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parkinsonism, parkinsonism vs parkinson's disease
Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome characterized by tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability12 Parkinsonism is found in Parkinson's disease after which it is named, however a wide range of other causes may lead to this set of symptoms, including some toxins, a few metabolic diseases, and a handful of neurological conditions other than Parkinson's disease3

About 7% of people with parkinsonism have developed their symptoms following treatment with particular medications Side effect of medications, mainly neuroleptic antipsychotics especially the phenothiazines such as perphenazine and chlorpromazine, thioxanthenes such as flupenthixol and zuclopenthixol and butyrophenones such as haloperidol, piperazines such as ziprasidone, and rarely, antidepressants The incidence of drug-induced parkinsonism increases with age Drug-induced parkinsonism tends to remain at its presenting level, not progress like Parkinson's disease4

Differential diagnosesedit

Differentiating some kinds of atypical Parkinson: Northwest Parkinson Foundation

Before Parkinson's disease is diagnosed, the differential diagnoses include:

  • AIDS can sometimes lead to the symptoms of secondary parkinsonism, due to commonly causing dopaminergic dysfunction Indeed, parkinsonism can be a presenting feature of HIV infection5
  • Corticobasal degeneration1
  • Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease6
  • Dementia pugilistica or "boxer's dementia" is a condition that occurs in boxers due to chronic brain trauma
  • Diffuse Lewy body disease1
  • Drug-induced parkinsonism "pseudoparkinsonism" due to drugs such as antipsychotics, metoclopramide, MPTP17
  • Encephalitis lethargica1
  • Essential tremor, an illness which has some diagnostic overlap with Parkinson's disease8
  • Orthostatic tremor
  • MDMA addiction and frequent use has been linked to Parkonsonism Several cases have been reported where individuals are diagnosed with the syndrome after taking MDMA9
  • Multiple system atrophy10
  • Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, also known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation or Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome1112
  • Parkinson plus syndrome
  • Progressive supranuclear palsy1
  • Toxicity due to substances such as carbon monoxide,13 carbon disulfide,13 manganese,13 paraquat,14 mercury,15 hexane, rotenone, Annonaceae, and toluene16 inhalant abuse: "huffing"17
  • Vascular parkinsonism, associated with underlying cerebrovascular disease1819
  • Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which an abnormal accumulation of copper occurs The excess copper can lead to the formation of a copper-dopamine complex, which leads to the oxidation of dopamine to aminochrome20 The most common manifestations include bradykinesia, cogwheel rigidity21 and a lack of balance22
  • Paraneoplastic syndrome: neurological symptoms caused by antibodies associated with cancers
  • Genetic
    • Rapid onset dystonia parkinsonism
    • Parkin mutation
    • X-linked dystonia parkinsonism
    • Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism


  1. ^ a b c d e f Aminoff MJ, Greenberg DA, Simon RP 2005 Clinical Neurology 6th ed Lange: McGraw-Hill Medical pp 241–5 ISBN 0-07-142360-5 
  2. ^ Bradley J Robottom; William J Weiner; Lisa M Shulman "42" International Neurology: A Clinical Approach Blackwell Publishing Ltd pp 152–158 ISBN 978-1-405-15738-4 
  3. ^ Christine CW, Aminoff MJ 2004 "Clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes: prognostic and therapeutic relevance" Am J Med 117 6: 412–9 PMID 15380498 doi:101016/jamjmed200403032 
  4. ^ "Archived copy" PDF Archived from the original PDF on 2013-06-26 Retrieved 2013-04-15 
  5. ^ Tse W, Cersosimo MG, Gracies JM, et al 2004 "Movement disorders and AIDS: a review" Parkinsonism Relat Disord 10 6: 323–34 PMID 15261874 doi:101016/jparkreldis200403001 
  6. ^ Maltête D, Guyant-Maréchal L, Mihout B, Hannequin D 2006 "Movement disorders and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease: a review" Parkinsonism Relat Disord 12 2: 65–71 PMID 16364674 doi:101016/jparkreldis200510004 
  7. ^ Watanabe Y, Himeda T, Araki T 2005 "Mechanisms of MPTP toxicity and their implications for therapy of Parkinson's disease" PDF Med Sci Monit 11 1: RA17–23 PMID 15614202 
  8. ^ September 2, 2009 at 5:32 AM 2009-09-02 "LINGO1 variant responsible for essential tremors and Parkinson's disease" News-medicalnet Retrieved 2017-02-24 
  9. ^ Fabrizi, Monaco, Dalla Libera 2004 "Parkinsonian syndrome following MDMA Ecstasy addiction" Movement Disorders 19: S73–S74 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  10. ^ Wenning GK, Geser F 2003 "Multiple system atrophy" Rev Neurol Paris 159 5 Pt 2: 3S31–8 PMID 12773886 
  11. ^ Uc EY, Rodnitzky RL 2003 "Childhood dystonia" Seminars in pediatric neurology 10 1: 52–61 PMID 12785748 doi:101016/S1071-90910200010-4 
  12. ^ Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man OMIM NEURODEGENERATION WITH BRAIN IRON ACCUMULATION 1; NBIA1 -234200
  13. ^ a b c DeLong MR, Juncos JL 2004 Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 16th ed McGraw-Hill Professional p 2414 ISBN 0-07-140235-7 
  14. ^ Dinis-Oliveira RJ, Remião F, Carmo H, et al 2006 "Paraquat exposure as an etiological factor of Parkinson's disease" Neurotoxicology 27 6: 1110–22 PMID 16815551 doi:101016/jneuro200605012 
  15. ^ Tremor/InvoluntaryMovements: Excerpt from Field Guide to Bedside Diagnosis Archived 2010-02-03 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Weiss J Chapter 151 Toluene and Xylene In: Olson KR, ed Poisoning & Drug Overdose 6th ed New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012 http://wwwaccessmedicinecom/contentaspxaID=55982958 Accessed April 21, 2013
  17. ^ Uitti, Ryan J; Snow, Barry J; Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Vingerhoets, Francois J G; Hayward, Margo; Hashimoto, Stanley; Richmond, John; Markey, Sanford P; Markey, Carol J; Calne, Donald B 1994 "Parkinsonism induced by solvent abuse" Annals of Neurology 35 5: 616 PMID 8179306 doi:101002/ana410350516 
  18. ^ Thanvi B, Lo N, Robinson T 2005 "Vascular Parkinsonism--an important cause of parkinsonism in older people" PDF Age and ageing 34 2: 114–9 PMID 15713855 doi:101093/ageing/afi025 
  19. ^ "Parkinson's Insights: Vascular parkinsonism" Parkinsonsdiseasefoundationblogspotcom 2012-08-07 Retrieved 2017-02-24 
  20. ^ Członkowska A, Tarnacka B, Möller JC, et al 2007 "Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale — a proposal for the neurological scoring of Wilson's disease patients" Neurol Neurochir Pol 41 1: 1–12 PMID 17330175 
  21. ^ Ropper AH, Samuels MA Chapter 4 Abnormalities of Movement and Posture Caused by Disease of the Basal Ganglia In: Ropper AH, Samuels MA, eds Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology 9th ed New York: McGraw-Hill; 2009 http://wwwaccessmedicinecom/contentaspxaID=3630437 Accessed April 21, 2013
  22. ^ Lorincz MT January 2010 "Neurologic Wilson's disease" Ann N Y Acad Sci 1184: 173–87 Bibcode:2010NYASA1184173L PMID 20146697 doi:101111/j1749-6632200905109x 

External linksedit

  • GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on Perry syndrome
  • GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on X-Linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism

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