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Parma, Ohio

parma ohio, parma ohio building department
Parma is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States Located on the southern edge of Cleveland, it is both an inner-ring and the largest suburb of Cleveland Parma, as of the 2010 census, is listed as the seventh largest city in the state of Ohio and the second largest city in Cuyahoga County after Cleveland4

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 "Greenbriar" 1806–1826
    • 12 Parma Township 1826–1924
    • 13 The Village of Parma 1924–1930
    • 14 The City of Parma 1931–present
  • 2 Geography
  • 3 Demographics
    • 31 2010 census
    • 32 Income
    • 33 Safety
  • 4 Transportation
  • 5 Economy
  • 6 Commercial districts
    • 61 The Shoppes at Parma
    • 62 Ukrainian Village
    • 63 Polish Village
  • 7 Education
    • 71 Public schools
      • 711 Elementary schools
      • 712 Middle schools
      • 713 High schools
    • 72 Charter schools
      • 721 Elementary schools
      • 722 Middle schools
      • 723 High schools
    • 73 Private schools
      • 731 Elementary/middle schools
      • 732 High schools
    • 74 Colleges
  • 8 Mayors
  • 9 Notable people
  • 10 Pop culture
    • 101 Moon Over Parma
    • 102 Parma Place
  • 11 Surrounding communities
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

Historyedit

"Greenbriar" 1806–1826edit

In 1806, the area that was to become Parma and Parma Heights was originally surveyed by Abraham Tappan, a surveyor for the Connecticut Land Company, and was known as Township 6 - Range 13 This designation gave the town its first identity in the Western Reserve Soon after, Township 6 - Range 13 was commonly referred to as "Greenbriar," supposedly for the rambling bush that grew there Benajah Fay, his wife Ruth Wilcox Fay, and their ten children, arrivals from Lewis County, New York, were the first settlers in 1816 It was then that Greenbriar, under a newly organized government seat under Brooklyn Township, began attending to its own governmental needs5

Parma Township 1826–1924edit

Self-government started to gain in popularity by the time the new Greenbriar settlement contained twenty householders However, prior to the establishment of the new township, the name Greenbriar was replaced by the name Parma This was largely due to Dr David Long who had recently returned from Italy and "impressed with the grandeur and beautywas reminded of Parma, Italy andpersuaded the early townspeople that the territory deserved a better name than Greenbriar"6

Thus, on March 7, 1826, a resolution was passed ordering the construction of the new township It stated,

"On the petition of sundry inhabitants for a new township to be organized and erected comprising No 6 in the 13th Range Ordered that said Township No 6 in the 13th Range be set off and erected into a new Township by the name of Parma, to be bounded by the original lines of said Township"5 Phillip Henninger House Built in 1842, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places

On the same day, a public notice was issued to qualified electors by the County Commissioners They met at the house of Samuel Freeman on April 3, 1826 to elect township officers according to the law It was then that the first eleven officers were elected to lead the new government5

During this time, Parma Township remained largely agricultural The first schoolhouse was a log structure built on the hill at the northern corner of what is now Parma Heights Cemetery A memorial plate on a stone marks the spot In 1827, the township was divided into road districts The Broadview Road of today was then known as Town Line Road as well as Independence Road Ridge Road was known then as Center Road as it cut through the center of town York Road was then known as York Street as arrivals from the state of New York settled there Pearl Road then had many names which included Medina Wooster Pike, Wooster Pike, the Cleveland Columbus Road, and the Brighton and Parma Plank Road7

Lyman Stearns Farm house, built 1855

A stone house, built in 1849 and known as the Henninger House, was occupied by several generations of Henningers and is still standing today The house rests on one of the higher points in Cuyahoga County, which provided visibility for the entire northeastern part of Parma Township This was also the same site where the Erie Indians, centuries before, stood to read and send fire signals as well as pray to their spirits8

By 1850, the US census listed Parma Township's population at 1,3299 However, the rising population of the township had slowed over the decades The Civil War affected Parma much as it did other towns and villages in the nation Three out of four homes sent a father, sons, or sometimes both, to fight in the war By 1910, the population of the township had increased to 1,63110

In 1911, Parma Heights, due to the temperance mood of the day, separated itself from the Parma Township after by a vote of 42 to 32 and was incorporated as a village comprising 413 square miles11

"A main reason for establishing the village of Parma Heights was to get a town marshalThere is one saloon in the territorysome pretty rough crowds Sundays have disturbed the quiet of the neighborhoodwanted it closed on Sundays To do this they wished a town marshal They couldn't have a town marshal without becoming a village, so they became one"12

The Village of Parma 1924–1930edit

By 1920, the US census showed Parma Township had a population of just 2,345, but the following decade proved to be a time of significant growth and development for Parma It was in the 1920s that Parma Township transformed from a farming community into a village On December 15, 1924, Parma was incorporated as a village

The largest and fastest growing development of that time was H A Stahl's Ridgewood Gardens development, which started in 1919, continued through the 1920s, and into the 1930s1314 A resident of Shaker Heights, Ohio's first Garden City, H A Stahl developed Ridgewood as an ambitious "model village" project patterned along the lines of and rivaling the earlier Shaker Heights project with "churches, schools, motion picture theater, community house, and other features forming a part of all well-developed residence communities"1516 Ridgewood was designed and marketed as a Garden City on 1,000 acres of land to accommodate about 40,000 residents "325 feet above Lake Erie, in the healthiest section of the South Side, free from the smoke of industries, or the congestion and noises of sections nearer the Public Square"1718

The City of Parma 1931–presentedit

On January 1, 1931, Parma became a city with a population of 13,899 Whereas the incorporation of the village of Parma was met with much optimism, the newly established city of Parma faced the uncertainty of the Great Depression which had almost entirely stopped its growth19 Money was scarce, tax income was limited, and some began to talk of annexation of both the city and school district to Cleveland Both annexation issues, however, were soundly defeated as Parma voters overwhelmingly voted against them and silenced proponents of annexation20 Not long after this, Parma was once again solvent due in large part to the newly created Gallagher Act and the determination of Parma's Auditor, Sam Nowlin21 By 1941, a building boom appeared to be underway in Parma just as the United States was about to enter World War II22

After World War II, Parma once again began to experience tremendous growth as young families began moving from Cleveland into the suburbs Between 1950 and 1960, Parma's population soared from 28,897 to 82,845 By 1956, Parma was unchallenged as the fastest growing city in the United States23 The population peaked in 1970 at 100,21624

Today, Parma's population has reached 81,601, though it remains one of the Cleveland area's top three destinations young adults aged 22 to 34 are increasingly choosing as a place to live, along with Lakewood and downtown Cleveland25 and was recently recognized by Businessweek as one of the best places to raise kids in Ohio26

Geographyedit

Parma is located at 41°23′31″N 81°43′43″W / 4139194°N 8172861°W / 4139194; -8172861 41391852, -8172850227

Parma is southwest of Cleveland; it is bounded by Cleveland and Brooklyn on the north, Brooklyn Heights, and Seven Hills on the east, North Royalton and Broadview Heights on the south, and Brook Park, Middleburg Heights, and Parma Heights on the west

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2007 square miles 5198 km2, of which 2002 square miles 5185 km2 is land and 005 square miles 013 km2 is water1

Two major changes and developments have recently occurred regarding two principal sites within the city:

  1. The West Creek Preservation Agency has worked to preserve various historic and natural sites in the city, including the Henninger House and the West Creek Watershed28
  2. Henninger House, built in 1849 and the oldest standing home in Parma, is planned to be part of the proposed Quarry Creek Historic District29

Demographicsedit

Census
Historical population
Pop
1930 13,899
1940 16,365 177%
1950 28,897 766%
1960 82,845 1867%
1970 100,216 210%
1980 92,548 −77%
1990 87,876 −50%
2000 85,655 −25%
2010 81,601 −47%
Est 2016 79,425 −27%
US Decennial Census31

2010 censusedit

As of the 2010 United States Census,2 there were 81,601 people, 34,489 households, and 21,646 families residing in the city The population density was 4,0760 inhabitants per square mile 1,5738/km2 There were 36,608 housing units at an average density of 1,8286 per square mile 7060/km2 The racial makeup of the city was 930% White, 23% African American, 02% Native American, 19% Asian, 10% from other races, and 16% from two or more races Hispanic or Latino of any race were 36% of the population According to the 2010 Census,3233 225% were of German ancestry, 176% Polish, 148% Italian, 138% Irish, 74% Slovak, 67% English, 53% Ukrainian, 26% French, 22% Serbian, 19% Czech, 14% Arab, and 12% of Croatian, Lithuanian, or Russian ancestries In regard to languages spoken, 8703% spoke English, 226% Ukrainian, 168% Polish, 127% Spanish, 124% German, and 118% Italian as their first language34

There were 34,489 households of which 271% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 457% were married couples living together, 124% had a female householder with no husband present, 46% had a male householder with no wife present, and 372% were non-families 318% of all households were made up of individuals and 129% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older The average household size was 234 and the average family size was 295

The median age in the city was 415 years 204% of residents were under the age of 18; 85% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 257% were from 25 to 44; 277% were from 45 to 64; and 177% were 65 years of age or older The gender makeup of the city was 481% male and 519% female

Incomeedit

The median income for a household in the city is $50,198, the median income for a family is $60,696 and the mean income for a family is $68,828 The per capita income for the city is $25,064 The poverty rate in the city is 102% This is low in comparison to other large Ohio cities as well as the state's individual poverty rate of 154%3536

Safetyedit

In 2014, Parma ranked as the third safest city in the United States with a population of 25,000 or more by Neighborhood Scout37 In 2014, Parma had a crime index of 90 meaning it was safer than 90% of cities in the United States38

Transportationedit

Parma's major north-south roads, in order from west to east, are:

  • West 130th Street, which forms part of the western border of Parma,
  • Chevrolet Boulevard/Stumph Road/York Road,
  • Ridge Road State Route 3,
  • West 54th Street
  • State Road State Route 94,
  • Broadview Road State Route 176, which forms part of the eastern boundary of Parma The State Route 176 designation continues northward via the Jennings Freeway, connecting Parma to downtown Cleveland

Its major east-west roads, in order from north to south, are:

  • I-480, running just north of Parma's northern border,
  • Brookpark Road State Route 17, forming Parma's northern border with Cleveland,
  • Snow Road,
  • West Ridgewood Drive,
  • West Pleasant Valley Road, and
  • Sprague Road, which forms the southern border of Parma

Also, Pearl Road US Route 42 runs from southwest to northeast through northern Parma for less than two miles 3 km

Public transportation in Parma includes bus routes operated by the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, which serves the city of Cleveland and Cuyahoga County suburbs39

Economyedit

During the population boom between 1950 and 1980, Parma's commercial sector grew to match its residential sector Since the 1950s, Parma has fostered the growth of many small businesses and been an operating hub for such well-known companies as General Motors, the Union Carbide Research Center now GrafTech International and Cox Cable Television40

Commercial districtsedit

The Shoppes at Parmaedit

The Shoppes at Parma, formerly Parmatown Mall, is a commercial shopping district that totals approximately 800,000 square feet It is located approximately 3 miles south of Cleveland's southern border at the southwest corner of Ridge Road and West Ridgewood Drive in central Cuyahoga County It is anchored by JC Penney, Dick's Sporting Goods, Marc's, Walmart The mall opened as a shopping plaza in 1956 and was enclosed in the mid-1960s41

Currently, it is owned and managed by Phillip's Edison & Co and is undergoing extensive redevelopment at an expected cost of more than $70 million42 Senior vice president of Phillips Edison's strategic investment funds, Roy Williams, has stated:

"Our plan is to go far beyond a basic facelift and redevelopment for this long-standing regional shopping center Besides bringing in additional shops, restaurants and services, we will create a more attractive, pedestrian-friendly, family-oriented environment that will act as a town center for Parma residents and surrounding communities"43

Redevelopment will transform the commercial center into a pedestrian-friendly community-oriented mall and will include attractive landscaping, new lighting, creation of two tree-lined boulevards, repaving of the parking lots, changing the entire facade of the outdoor shopping strip and medical offices, demolition of the current Macy's and Dick's Sporting Goods buildings, creating a new point of entry to JC Penney from West Ridgewood Drive, the construction of six new outbuildings, and the separation of Walmart from the rest of the mall4445464748

Recently, it was announced that a 15-member "Parma Mayor's Town Center Task Force" will be formed to develop a plan for a town center based around the Ridge Road-West Ridgewood Drive intersection that features the Shoppes at Parma, Parma Branch library, University Hospitals Parma Medical Center and City Hall It will be made up of representatives from various organizations including the Cuyahoga County Public Library, Parma Area Chamber of Commerce, Parma schools and the Cleveland Metroparks' West Creek Reservation49

Ukrainian Villageedit

The Ukrainian Village commercial district is located along State Road between Tuxedo Avenue and Grantwood Drive This district was designated Ukrainian Village in September, 200950

This commercial district features a large number of small, family-owned businesses and medical offices, features one of the most "walkable" neighborhoods in Parma,51 and boasts a traffic count of more than 40,000 vehicles each day at the intersection of State and Snow Roads52 This area also hosts the Ukrainian Independence Day parade August53

In 2013, Parma formed a sister-city relationship with Lviv, Ukraine54 and is home to Ohio's largest Ukrainian community, the majority of whom are foreign born, with more than twice the number of any other city55

Parma is the seat of the Ukrainian Catholic Eparchy of Saint Josaphat, which was established by Pope John Paul II in 1983

Polish Villageedit

The Polish Village commercial district is located along Ridge Road between Pearl Road and Thornton Avenue This district was designated Polish Village on May 1, 201156

This commercial district features a large number of small, family-owned businesses and medical offices,57 features one of the most walkable neighborhoods in Parma,51 and boasts a traffic count of more than 40,000 vehicles each day at the intersection of Ridge and Snow Roads52 This area also hosts the Polish Constitution Day parade May, St Charles Carnival parade July, Independence Day parade July, and Christmas parade December58596061

Educationedit

Public schoolsedit

The Parma City School District serves Parma, Parma Heights, and Seven Hills

Elementary schoolsedit

  • Col John Glenn Elementary School -closed
  • Dag Hammarskjold Elementary School- closed
  • Dentzler Elementary School
  • Forrest Elementary School - closed
  • Green Valley Elementary School
  • James E Hanna Elementary School-closed
  • John Muir Elementary School
  • Parkview Elementary School-closed
  • Parma Park Elementary School
  • Pleasant Valley Elementary School
  • Pleasantview Elementary School -closed now first step preschool
  • Renwood Elementary School
  • Ridge-Brook Elementary School
  • State Road Elementary School-closed
  • Thoreau Park Elementary School

Middle schoolsedit

  • Greenbriar Middle School
  • Hillside Middle School
  • Shiloh Middle School
  • Schaaf Junior High School - closed
  • Fay Junior High School - closed
  • Pleasant Valley Junior High School - re-designated an elementary school

High schoolsedit

  • Normandy High School
  • Parma Senior High School
  • Valley Forge High School

The District's sports stadium is Byers Field All three high schools play golf at Ridgewood for their home course The rivalry that exists between these schools is well documented62

Charter schoolsedit

Constellation Schools: Parma Community public charter schools:

Elementary schoolsedit

  • Parma Community Elementary63

Middle schoolsedit

  • Parma Community Middle64

High schoolsedit

  • Parma Community High65

Private schoolsedit

Elementary/middle schoolsedit

  • Al Ihsan School Elementary K-5
  • Bethany Christian Elementary School PK-6
  • Bethany Lutheran School PK-8
  • Bethel Christian Academy PK-8
  • Holy Family School PK-8
  • St Anthony of Padua Elementary School K-8
  • St Bridget School PK-8
  • St Charles School PK-8
  • St Columbkille Parish School PK-8
  • St Francis De Sales School K-8 - closed

High schoolsedit

  • Padua Franciscan 9-12

Collegesedit

  • Bryant & Stratton College
  • Cuyahoga Community College Western Campus

Mayorsedit

Mayor Years
John F Goldenbogen 1925
R S Stanfield 1926-1927
Frank D Johnson 1928-1933
Anthony A Fleger 1934-1935
Roland E Reichert 1936-1942
Sylvester Augustine 1942-1945
Roland E Reichert 1946-1949
Lawrence Stary 1950-1951
Stephen A Zona 1952-1957
Joseph W Kadar 1958-1959
Sylvester Augustine 1960-1961
John Bobko 1961
James W Day 1962-1967
John Petruska 1967-1987
Michael A Ries 1988-1994
Gerald Boldt 1994-2003
Dean DePiero 2004–2012
Timothy DeGeeter 2012–present66

Notable peopleedit

  • Benjamin Orr Orzechowski, best known as co-lead singer and bassist for The Cars born in Lakewood, Ohio Sept 8, 1947, attended Valley Forge High School Died October 4, 2000 of pancreatic cancer
  • Bill Balas screenwriter and director best known for his work on the A&E series Bates Motel
  • Jeremiah Wallace Baldock, Wisconsin State Assemblyman, was born in Parma67
  • Michael Bierut, graphic designer, National President AIGA 1998–2001, Pentagram Partner
  • Hector Boiardi, better known as Chef Boyardee, died in Parma in 1985
  • Shya Chitaley, Curator of paleobotany at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History
  • Carmen Cozza, football coach at Yale University
  • Timothy DeGeeter, state representative
  • Dan Fritsche, NHL, Minnesota WildColumbus Bluejackets New York Rangers
  • Mike Garcia, starting pitcher for the Cleveland Indians in the 1950s—he ran "Big Bear Cleaners" in Parma, Ohio
  • Erich Gliebe, CEO and acting chair of the white supremacist National Alliance, professional boxer known as the Aryan Barbarian
  • Michael T Good, NASA astronaut
  • Brian Holzinger, NHL, Buffalo Sabres
  • James Hoye, umpire in Major League Baseball
  • Dan Huberty, Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives, born in Parma in 1968
  • William Kowalski, prolific author and educator
  • Ted Levine, actor Silence of the Lambs, The Mangler, Monk, The Hills Have Eyes
  • James A Lovell, NASA Astronaut Apollo 13 mission a native of Cleveland, he spent part of his youth on Parma's north side
  • Biagio Messina, television producer, filmmaker, and actor He's made over 100 hours of TV and film68 A graduate of Parma Senior High School69
  • Mike Mizanin, former WWE Champion, Professional WWE Wrestler known under the ring name The Miz
  • Clint Nageotte, professional baseball player
  • Ransom E Olds, automotive pioneer lived in Parma as a boy from 1874 to 187870
  • Natasha Pogrebinsky, celebrity chef and restaurant owner
  • Kermit Poling, conductor, violinist and composer; Music Director of the South Arkansas Symphony; concertmaster of the Shreveport Symphony Orchestra71
  • John D Rockefeller<citation needed>, founded Standard Oil Company
  • Frank Romano, guitarist, songwriter and record producer
  • Alan Ruck, actor Ferris Bueller's Day Off, Spin City, graduate of Parma High

Pop cultureedit

Moon Over Parmaedit

The Drew Carey Show's opening credits of its first season consisted of a caricature of Drew Carey — consisting of his face and a yellow tie — singing the Robert McGuire-penned "Moon Over Parma"72 The song was trimmed for the opening sequence, and the reference to Eastlake in the line "Guide her to Eastlake underneath your silvery light" was changed to a reference to Cleveland to stay in theme with the show73

Moon over Parma bring my love to me tonight Guide her to Eastlake, underneath your silvery light We met in Ashtabula, she was doing the hula I handed her my radishes and pledged my love that night Moon over Parma, won't you bring my love to me Shine on the freeway and guide her AMC Get her past those radar Mounties, bring her to Lake County, Moon over Parma, tonight Moon over Parma shine on I-271 We can't get together in the warm light of the sun I'm askin' you don't fail Get her safely through Linndale, I can't go to Parma cause my Edsel will not run Moon over Parma, where those pink flamingos stand I need her kisses and the soft touch of her hand We're goin bowlin, so don't lose her in Solon Moon over Parma, tonight I said tonight74

Parma Placeedit

Occasionally, during the 1960s and 1970s, Parma was the target of light-hearted jabs by local movie show hosts Ghoulardi, Big Chuck & Little John, and The Ghoul, due to its central European and, most specifically, Polish, make-up Ghoulardi, the horror host of late night Shock Theater at WJW-TV, Channel 8, in Cleveland, Ohio from January 13, 1963 through December 16, 1966, made a series of shorts called "Parma Place" and focused on an alleged love of white socks, pink flamingos, chrome balls, kielbasa, pierogi and the polka75

Surrounding communitiesedit

‹ The template below Geographic location is being considered for deletion See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus ›

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010" United States Census Bureau Archived from the original on January 24, 2012 Retrieved January 6, 2013 
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder" United States Census Bureau Retrieved January 6, 2013 
  3. ^ "Population Estimates" United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2016-06-03 
  4. ^ "American FactFinder2" Retrieved 2013-09-13 
  5. ^ a b c Kubasek, Ernest 1976 The History of Parma Ernest R Kubasek and Bernard Survoy p 57 
  6. ^ Kubasek, Ernest 1976 The History of Parma Ernest R Kubasek and Bernard Survoy p 58 
  7. ^ Kubasek, Ernest 1976 The History of Parma Ernest R Kubasek and Bernard Survoy p 60 
  8. ^ Kubasek, Ernest 1976 The History of Parma Ernest R Kubasek and Bernard Survoy p 64 
  9. ^ Kubasek, Ernest 1976 The History of Parma Ernest R Kubasek and Bernard Survoy p 70 
  10. ^ Kubasek, Ernest 1976 The History of Parma Ernest R Kubasek and Bernard Survoy p 74 
  11. ^ Kubasek, Ernest 1976 The History of Parma Ernest R Kubasek and Bernard Survoy p 93 
  12. ^ "Black Eye Wins as Vote Getter" Plain Dealer 14 July 1911 Retrieved 11 December 2013 
  13. ^ "From Green Fields to City Streets" Cleveland Plain Dealer 2 September 1926 
  14. ^ "Real Estate Has Made Many Rich in City" Cleveland Plain Dealer 13 April 1919 
  15. ^ "Thousand Acres In Latest Plot" Cleveland Plain Dealer 30 April 1921 
  16. ^ "Ridgewood - The New Home Community" Cleveland Plain Dealer 4 July 1920 
  17. ^ "Ridgewood - The New Home Community" Cleveland Plain Dealer 11 July 1920 
  18. ^ Horley, Robert 1998 The Best Kept Secrets of Parma, "The Garden City" Robert Horley ISBN 0-9661721-0-8 
  19. ^ Kubasek, Ernest 1976 The History of Parma Ernest R Kubasek and Bernard Survoy p 137 
  20. ^ Kubasek, Ernest 1976 The History of Parma Ernest R Kubasek and Bernard Survoy p 142 
  21. ^ Kubasek, Ernest 1976 The History of Parma Ernest R Kubasek and Bernard Survoy p 146 
  22. ^ Kubasek, Ernest 1976 The History of Parma Ernest R Kubasek and Bernard Survoy p 153 
  23. ^ 4 January 1956 http://docsnewsbankcom/openurlctx_ver=z3988-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iwnewsbankcom:EANX&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=1276A08771D9F94B&svc_dat=HistArchive:ahnpdoc&req_dat=0FDEC62F6DF22455  Missing or empty |title= help
  24. ^ "Census Of Population And Housing" US Census Bureau Retrieved 2013-09-13 
  25. ^ "Cleveland's urban scene gets a boost from young adults moving in" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  26. ^ "Businessweek - Bloomberg" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  27. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990" United States Census Bureau 2011-02-12 Retrieved 2011-04-23 
  28. ^ Welcome to West Creek!
  29. ^ Historic Henninger House Saved OH
  30. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" Retrieved June 9, 2017 
  31. ^ United States Census Bureau "Census of Population and Housing" Archived from the original on May 11, 2015 Retrieved December 2, 2014 
  32. ^ http://factfinder2censusgov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productviewxhtmlpid=ACS_10_1YR_DP02&prodType=table
  33. ^ http://factfinder2censusgov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productviewxhtmlpid=ACS_10_5YR_B04003&prodType=table
  34. ^ "Data Center Results" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  35. ^ "Population estimates, July 1, 2015, V2015" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  36. ^ 2008-2012 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Archived September 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ "Top 100 Safest Cities in the US 2014" Neighborhood Scout ® Retrieved 12 January 2014 
  38. ^ "Crime rates for Parma, OH" Neighborhood Scout ® Retrieved 29 February 2016 
  39. ^ "RTA 2010-2011 System Map" PDF Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority Retrieved 2012-02-15 
  40. ^ "Encyclopedia of Cleveland History: Parma" Case Western Reserve University June 29, 2003 
  41. ^ http://wwwphillipsedisoncom/properties/all/sif/all/parmatown-mall/
  42. ^ "A Preview Of The Shoppes At Parma - Parma Observer" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  43. ^ "Reconstruction Begins on The Shoppes at Parma - CoStar Group" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  44. ^ "Parma Planning Commission approves facade changes and outbuilding for The Shoppes at Parma" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  45. ^ "Shoppes at Parma parking lot will turn green under landscape plan" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  46. ^ "Transition of Parmatown Mall into The Shoppes at Parma has begun" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  47. ^ "Dick's Sporting Goods and former Macy's will come down in Parmatown Mall" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  48. ^ "Six outbuildings are part of plan to redevelop Parmatown Mall" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  49. ^ Byrne, Brian 7 January 2014 "Parma Mayor Tim DeGeeter announces task force to create plan for town center" Parma Sun News Retrieved 12 January 2014 
  50. ^ "Ukrainian Village In Parma Ohio - About - Facebook" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  51. ^ a b "Find Apartments for Rent and Rentals - Get Your Walk Score" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  52. ^ a b "Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency NOACA : Traffic Counts" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  53. ^ "Parma's Ukrainian Village will commemorate Ukrainian Independence Day with parade, festival on Saturday" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  54. ^ Sandrick, Bob "Parma forms sister-city relationship with Lviv in Ukraine" Retrieved 16 April 2014 
  55. ^ Exner, Rich "Parma is home to Ohio's largest Ukrainian community" Retrieved 16 April 2014 
  56. ^ "Polish Village In Parma Ohio - About - Facebook" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  57. ^ "Polish Village Business Directory - Polish Village In Parma Ohio" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  58. ^ "Slideshow: Parma shines in sunny 65th annual Polish Constitution Day parade" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  59. ^ "St Charles in Parma prepares for its annual parade and carnival" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  60. ^ "Fourth-of-July parade on Ridge Road in Parma draws huge crowd: GALLERY" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  61. ^ "Parma has annual Christmas parade" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  62. ^ Even though rivalry may exist on the field of sports, the Spanish pen pals found connections to begin new friendships; "On the field, you think that the guys from Valley Forge and Parma are bad guys because they're playing you tough trying to get the win" said recent Normandy graduate Dan Ebinger, who will play defensive end "But, after you meet with them, you realize that they're all actually pretty nice guys It's pretty nice getting to know them as people instead of just judging them by how they played against you"; "Normandy vs Valley Forge -- September 3rd, 2004" Archived from the original on November 18, 2007 Retrieved March 12, 2016 Normandy was upsetted sic last week against Parma Over the years, a second rivalry has formed between Valley Forge & Normandy, the battle of Parma, a battle that would determine the better team 
  63. ^ http://wwwconstellationschoolscom/EZ_Dept_Menuaspxd=18
  64. ^ http://wwwconstellationschoolscom/EZ_Dept_Menuaspxd=19
  65. ^ http://wwwconstellationschoolscom/EZ_Dept_Menuaspxd=20
  66. ^ The Political Graveyard: Mayors of Parma, Ohio
  67. ^ 'Wisconsin Blue Book 1899,' Biographical Sketch of Jeremiah Wallace Baldock, pg 764
  68. ^ "About Joke Prdouctions" Joke Productions Retrieved January 28, 2016 
  69. ^ Simakis, Andrea October 10, 2010 "'Scream Queens' helps Parma native make it big in Hollywood" The Plain Dealer Retrieved January 28, 2016 
  70. ^ Robert Olds of Windsor and Suffield, CT and his descendants
  71. ^ Radio station's top 10 classical pick for December is like music to this Parma mom's ears: Rick Haase Retrieved February 1, 2011
  72. ^ Eskayem2 13 May 2011 "Moon Over Parma" Retrieved 5 September 2016 – via YouTube 
  73. ^ "YouTube" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  74. ^ "maxilyricscom" Retrieved 5 September 2016 
  75. ^ Feran, Tom; RD Heldenfels 1997 Ghoulardi: inside Cleveland TV's wildest ride Gray & Company ISBN 1-886228-18-3 

References for Police Chiefs:

  • Law Enforcement News
  • RECORD REVOLUTION No 6, INC, Plaintiff-Appellant, v THE CITY OF PARMA, et al, Defendant-Appellee

External linksedit

  • City of Parma
  • Polish Village
  • Parma Area Chamber of Commerce
  • City Data
  • Parma Sun News
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