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Panchatantra

panchatantra stories, panchatantra.kar.nic.in
The Panchatantra IAST: Pañcatantra, Sanskrit: पञ्चतन्त्र, 'Five Devices' is an ancient Indian collection of interrelated animal fables in verse and prose, arranged within a frame story The original Sanskrit work, which some scholars believe was composed around the 3rd century BCE,1 is attributed to Vishnu Sharma It is based on older oral traditions, including "animal fables that are as old as we are able to imagine"2

It is "certainly the most frequently translated literary product of India",3 and these stories are among the most widely known in the world4 To quote Edgerton 1924:5

there are recorded over two hundred different versions known to exist in more than fifty languages, and three-quarters of these languages are extra-Indian As early as the eleventh century this work reached Europe, and before 1600 it existed in Greek, Latin, Spanish, Italian, German, English, Old Slavonic, Czech, and perhaps other Slavonic languages Its range has extended from Java to Iceland In India, it has been worked over and over again, expanded, abstracted, turned into verse, retold in prose, translated into medieval and modern vernaculars, and retranslated into Sanskrit And most of the stories contained in it have "gone down" into the folklore of the story-loving Hindus, whence they reappear in the collections of oral tales gathered by modern students of folk-stories

Thus it goes by many names in many cultures In India, it had at least 25 recensions, including the Sanskrit Tantrākhyāyikā6 Sanskrit: तन्त्राख्यायिका and inspired the Hitopadesha It was translated into Middle Persian in 570 CE by Borzūya This became the basis for a Syriac translation as Kalilag and Damnag7 and a translation into Arabic in 750 CE by Persian scholar Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa as Kalīlah wa Dimnah8 Arabic: كليلة ودمنة‎‎ A New Persian version by Rudaki in the 12th century became known as Kalīleh o Demneh9 Persian: کلیله و دمنه‎‎ and this was the basis of Kashefi's 15th century Anvār-i Suhaylī or Anvār-e Soheylī10 Persian: انوار سهیلی‎‎, 'The Lights of Canopus' The book in different form is also known as The Fables of Bidpai1112 or Pilpai, in various European languages or The Morall Philosophie of Doni English, 1570

Contents

  • 1 Content
    • 11 Original Indian version
    • 12 Mid Persian and Arabic versions
  • 2 Links with other fables
  • 3 Origins and function
  • 4 Cross-cultural migrations
    • 41 Early cross-cultural migrations
    • 42 How Borzuy brought the work from India
    • 43 The Arabic classic by Ibn al-Muqaffa
    • 44 Spread to the rest of Europe
  • 5 Modern era
  • 6 See also
  • 7 Notes
  • 8 Editions and translations
    • 81 Sanskrit texts
    • 82 Translations in English
  • 9 Further reading
  • 10 External links

Contentedit

For lists of stories in the Panchatantra, see List of Panchatantra Stories

The Panchatantra is a series of inter-woven fables, many of which involve animals exhibiting animal stereotypes13 According to its own narrative, it illustrates, for the benefit of three ignorant princes, the central Hindu principles of nīti14 While nīti is hard to translate, it roughly means prudent worldly conduct, or "the wise conduct of life"15

Apart from a short introduction — in which the author, Vishnu Sharma, is introduced as narrating the rest of the work to the princes — it consists of five parts Each part contains a main story, called the frame story, which in turn contains several stories "emboxed" in it, as one character narrates a story to another Often these stories contain further emboxed stories16 The stories thus operate like a succession of Russian dolls, one narrative opening within another, sometimes three or four deep Besides the stories, the characters also quote various epigrammatic verses to make their point17

The five books are called:

  • Mitra-bheda: The Separation of Friends The Lion and the Bull
  • Mitra-lābha or Mitra-samprāpti: The Gaining of Friends The Dove, Crow, Mouse, Tortoise and Deer
  • Kākolūkīyam: Of Crows and Owls War and Peace
  • Labdhapraṇāśam: Loss of Gains The Monkey and the Crocodile
  • Aparīkṣitakārakaṃ: Ill-Considered Action / Rash deeds The Brahman and the Mongoose

Original Indian versionedit

Mitra-bheda, The Separation of Friends

In the first book, a friendship arises between the lion Piṅgalaka, the king of the forest, and Sañjīvaka, a bull Karataka 'Horribly Howling' and Damanaka 'Victor' are two jackals that are retainers to the lion king Against Karataka's advice, Damanaka breaks up the friendship between the lion and the bull out of jealousy This book contains around thirty stories, mostly told by the two jackals It is the longest of the five books, making up roughly 45% of the work's length18

Mitra-samprāpti, The Gaining of Friends

Seeing the favour the rat performed to free the dove or pigeon and her companions, a crow decides to befriend the rat, despite the rat's initial objections The storyline evolves as their friendship grows to include the turtle and the fawn They collaborate to save the fawn when he is trapped, and later they work together to save the turtle, who falls in the trap This makes up about 22% of the total length18

A page from the Arabic version of Kalila wa dimna, dated 1210 CE, illustrating the King of the Crows conferring with his political advisors From a Syrian painting The owls are burned to death by the crows Kākolūkīyam, Of Crows and Owls

Traditional enemies, the crows and the owls are at war One of the crows pretends to be an outcast from his own group to gain entry into the rival owl group; he learns their secrets and vulnerabilities He later summons his group of crows to set fire to all entrances to the cave where the owls live and the creatures suffocate to death This is about 26% of the total length18

Labdhapraṇāśam, Loss of Gains

The story tells of a symbiotic relationship between the monkey and the crocodile The crocodile risks the liaison by conspiring to acquire the heart of the monkey to heal his wife When the monkey finds out the plan, he avoids the grim fate

Aparīkṣitakārakaṃ, Hasty Action Main article: The Brahmin and the Mongoose

A Brahman's wife leaves his child with a mongoose friend When she returns, she sees blood on the mongoose's mouth, and kills Brahmin's friend, believing the animal killed her child The Brahman's wife discovers her child alive, and learns that the mongoose defended the child from a snake She regrets having killed his friend

A page from Kelileh o Demneh, depicts the jackal-vizier Damanaka 'Victor'/ Dimna trying to persuade his lion-king that the honest bull-courtier, Shatrabaشطربة, is a traitor From the same 1429 Persian manuscript Sañjīvaka/Schanzabeh, the innocent bull courtier, is murdered unjustly by King Lion The scheming jackal vizier left Damanaka 'Victor'/Dimna watches in full view of his shocked brother Karataka 'Horribly Howling'/Kalila right

Mid Persian and Arabic versionsedit

The Persian Ibn al-Muqaffa' translated the Panchatantra in Middle Persian: Kalilag-o Demnag from Middle Persian to Arabic as Kalīla wa Dimna This is considered the first masterpiece of "Arabic literary prose"19 By the time the Sanskrit version migrated several hundred years through Pahlavi Middle Persian into Arabic, some important differences arose

The introduction and the frame story of the first book changed20 An initial introduction explains how the book was first composed at the time of Alexander the Great's called ذو القرنين in the book — he with two horns attempt to reach India In it an Indian King repents past misdeeds and requests an Indian sage called Bidaba to compose a body of work with wisdom and fables that are to be passed down for the future generations This is then stored in the great vault of kings as a national treasure In the second part a Persian emperor hears of a great book of wisdom in the vaults of treasures in the land of the Indian kings He sends one of his trusted aides who spends years winning the trust of the inner circle in the castle before he is able to access the book and return with it to Persia The Persian emperor then rewards him and allows him to translate the book into the Persian language to be read by everyone Ibn Al-Muqaffa then follows this long introduction, interjected with many sayings of wisdom, fables and noteworthy morals, with the actual fables of Kalila and Dimna21

The two jackals' names transmogrified into Kalila and Dimna Perhaps because the first section constituted most of the work, or because translators could find no simple equivalent in Zoroastrian Pahlavi for the concept expressed by the Sanskrit word 'Panchatantra', the jackals' names, Kalila and Dimna, became the generic name for the entire work in classical times

After the first chapter, Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ inserted a new one, telling of Dimna's trial The jackal is suspected of instigating the death of the bull “Shanzabeh", a key character in the first chapter The trial lasts for two days without conclusion, until a tiger and leopard appear to bear witness against Dimna He is found guilty and put to death

Ibn al-Muqaffa' inserted other additions and interpretations into his 750CE "re-telling" see Francois de Blois' Burzōy's voyage to India and the origin of the book Kalīlah wa Dimnah The political theorist Jennifer London suggests that he was expressing risky political views in a metaphorical way Al-Muqaffa' was murdered within a few years of completing his manuscript London has analysed how Ibn al-Muqaffa' could have used his version to make "frank political expression" at the 'Abbasid court see J London's “How To Do Things With Fables: Ibn al-Muqaffas Frank Speech in Stories from Kalila wa Dimna," History of Political Thought XXIX: 2 2008

Al-Muqaffa' also changed the characterisation of some animals, perhaps to have local types which his readers would recognise For instance, the crocodile in the fourth chapter is changed to a tortoiseverification needed, and the mongoose into a weasel The Brahman is described as a "hermit"

He begins each chapter of Kalila wa Dimna with a guiding frame-story theme that suggests key aspects of leadership:

  1. One should always be wary if one friend accuses another of crime;
  2. Added chapter Truth will be revealed, sooner or later;
  3. Cooperation among friends is vital to their survival;
  4. Mental strength and deceit are stronger in warfare than brute force;
  5. One must be careful not to betray friends, especially guarding against one's own tendencies towards foolishness; and
  6. One should be wary of hasty judgementscitation needed

Links with other fablesedit

Scholars have noted the strong similarity between a few of the stories in The Panchatantra and Aesop's Fables Examples are 'The Ass in the Panther's Skin' and 'The Ass without Heart and Ears'22 "The Broken Pot" is similar to Aesop's "The Milkmaid and Her Pail",23 "The Gold-Giving Snake" is similar to Aesop's "The Man and the Serpent" and "Le Paysan et Dame serpent" by Marie de France Fables24 Other well-known stories include "The Tortoise and The Geese" and "The Tiger, the Brahmin and the Jackal" Similar animal fables are found in most cultures of the world, although some folklorists view India as the prime source2526 India is described as the "chief source of the world's fable literature" in Funk and Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore Mythology and Legend27

The French fabulist Jean de La Fontaine acknowledged his indebtedness to the work in the introduction to his Second Fables:

"This is a second book of fables that I present to the public I have to acknowledge that the greatest part is inspired from Pilpay, an Indian Sage"28

The Panchatantra is the origin also of several stories in Arabian Nights, Sindbad, and of many Western nursery rhymes and ballads29

Origins and functionedit

The evil jackal Damanaka meets the innocent bull Sañjīvaka Indian painting, 1610

In the Indian tradition, The Panchatantra is a nītiśāstra Nīti can be roughly translated as "the wise conduct of life"15 and a śāstra is a technical or scientific treatise; thus it is considered a treatise on political science and human conduct Its literary sources are "the expert tradition of political science and the folk and literary traditions of storytelling" It draws from the Dharma and Artha śāstras, quoting them extensively30 It is also explained that nīti "represents an admirable attempt to answer the insistent question how to win the utmost possible joy from life in the world of men" and that nīti is "the harmonious development of the powers of man, a life in which security, prosperity, resolute action, friendship, and good learning are so combined to produce joy"15

The Panchatantra shares many stories in common with the Buddhist Jataka tales, purportedly told by the historical Buddha before his death around 400 BCE As the scholar Patrick Olivelle writes, "It is clear that the Buddhists did not invent the stories It is quite uncertain whether the author of the Panchatantra borrowed his stories from the Jātakas or the Mahābhārata, or whether he was tapping into a common treasury of tales, both oral and literary, of ancient India"30 Many scholars believe the tales were based on earlier oral folk traditions, which were finally written down, although there is no conclusive evidence31 In the early 20th century, W Norman Brown found that many folk tales in India appeared to be borrowed from literary sources and not vice versa32

An early Western scholar who studied The Panchatantra was Dr Johannes Hertel, who thought the book had a Machiavellian character Similarly, Edgerton noted that "The so-called 'morals' of the stories have no bearing on morality; they are unmoral, and often immoral They glorify shrewdness and practical wisdom, in the affairs of life, and especially of politics, of government"22 Other scholars dismiss this assessment as one-sided, and view the stories as teaching dharma, or proper moral conduct33 Also:34

On the surface, the Pañcatantra presents stories and sayings which favor the outwitting of roguery, and practical intelligence rather than virtue However, From this viewpoint the tales of the Pañcatantra are eminently ethical the prevailing mood promotes an earthy, moral, rational, and unsentimental ability to learn from repeated experience

As Olivelle observes:30

Indeed, the current scholarly debate regarding the intent and purpose of the 'Pañcatantra' — whether it supports unscrupulous Machiavellian politics or demands ethical conduct from those holding high office — underscores the rich ambiguity of the text

In the first frame story, the evil Damanaka 'Victor' wins, and not his good brother Karataka The persistent theme of evil-triumphant in Kalila and Dimna Part One, frequently outraged readers among Jewish, Christian and Muslim religious leaders who encountered the work in translation Some scholars believe that Ibn al-Muqaffa inserted a chapter at the end of Part One, which puts Dimna in jail, on trial and eventually to death, in an effort to assuage religious opponents of the workcitation needed

The pre-Islamic original, The Panchatantra, contains no such dogmatic moralising As Joseph Jacobs observed in 1888, " if one thinks of it, the very raison d'être of the Fable is to imply its moral without mentioning it"35

Cross-cultural migrationsedit

See also: Hitopadesha Early history based primarily on Edgerton 1924 Adaptations and translations from Jacobs 1888; less reliable for early history

The work has gone through many different versions and translations from the sixth century to the present day The original Indian version was first translated into a foreign language Pahlavi by Borzūya in 570CE, then into Arabic in 750 This Arabic version was translated into several languages, including Syriac, Greek, Persian, Hebrew and Spanish,36 and thus became the source of versions in European languages, until the English translation by Charles Wilkins of the Sanskrit Hitopadesha in 1787

Early cross-cultural migrationsedit

The Panchatantra approximated its current literary form within the 4th–6th centuries CE, though originally written around 200 BCE No Sanskrit texts before 1000 CE have survived37 According to Indian tradition, it was written by Pandit Vishnu Sharman, a sage Buddhist monks on pilgrimage took the influential Sanskrit text probably both in oral and literary formats north to Tibet and China and east to South East Asia38 These led to versions in all Southeast Asian countries, including Tibetan, Chinese, Mongolian, Javanese and Lao derivatives29

How Borzuy brought the work from Indiaedit

The foolish carpenter of Sarandib, hiding under the bed on which lie his wife and her lover She notices his foot and contrives a story to prove her innocence Persian illustration of the Kalileh and Dimneh, 1333

The Panchatantra also migrated westwards, during the Sassanid reign of Khosru I Anushiravan Around 570 CE his notable physician Borzuy translated the work from Sanskrit into the Middle Persian language, and transliterated the main characters as Karirak ud Damanak3940

According to the story told in the Shāh Nāma The Book of the Kings, Persia's late 10th century national epic by Ferdowsi, Borzuy sought his king's permission to make a trip to Hindustan in search of a mountain herb he had read about that is "mingled into a compound and, when sprinkled over a corpse, it is immediately restored to life"41 He did not find the herb, but was told by a wise sage of

"a different interpretation The herb is the scientist; science is the mountain, everlastingly out of reach of the multitude The corpse is the man without knowledge, for the uninstructed man is everywhere lifeless Through knowledge man becomes revivified"

The sage pointed to the book Kalila, and Borzuy obtained the king's permission to read and translate the book, with the help of some Pandits41

The Arabic classic by Ibn al-Muqaffaedit

An illustration from a Syrian edition dated 1354 The rabbit fools the elephant king by showing him the reflection of the moon

Borzuy's 570 CE Pahlavi translation Kalile va Demne, now lost was translated into Syriac Nearly two centuries later, it was translated into Arabic by Ibn al-Muqaffa around 750 CE42 under the Arabic title, Kalīla wa Dimna43 After the Arab invasion of Persia Iran, Ibn al-Muqaffa's version two languages removed from the pre-Islamic Sanskrit original emerged as the pivotal surviving text that enriched world literature44 Ibn al-Muqqaffa's work is considered a model of the finest Arabic prose style,45 and "is considered the first masterpiece of Arabic literary prose"19

Some scholars believe that Ibn al-Muqaffa's translation of the second section, illustrating the Sanskrit principle of Mitra Laabha Gaining Friends, became the unifying basis for the Brethren of Purity Ikwhan al-Safa — the anonymous 9th century CE encyclopedists whose prodigious literary effort, Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Sincerity, codified Indian, Persian and Greek knowledge A suggestion made by Goldziher, and later written on by Philip K Hitti in his History of the Arabs, proposes that "The appellation is presumably taken from the story of the ringdove in Kalilah wa-Dimnah in which it is related that a group of animals by acting as faithful friends ikhwan al-safa to one another escaped the snares of the hunter" This story is mentioned as an exemplum when the Brethren speak of mutual aid in one risaala treatise, a crucial part of their system of ethics

The bird lures fish and kills them, until he tries the same trick with a crab Illustration from the editio princeps of the Latin version by John of Capua

Spread to the rest of Europeedit

Almost all pre-modern European translations of the Panchatantra arise from this Arabic version From Arabic it was re-translated into Syriac in the 10th or 11th century, into Greek in 1080, into 'modern' Persian by Abu'l Ma'ali Nasr Allah Munshi in 1121, and in 1252 into Spain old Castilian, Calila e Dimna

Perhaps most importantly, it was translated into Hebrew by Rabbi Joel in the 12th century This Hebrew version was translated into Latin by John of Capua as Directorium Humanae Vitae, or "Directory of Human Life", and printed in 1480, and became the source of most European versions46 A German translation, Das Buch der Beispiele, of the Panchatantra was printed in 1483, making this one of the earliest books to be printed by Gutenberg's press after the Bible29

The Latin version was translated into Italian by Antonfrancesco Doni in 1552 This translation became the basis for the first English translation, in 1570: Sir Thomas North translated it into Elizabethan English as The Fables of Bidpai: The Morall Philosophie of Doni reprinted by Joseph Jacobs, 188811 La Fontaine published The Fables of Bidpai in 1679, based on "the Indian sage Pilpay"29

Modern eraedit

It was the Panchatantra that served as the basis for the studies of Theodor Benfey, the pioneer in the field of comparative literature47 His efforts began to clear up some confusion surrounding the history of the Panchatantra, culminating in the work of Hertel Hertel 1908, Hertel 1912, Hertel 1915 and Edgerton 192429 Hertel discovered several recensions in India, in particular the oldest available Sanskrit recension, the Tantrakhyayika in Kashmir, and the so-called North Western Family Sanskrit text by the Jain monk Purnabhadra in 1199 CE that blends and rearranges at least three earlier versions Edgerton undertook a minute study of all texts which seemed "to provide useful evidence on the lost Sanskrit text to which, it must be assumed, they all go back", and believed he had reconstructed the original Sanskrit Panchatantra; this version is known as the Southern Family text

Among modern translations, Arthur W Ryder's translation Ryder 1925, translating prose for prose and verse for rhyming verse, remains popular4849 In the 1990s two English versions of the Panchatantra were published, Chandra Rajan's translation like Ryder's, based on Purnabhadra's recension by Penguin 1993, and Patrick Olivelle's translation based on Edgerton's reconstruction of the ur-text by Oxford University Press 1997 Olivelle's translation was republished in 2006 by the Clay Sanskrit Library50

Recently Ibn al-Muqaffa's historical milieu itself, when composing his masterpiece in Baghdad during the bloody Abbasid overthrow of the Umayyad dynasty, has become the subject and rather confusingly, also the title of a gritty Shakespearean drama by the multicultural Kuwaiti playwright Sulayman Al-Bassam51 Ibn al-Muqqafa's biographical background serves as an illustrative metaphor for today's escalating bloodthirstiness in Iraq — once again a historical vortex for clashing civilisations on a multiplicity of levels, including the obvious tribal, religious and political parallels

The novelist Doris Lessing notes in her introduction to Ramsay Wood's 1980 "retelling" of the first two of the five Panchatantra books,52 that

" it is safe to say that most people in the West these days will not have heard of it, while they will certainly at the very least have heard of the Upanishads and the Vedas Until comparatively recently, it was the other way around Anyone with any claim to a literary education knew that the Fables of Bidpai or the Tales of Kalila and Dimna — these being the most commonly used titles with us — was a great Eastern classic There were at least twenty English translations in the hundred years before 1888 Pondering on these facts leads to reflection on the fate of books, as chancy and unpredictable as that of people or nations"

See alsoedit

  • India portal
  • Children's literature portal
  • Arthashastra
  • Katha storytelling format
  • Kathasaritsagara
  • Mirrors for princes
  • Wisdom literature

Notesedit

  1. ^ Jacobs 1888, Introduction, page xv; Ryder 1925, Translator's introduction, quoting Hertel: "the original work was composed in Kashmir, about 200 BC At this date, however, many of the individual stories were already ancient"
  2. ^ Doris Lessing, Problems, Myths and Stories, London: Institute for Cultural Research Monograph Series No 36, 1999, p 13
  3. ^ Introduction, Olivelle 2006, quoting Edgerton 1924
  4. ^ Ryder 1925, Translator's introduction: "The Panchatantra contains the most widely known stories in the world If it were further declared that the Panchatantra is the best collection of stories in the world, the assertion could hardly be disproved, and would probably command the assent of those possessing the knowledge for a judgment"
  5. ^ Edgerton 1924, p 3 "reacht" and "workt" have been changed to conventional spelling
  6. ^ Hertel 1915
  7. ^ Falconer 1885
  8. ^ Knatchbull 1819
  9. ^ Wood 2008
  10. ^ Eastwick 1854, Wollaston 1877, Wilkinson 1930,
  11. ^ a b Jacobs 1888
  12. ^ The Fables of Pilpay, facsimile reprint of the 1775 edition, Darf Publishers, London 1987
  13. ^ Ryder 1925, Translator's introduction: "Thus, the lion is strong but dull of wit, the jackal crafty, the heron stupid, the cat a hypocrite The animal actors present, far more vividly and more urbanely than men could do, the view of life here recommended—a view shrewd, undeceived, and free of all sentimentality; a view that, piercing the humbug of every false ideal, reveals with incomparable wit the sources of lasting joy" See also Olivelle 2006, pp 26–31
  14. ^ For this reason, Ramsay Wood considers it an early precursor of the mirrors for princes genre
  15. ^ a b c Ryder 1925, Translator's introduction: "The Panchatantra is a niti-shastra, or textbook of niti The word niti means roughly “the wise conduct of life" Western civilization must endure a certain shame in realizing that no precise equivalent of the term is found in English, French, Latin, or Greek Many words are therefore necessary to explain what niti is, though the idea, once grasped, is clear, important, and satisfying"
  16. ^ Edgerton 1924, p 4
  17. ^ Ryder 1925, Translator's introduction: "These verses are for the most part quoted from sacred writings or other sources of dignity and authority It is as if the animals in some English beast-fable were to justify their actions by quotations from Shakespeare and the Bible These wise verses it is which make the real character of the Panchatantra The stories, indeed, are charming when regarded as pure narrative; but it is the beauty, wisdom, and wit of the verses which lift the Panchatantra far above the level of the best story-books"
  18. ^ a b c Olivelle 2006, p 23
  19. ^ a b Lane, Andrew J 2003, Review: Gregor Schoeler's Écrire et transmettre dans les débuts de l’islam, Cambridge: MIT Electronic Journal of Middle East Studies, archived from the original on 6 March 2008 
  20. ^ François de Blois 1990, Burzōy's voyage to India and the origin of the book of Kalīlah wa Dimnah, Routledge, pp 22–23, ISBN 978-0-947593-06-3 
  21. ^ http://wwwal-hakawatinet/arabic/Civilizations/75pdf
  22. ^ a b The Panchatantra translated in 1924 from the Sanskrit by Franklin Edgerton, George Allen and Unwin, London 1965 "Edition for the General Reader", page 13
  23. ^ They are both classified as folktales of Aarne-Thompson-Uther type 1430 "about daydreams of wealth and fame"
  24. ^ They are both classified as folktales of Aarne-Thompson type 285D
  25. ^ K D Upadhyaya, The Classification and Chief Characteristics of Indian Hindi Folk-Tales : "It is only in the fitness of things that Professors Hertel and Benfey should regard this land as the prime source of fables and fiction"
  26. ^ Anne Mackenzie Pearson 1996, 'Because it gives me peace of mind': Ritual Fasts in the Religious Lives of Hindu Women, SUNY Press, p 279, ISBN 978-0-7914-3037-8 
  27. ^ Funk and Wagnalls Standard Dictionary of Folklore Mythology and Legend 1975, p 842
  28. ^ "Je dirai par reconnaissance que j’en dois la plus grande partie à Pilpay sage indien" Avertissement to the Second Compilation of Fables, 1678, Jean de La Fontaine
  29. ^ a b c d e Vijay Bedekar, History of the Migration of Panchatantra, Institute for Oriental Study, Thane
  30. ^ a b c Olivelle 2006, p 18
  31. ^ Bedekar: "Its probable relation to early folk and oral tradition of story telling in India has been suggested by many Rather, it is fashionable to make such statements that 'Panchatantra' and allied Katha literature in India had their origin in early folk stories However, not a single credible evidence has been produced till this date, other than lengthy discussions on hypothetical assumptions"
  32. ^ Brown, Norman W 1919 "'The Panchatantra' in Modern Indian Folklore", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol 39, pp 1 &17: "It is doubtless true that in the remote past many stories had their origin among the illiterate folk, often in pre-literary times, and were later taken into literature It is also just as true that many stories that appear in literature existed there first and are not indebted to the folklore for their origin But leaving aside questions concerning the early history of Hindu stories and dealing strictly with modern Indian fiction, we find that folklore has frequently taken its material from literature This process has been so extensive that of the 3000 tales so far reported, all of which have been collected during the past fifty years, at least half can be shown to be derived from literary sources This table affords considerable evidence in support of the theory that it is the folk tales and not the literary tales that are borrowed
  33. ^ Falk, H 1978, Quellen des Pañcatantra, pp 173–188 
  34. ^ Roderick Hindery 1996, Comparative ethics in Hindu and Buddhist traditions, Motilal Banarsidass Publ, p 166, ISBN 978-81-208-0866-9 
  35. ^ Jacobs 1888, p48
  36. ^ Kalilah and Dimnah; or, The fables of Bidpai; being an account of their literary history, p xiv
  37. ^ Edgerton 1924, p 9
  38. ^ Tarquin Hall "Review: Colin Thubron, Shadow of the Silk Road, London: Chatto & Windus, 2006, New Statesman, 25 September 2011, Review includes description of how some of the monks likely traveled in ancient times Archived 27 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ IISacuk Dr Fahmida Suleman, "Kalila wa Dimna", in Medieval Islamic Civilization, An Encyclopaedia, Vol II, p 432-433, ed Josef W Meri, New York-London: Routledge, 2006
  40. ^ Abdolhossein Zarrinkoub, Naqde adabi, Tehran 1959 pp:374–379 See Contents 11 Pre-Islamic Iranian literature
  41. ^ a b The Shāh Nãma, The Epic of the Kings, translated by Reuben Levy, revised by Amin Banani, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1985, Chapter XXXI iii How Borzuy brought the Kalila of Demna from Hindustan, pages 330 – 334
  42. ^ The Fables of Kalila and Dimnah, translated from the Arabic by Saleh Sa'adeh Jallad, 2002 Melisende, London, ISBN 1-901764-14-1
  43. ^ Muslim Neoplatonist: An Introduction to the Thought of the Brethren of Purity, Ian Richard Netton, 1991 Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 0-7486-0251-8
  44. ^ See fourteen illuminating commentaries about or relating to Kalila wa Dimna under the entry for Ibn al-Muqqaffa in the INDEX of The Penguin Anthology of Classical Arabic Literature by Rober Irwin, Penguin Books, London 2006
  45. ^ James Kritzeck 1964 Anthology of Islamic Literature, New American Library, New York, page 73:

    On the surface of the matter it may seem strange that the oldest work of Arabic prose which is regarded as a model of style is a translation from the Pahlavi Middle Persian of the Sanskrit work Panchatantra, or The Fables of Bidpai, by Ruzbih, a convert from Zoroastrianism, who took the name Abdullah ibn al-Muqaffa It is not quite so strange, however, when one recalls that the Arabs had much preferred the poetic art and were at first suspicious of and untrained to appreciate, let alone imitate, current higher forms of prose literature in the lands they occupied

    Leaving aside the great skill of its translation which was to serve as the basis for later translations into some forty languages, the work itself is far from primitive, having benefited already at that time 750 CE from a lengthy history of stylistic revision Kalilah and Dimnah is in fact the patriarchal form of the Indic fable in which animals behave as humans — as distinct from the Aesopic fable in which they behave as animals Its philosophical heroes through the initial interconnected episodes illustrating The Loss of Friends, the first Hindu principle of polity are the two jackals, Kalilah and Dimnah

    It seems unjust, in the light of posterity's appreciation of his work, that Ibn al-Muqaffa was put to death after charges of heresy about 755 CE

    See also pages 69 – 72 for his vivid summary of Ibn al-Muqaffa's historical context
  46. ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed 1911 "Bidpai, Fables of" Encyclopædia Britannica 3 11th ed Cambridge University Press 
  47. ^ Harvard Oriental Series Booksgooglecom Retrieved 14 April 2013 
  48. ^ Ahsan Jan Qaisar; Som Prakash Verma, eds 2002, Art and culture: painting and perspective, Abhinav Publications, p 33, ISBN 978-81-7017-405-9 : "it became the most popular and easily accessible English translation, going into many reprints"
  49. ^ Murray, M A 1956-06-01 "review" Folklore 67 2: 118–120 doi:102307/1258527 ISSN 0015-587X JSTOR 1258527 
  50. ^ Rajan 1993, Olivelle 1997, Olivelle 2006
  51. ^ Kalila wa Dimna or The Mirror for Princes by Sulayman Al-Bassam, Oberon Modern Plays, London 2006
  52. ^ Kalila and Dimna, Selected fables of Bidpai, retold by Ramsay Wood with an Introduction by Doris Lessing, Illustrated by Margaret Kilrenny, A Paladin Book, Granada, London, 1982

Editions and translationsedit

Ordered chronologically

Sanskrit textsedit

Critical editions
  • Hertel, Johannes 1908, The Panchatantra: a collection of ancient Hindu tales, in the recension called Panchakhyanaka, and dated 1199 AD, of the Jaina monk, Pūrṇabhadra, critically edited in the original Sanskrit in Nâgarî letters, and, for the sake of beginners, with word-division, Harvard Oriental Series Volume 11 
  • Hertel, Johannes 1912, The Panchatantra-text of Pūrṇabhadra : critical introduction and list of variants, Harvard Oriental Series Volume 12 
  • Hertel, Johannes 1912, The Panchatantra-text of Pūrṇabhadra and its relation to texts of allied recensions as shown in parallel specimens, Harvard Oriental Series Volume 13 
  • Hertel, Johannes 1915, The Panchatantra: a collection of ancient Hindu tales in its oldest recension, the Kashmirian, entitled Tantrakhyayika, Harvard Oriental Series Volume 14 
  • Edgerton, Franklin 1924, The Panchatantra Reconstructed Vol1: Text and Critical Apparatus, Vol2: Introduction and Translation, New Haven, Connecticut: American Oriental Series Volumes 2–3 
  • Edgerton, Franklin 1930, The Pancatantra Ⅰ–Ⅴ: the text in its oldest form, Poona: Oriental Book Agency Poona Oriental Series No 32  reprinting in Devanagari only the text from his 1924 work
Others
  • Kāśīnātha Pāṇḍuraṅga Paraba, ed 1896, The Pañchatantraka of Vishṇusarman, Tukârâm Jâvjî , Google Books
  • Pandit Guru Prasad Shastri 1935, Panchatantra with the commentary Abhinavarajalaxmi, Benares: Bhargava Pustakalaya  Text with Sanskrit commentary
  • Shayamacharan Pandey 1975, Pañcatantram, Vārāṇasī: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 9788120821583  Complete Sanskrit text with Hindi translation

Translations in Englishedit

  • Knatchbull, Rev Wyndham 1819, Kalila and Dimna or The Fables of Bidpai, Oxford  Google BooksGoogle Books translated from Silvestre de Stacy's laborious 1816 collation of different Arabic manuscripts
  • Eastwick, Edward B transl 1854, The Anvari Suhaili; or the Lights of Canopus Being the Persian version of the Fables of Pilpay; or the Book Kalílah and Damnah rendered into Persian by Husain Vá'iz U'L-Káshifí, Hertford: Stephen Austin, Bookseller to the East-India College  Also online at Persian Literature in Translation
  • Wollaston, Arthur N transl 1877, The Anwar-I-Suhaili Or Lights of Canopus Commonly Known As Kalilah And Damnah Being An Adaptation By Mulla Husain Bin Ali Waiz-Al-Kashifi of The Fables of Bidapai, London: W H Allen 
  • Falconer, Ion Keith 1885, Kalilah and Dimnah or The Fables of Bidpai, Cambridge University Press , reprinted by Philo Press, Amsterdam 1970
  • Jacobs, Joseph 1888, The earliest English version of the Fables of Bidpai, London  Google Books edited and induced from The Morall Philosophie of Doni by Sir Thomas North, 1570
  • Tales Within Tales – adapted from the fables of Pilpai, Sir Arthur N Wollaston, John Murray, London 1909
  • Wilkinson 1930, The Lights of Canopus described by J V S Wilkinson, London: The Studio Limited 
  • Ryder, Arthur W transl 1925, The Panchatantra, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 81-7224-080-5  also republished in 1956, reprint 1964, and by Jaico Publishing House, Bombay, 1949 Translation based on Hertel's North Western Family Sanskrit text
  • Rajan, Chandra transl 1993, Viṣṇu Śarma: The Panchatantra, London: Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0-14-045520-5  reprint: 1995 also from the North Western Family text
  • Olivelle, Patrick transl 1997, The Pancatantra: The Book of India's Folk Wisdom, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-283988-6  Translation based on Edgerton's Southern Family Sanskrit text
  • Dharma, Krishna transl 2004, Panchatantra – A vivid retelling of India's most famous collection of fables, Badger CA, USA: Torchlight Publishing, ISBN 978-1-887089-45-6  Accessible popular compilation derived from a Sanskrit text with reference to the aforementioned translations by Chandra Rajan and Patrick Olivelle
  • Olivelle, Patrick 2006, The Five Discourses on Worldly Wisdom, Clay Sanskrit Library, ISBN 978-0-8147-6208-0 
  • Wood, Ramsay 2008, Kalila and Dimna, Fables of Friendship and Betrayal, Introduction by Doris Lessing, Postscript by Dr Christine van Ruymbeke, London: Saqi Books, ISBN 978-0-86356-661-5 
  • Wood, Ramsay 2008, Kalila and Dimna, Fables of Friendship and Betrayal Vol 1: Books 1 & 2 Introduction by Doris Lessing US Kindle edition, Edinburg: Zirac Press, ISBN 0-86356-661-8 
  • Wood, Ramsay 2010, Kalila and Dimna, The Panchatantra Retold – Book One, Introduction by Doris Lessing, Noida: Random House India 
  • Wood, Ramsay 2011, Kalila and Dimna, Fables of Conflict and Intrigue Vol 2: Books 4 & 5, Introduction by Michael Wood US Kindle edition, Edinburg: Zirac Press, ISBN 0-9567081-0-2 

Further readingedit

  • Weiss, H B 1925-12-01 "The Insects of the Panchatantra" Journal of the New York Entomological Society 33 4: 223 doi:102307/25004101 ISSN 0028-7199 JSTOR 25004101 
  • N M Penzer 1924, The Ocean of Story, Being CH Tawney's Translation of Somadeva's Katha Sarit Sagara or Ocean of Streams of Story: Volume V of X, Appendix I: pp 207–242
  • Burzoy's Voyage to India and the Origin of the Book of Kalilah wa Dimnah Google Books, Francois de Blois, Royal Asiatic Society, London, 1990
  • On Kalila wa Dimna and Persian National Fairy Tales Transoxianacom, Dr Pavel Basharin Moscow, Tansoxiana 12, 2007
  • The Past We Share — The Near Eastern Ancestry of Western Folk Literature, E L Ranelagh, Quartet Books, Horizon Press, New York, 1979
  • In Arabian Nights — A Search of Morocco through its Stories and Storytellers by Tahir Shah, Doubleday, 2008
  • Ibn al-Muqaffa, Abdallah Kalilah et Dimnah Ed P Louis Cheiko 3 ed Beirut: Imprimerie Catholique, 1947
  • Ibn al-Muqaffa, Abd'allah Calila e Dimna Edited by Juan Manuel Cacho Blecua and María Jesus Lacarra Madrid: Editorial Castalia, 1984
  • Keller, John Esten, and Robert White Linker El libro de Calila e Digna Madrid Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1967
  • Latham, JD "Ibn al-Muqaffa` and Early `Abbasid Prose" `Abbasid Belles-Lettres Eds Julia Ashtiany, et al Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1989 48–77
  • Parker, Margaret The Didactic Structure and Content of El libro de Calila e Digna Miami, FL: Ediciones Universal, 1978
  • Penzol, Pedro Las traducciones del "Calila e Dimna" Madrid,: Impr de Ramona Velasco, viuda de P Perez,, 1931
  • Shaw, Sandra The Jatakas — Birth Stories of the Bodhisatta, Penguin Classics, Penguin Books India, New Delhi, 2006
  • Wacks, David A "The Performativity of Ibn al-Muqaffas Kalîla wa-Dimna and Al-Maqamat al-Luzumiyya of al-Saraqusti" Journal of Arabic Literature 341–2 2003: 178–89

External linksedit

  • Works related to The Panchatantra at Wikisource
  • Quotations related to Panchatantra at Wikiquote
  • The dictionary definition of panchatantra at Wiktionary
  • Media related to Panchatantra at Wikimedia Commons
  • Tales Of Panchatantra
  • Complete Panchatantra Stories In Hindi
  • Sept 26 -29th 2012 Leipzig Conference on The Pañcatantra Across Cultures and Disciplines
  • History of the Migration of Panchatantra
  • ICR Monograph Series No 59: Extraordinary Voyages of the Panchatantra — and how we limit our understanding of the word story

panchatantra, panchatantra kathalu, panchatantra stat, panchatantra statistic page, panchatantra stories, panchatantra stories in english, panchatantra stories in telugu, panchatantra story in hindi, panchatantra tales, panchatantra.kar.nic.in


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