p 509
  260. ^ Nollen 2010, p 182
  261. ^ a b c d Lamparski, Richard 1968 Whatever Became of , Vol II Ace Books p 9 
  262. ^ Duberman 1989, p 516–518
  263. ^ a b Duberman 1989, p 537
  264. ^ Robeson, Jr 2001, p 346
  265. ^ Farmer 1985, p 297–298
  266. ^ Duberman 1989, p 162–163
  267. ^ Robeson 1981, p 235–237
  268. ^ Bell 1986, p 
  269. ^ Duberman 1989, p 516
  270. ^ Nollen 2010, p 186
  271. ^ "Died" Time February 2, 1976 ; cf Duberman 1989, p 548
  272. ^ Robeson 1981, p 236–237
  273. ^ a b Duberman 1989, p 549
  274. ^ Hoggard, Bishop J Clinton "Eulogy" The Paul Robeson Foundation 
  275. ^ a b Nollen 2010, p 187
  276. ^ Carroll 1998, p 
  277. ^ Finkelman 2007, p 363; cf Dorinson 2002, p 74
  278. ^ Miller, Patrick B 1 January 2005 "Muscular assimilationism: sport and the paradoxes of racial reform" In Ross, Charles K Race and Sport: The Struggle for Equality on and Off the Field Univ Press of Mississippi pp 149–150 ISBN 978-1-57806-897-5 
  279. ^ Duberman 1989, p 81
  280. ^ Duberman 1989, p 90; cf Bogle 2016, p 100, Nollen 2010, p 
  281. ^ Von Eschen 2014, p 185
  282. ^ "List of National Historic Landmarks by State" PDF National Historic Landmarks Program 2012-01-03 p 71 
  283. ^ "Paul Robeson Galleries" ; cf Paul Robeson Library, 2 The Paul Robeson Cultural Center, 3
  284. ^ O'Malley, Padraig "1978" Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory 
  285. ^ "1980" Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences 
  286. ^ Armour, Nancy 1995-08-26 "Brown, Robeson inducted into college football hall" The Day Reid MacCluggage pp C6 
  287. ^ "Paul Robeson Centennial Celebration; Robeson Peace Arch Concert Anniversary" 
  288. ^ "From the Valley of Obscurity, Robeson's Baritone Rings Out; 22 Years After His Death, Actor-Activist Gets a Grammy" The New York Times February 25, 1998 
  289. ^ "The Paul Robeson centennial" Ebony 53 7: 110–114 1998-05-01 ; cf Wade-Lewis 2007, p 108
  290. ^ "Theater Hall of Fame members" 
  291. ^ The Broadway League "Home - IBDB: The official source for Broadway Information" ibdbcom 
  292. ^ "Paul Robeson as Othello" 2010-07-29 
  293. ^ Morrison 2011, pp 114-140
  294. ^ "Spingarn Medal Winners: 1915 to Today" naacporg 
  295. ^ Curthoys 2010, pp 178–180; cf Duberman 1989, p 491
  296. ^ "Paul Robeson zu Gast Unter den Linden – Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin" in German Hu-berlinde 
  297. ^ Duberman 1989, p 557
  298. ^ "Paul Robeson Archive" 515 Malcolm X Boulevard New York, NY: New York Public Libraries 
  299. ^ "Paul Robeson's granddaughter at Ebbw Vale eisteddfod - BBC News" Retrieved 2016-08-12 
  300. ^ Von Eschen 2014, p 1–2
  301. ^ Balaji 2009, p 430–432
  302. ^ Hiebert, Hagen 2010 Reflections on a Life: Paul Robeson Remembered Eastside Inc, Charbo 
  303. ^ Gomez, Lynn 2012-01-16 "National Register of Historical Places Inventory -- Nomination Form: Paul Robeson Residence" PDF United States Department of the Interior: National Park Service Archived from the original PDF on 2012-01-16 Retrieved 2012-01-16 
  304. ^ NPS Civil Rights
  305. ^ Paul Robeson Residence Accompanying 3 photos, exterior, from 1976dead link
  306. ^ New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Dolkart, Andrew S text; Postal, Matthew A text 2009, Postal, Matthew A, ed, Guide to New York City Landmarks 4th ed, New York: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-470-28963-1 , p211
  307. ^ "Tanker Named 'Paul Robeson'" The Hour UPI June 1, 1978 Retrieved June 27, 2015 
  308. ^ "English Heritage Unveil A Blue Plaque To Honour Paul Robeson" untoldlondonorguk Retrieved 7 May 2013 
  309. ^ "Stamp Series" United States Postal Service Retrieved Sep 2, 2013 
  310. ^ "Paul Robeson: Portraits of the Artist" The Criterion Collection Retrieved Dec 8, 2013 
  311. ^ Mascarenhas, Rohan May 3, 2009 "2009 New Jersey Hall of Fame Inductees Welcomed at NJPAC" The Star-Ledger Retrieved June 3, 2017 
  312. ^ "Paul Robeson Library" Rutgers University Camden Retrieved Jan 22, 2015 
  313. ^ "Paul Robeson Campus Center" Rutgers University Newark Retrieved Jan 22, 2015 
  314. ^ Woods, Paula January 27, 2012 "Book review: 'Agent 6' by Tom Rob Smith" Los Angeles Times 
  315. ^ Yüksel, Metin 2015 "Solidarity without borders: The poetic tributes to Paul Robeson of Goran and Cegerxwîn" Journal of Postcolonial Writing 51 5: 556–73 Retrieved 21 January 2017 
  316. ^ "Paul Robeson Lyrics" Metro Lyrics Retrieved 17 April 2015 
  317. ^ Weber, Bruce 2014-04-22 "Phillip Hayes Dean, the Playwright of Divisive ‘Paul Robeson,’ Dies at 83" The New York Times ISSN 0362-4331 Retrieved 2017-06-05 
  318. ^ Alex Needham "Steve McQueen to make film about Paul Robeson" the Guardian 
  319. ^ Richards 2005, p 231

Primary materialsedit

  • Robeson, Jr, Paul 1976 Paul Robeson: Tributes and Selected Writings Paul Robeson Archives OCLC 2507933 
  • Robeson, Paul 1978 Sheldon, Philip; Foner, Henry, eds Paul Robeson Speaks: Writings, Speeches, and Interviews, a Centennial Celebration Citadel Press ISBN 978-0-8065-0815-3 
  • Robeson, Paul Leroy 1919-06-10 "The New Idealism" The Targum 50, 1918–1919: 570–1
  • Robeson, Paul; Brown, Lloyd L 1988 Here I Stand Beacon Press ISBN 978-0-8070-6445-0  Paul Robeson at Google Books
  • Wilson, Sondra K, ed 2000 The Messenger Reader: Stories, Poetry, and Essays from The Messenger Magazine New York: Modern Library ISBN 0-375-75539-X 

Biographiesedit

  • Boyle, Sheila Tully; Bunie, Andrew 1 October 2005 Paul Robeson: The Years of Promise and Achievement Univ of Massachusetts Press ISBN 1-55849-505-3 
  • Brown, Lloyd Louis 1997 The Young Paul Robeson: "on My Journey Now" Westview Press ISBN 978-0-8133-3177-5 
  • Duberman, Martin B 1989 Paul Robeson Bodley Head ISBN 978-0-370-30575-2 
  • Ehrlich, Scott 1989 Paul Robeson Holloway House Publishing ISBN 978-0-87067-552-2 
  • Gilliam, Dorothy Butler 1978 Paul Robeson: All-American New Republic Book Company 
  • Hoyt, Edwin Palmer 1967 Paul Robeson: The American Othello World Publishing Company 
  • Ramdin, Ron October 1987 Paul Robeson: the man and his mission Peter Owen 
  • Robeson, Eslanda Goode 16 April 2013 Paul Robeson, Negro Read Books Limited ISBN 978-1-4474-9401-0 
  • Robeson, Jr, Paul 9 July 2001 The Undiscovered Paul Robeson , An Artist's Journey, 1898-1939 John Wiley & Sons ISBN 978-0-471-15105-0 
  • Robeson, Jr, Paul 21 December 2009 The Undiscovered Paul Robeson: Quest for Freedom, 1939 - 1976 John Wiley & Sons ISBN 978-0-470-56968-9 
  • Seton, Marie 1958 Paul Robeson D Dobson 
  • Seton, Mary 1978 "Paul Robeson on the English Stage" In Freedomways Paul Robeson: The Great Forerunner New York: Dodd, Mead & Company CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link Reprint Dodd, Mead 1978 ISBN 978-0-396-07545-5 
  • Swindall, Lindsey R 27 October 2010 The Politics of Paul Robeson's Othello Univ Press of Mississippi ISBN 978-1-60473-825-4  Paul Robeson at Google Books
  • Swindall, Lindsey R 15 August 2015 Paul Robeson: A Life of Activism and Art Rowman & Littlefield ISBN 978-1-4422-0794-3  Paul Robeson at Google Books

Secondary materialsedit

  • Balaji, Murali 29 April 2009 The Professor and the Pupil: The Politics and Friendship of W E B Du Bois and Paul Robeson Nation Books ISBN 0-7867-3260-1 
  • Beevor, Antony 2006 The Battle for Spain: The Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939 Penguin Books ISBN 978-0-14-303765-1 
  • Bell, Charlotte Turner 1 January 1986 Paul Robeson's Last Days in Philadelphia Dorrance Publishing Company, Incorporated ISBN 978-0-8059-3026-9 
  • Bogle, Donald 25 February 2016 Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films, Updated and Expanded 5th Edition Bloomsbury Academic ISBN 978-0-8264-2953-7 
  • Cameron, Kenneth M 1990-10-01 "Paul Robeson, Eddie Murphy, and the Film Text of 'Africa'" Text & Performance Quarterly 10 4: 282–293 doi:101080/10462939009365979 
  • Carroll, John M 1 September 1998 Fritz Pollard: Pioneer in Racial Advancement University of Illinois Press ISBN 978-0-252-06799-0 
  • Curthoys, Ann 2010 "Paul Robeson's visit to Australia and Aboriginal activism, 1960" PDF In Peters-Little, Frances; Curthoys, Ann; Docker, John Passionate Histories: Myth, Memory and Indigenous Australia Canberra, Australia: ANU E Press and Aboriginal History Incorporated pp 163– ISBN 978-1-921666-65-0  Paul Robeson, p 163, at Google Books
  • Dorinson, Joseph; Pencak, William, eds 1 January 2004 Paul Robeson: Essays on His Life and Legacy McFarland ISBN 978-0-7864-2163-3 
  • Dorinson, Joseph 2002 Something to Cheer About: Paul Robeson, Athlete pp 65– 
  • Foner, Henry 2002 Foreword 
  • Eby, Cecil D 2007 Comrades and Commissars: The Lincoln Battalion in the Spanish Civil War Penn State Press ISBN 0-271-02910-2 
  • Farmer, James 1985 Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement TCU Press ISBN 978-0-87565-188-0 
  • Finkelman, Paul January 2007 Wintz, Cary D, ed Paul Robeson Harlem Speaks: A Living History of the Harlem Renaissance Sourcebooks ISBN 978-1-4022-0436-4 
  • Foner, Henry 2001 Paul Robeson: A Century of Greatness Paul Robeson Foundation 
  • Glazer, Peter 2007 Carroll, Peter N; Fernández, James D, eds The lifted fist: performing the Spanish Civil War, New York City, 1936–1939 Facing fascism: New York and the Spanish Civil War Museum of the City of New York ISBN 978-0-8147-1681-6 
  • Goldstein, Robert Justin 2008 American blacklist: the attorney general's list of subversive organizations University Press of Kansas ISBN 978-0-7006-1604-6 
  • Hopkins, James K 1998 Into the Heart of the Fire: The British in the Spanish Civil War Stanford University Press ISBN 978-0-8047-3127-0 
  • James, C L R; Høgsbjerg, Christian; Dubois, Laurent 31 December 2012 Toussaint Louverture: The Story of the Only Successful Slave Revolt in History; A Play in Three Acts Duke University Press ISBN 978-0-8223-5314-0  Paul Robeson at Google Books
  • Landis, Arthur H 1967 The Abraham Lincoln Brigade Citadel Press 
  • Lewis, David L 17 October 2000 W E B Du Bois, 1919-1963: The Fight for Equality and the American Century Henry Holt and Company ISBN 978-0-8050-2534-7 
  • Low, Rachael 1985 Film Making in 1930s Britain Allen & Unwin ISBN 978-0-04-791042-5 
  • Lustiger, Arno 1 January 2003 Stalin and the Jews: The Red Book : the Tragedy of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee and the Soviet Jews Enigma ISBN 978-1-929631-10-0 
  • Marable, Manning 2005 WEB Du Bois: Black Radical Democrat Paradigm Publishers ISBN 978-1-59451-019-9 
  • McConnell, Lauren 2010 "Understanding Paul Robeson's Soviet Experience" Theatre History Studies 30: 138–153 
  • Morrison, Michael A May 2011 "Paul Robeson's Othello at the Savoy Theatre, 1930" New Theatre Quarterly 27 2: 114–140 doi:101017/S0266464X11000261 
  • Nollen, Scott Allen 14 October 2010 Paul Robeson: Film Pioneer McFarland ISBN 978-0-7864-5747-2 
  • Pellowski, Michael 2008 Rutgers Football: A Gridiron Tradition in Scarlet Rutgers University Press ISBN 978-0-8135-4283-6 
  • Peterson, Bernard L 1 January 1997 The African American Theatre Directory, 1816-1960: A Comprehensive Guide to Early Black Theatre Organizations, Companies, Theatres, and Performing Groups Greenwood Publishing Group ISBN 978-0-313-29537-9 
  • Pitt, Larry 1972 Football at Rutgers: A History, 1869-1969 ISBN 978-0-8135-0747-7 
  • Richards, Jeffrey 21 March 2001 The Unknown 1930s: An Alternative History of the British Cinema, 1929-1939 IBTauris ISBN 978-1-86064-628-7 
  • Richards, Larry 1 January 2005 African American Films Through 1959: A Comprehensive, Illustrated Filmography McFarland pp 4– ISBN 978-0-7864-2274-6 
  • Robeson, Jr, Paul 1978 "Paul Robeson: Black Warrior" In Freedomways Paul Robeson: The Great Forerunner New York: Dodd, Mead & Company pp 3–16 ISBN 0-396-07545-2 CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link
  • Robeson, Susan 1981 The whole world in his hands: a pictorial biography of Paul Robeson Citadel Press ISBN 978-0-8065-0754-5 
  • Robinson, Eugene 1978 "A Distant Image: Paul Robeson and Rutgers' Students" In Freedomways Paul Robeson: The Great Forerunner New York: Dodd, Mead & Company ISBN 0-396-07545-2 CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link
  • Robinson, Jackie; Duckett, Alfred 19 March 2013 I Never Had It Made: An Autobiography of Jackie Robinson HarperCollins ISBN 978-0-06-228729-8 
  • Rogovin, Vadim Zakharovich 1998 1937: Stalin's Year of Terror Mehring Books ISBN 978-0-929087-77-1 
  • Sampson, Henry T 2005 Swingin' on the Ether Waves: A Chronological History of African Americans in Radio and Television Programming, 1925-1955 Scarecrow Press ISBN 978-0-8108-4087-4 
  • Snyder, Timothy 25 November 2013 Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin Basic Books ISBN 978-0-465-03297-6 
  • Stewart, Jeffrey C, ed April 1998 Paul Robeson: artist and citizen Rutgers University Press ISBN 978-0-8135-2510-5 
  • Harris, Francis C 1998 Paul Robeson: An Athlete's Legacy 
  • Naison, Mark 1998 Paul Robeson and the American Labor Movement 
  • Stuckey, Sterling 1994 Going Through the Storm: The Influence of African American Art in History Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-508604-1 
  • Von Eschen, Penny M 13 June 2014 Race against Empire: Black Americans and Anticolonialism, 1937–1957 Cornell University Press ISBN 978-0-8014-7170-4 
  • Wade-Lewis, Margaret 2007 Lorenzo Dow Turner: Father of Gullah Studies Univ of South Carolina Press ISBN 978-1-57003-628-6 
  • Walsh, Christy 1949 College Football and All America Review Murray & Gee 
  • Weisenfeld, Judith 1997 African American Women and Christian Activism: New York's Black YWCA, 1905-1945 Harvard University Press ISBN 978-0-674-00778-9 
  • Wintz, Cary D, ed January 2007 Harlem Speaks: A Living History of the Harlem Renaissance Sourcebooks ISBN 978-1-4022-0436-4 
  • Wright, Charles H 1 January 1975 Robeson: Labor's Forgotten Champion Balamp Publishing Company ISBN 978-0-913642-06-1 
  • Wyden, Peter 1983 The Passionate War: The Narrative History of the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939 Simon and Schuster ISBN 978-0-671-25330-1 

Film biographies and documentaries about Robesonedit

  • The Tallest Tree in Our Forest 1977
  • Paul Robeson: Tribute to an Artist 1979 Paul Robeson on Internet Movie Database
  • Paul Robeson - James Earl Jones One Man Show 1979 TV movie Paul Robeson on Internet Movie Database
  • Paul Robeson: Speak of Me as I Am 1998
  • Paul Robeson: Here I Stand 1999 PBS American Masters, directed by St Clair Bourne Paul Robeson on Internet Movie Database
  • Paul Robeson: Portraits of an Artist 2007 Irvington: Criterion Collection ISBN 1-934121-19-3

Further readingedit

  • Fordin, Hugh 1986 Getting to Know Him: A Biography of Oscar Hammerstein II Da Capo Press ISBN 978-0-306-80668-1 

External linksedit

Biographical informationedit

  • Paul Robeson at the FBI
  • Paul Robeson on Internet Movie Database
  • Paul Robeson at the Internet Broadway Database
  • Paul Robeson at the British Film Institute's Screenonline
  • Historic 1944 footage of Paul Robeson speaking in New York at celebration honoring his 46th birthday and the anniversary of the Council on African Affairs

Institutions associatededit

  • Paul Robeson Foundation
  • Paul Robeson House
  • Paul Robeson Cultural Center at Rutgers University
  • Paul Robeson Cultural Center at Penn State University
  • Paul Robeson Charter School
  • Paul Robeson Performing Arts Company

Paul Robeson archivesedit

  • National Archives
  • Library of Congress
  • Rutgers University
  • New York Public Library
  • University of Chicago
  • Marxistsorg


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    Paul Robeson beatiful post thanks!

    29.10.2014


Paul Robeson
Paul Robeson
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