Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinomaovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma in sheep
Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma OPA, also known as ovine pulmonary adenomatosis, or jaagsiekte, is a chronic and contagious disease of the lungs of sheep and goats OPA is caused by a retrovirus called jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus JSRV
- 1 Signs and symptoms
- 2 Epidemiology
- 3 History
- 4 Research
- 5 Society and culture
- 6 References
Signs and symptoms
The disease has a long incubation period, and therefore signs usually occur in adult animals over 2 years of age Clinical signs resemble a non-specific progressive pneumonia, including poor body condition and, particularly after exercise, respiratory difficulty Unless a concurrent lung infection is present, affected sheep continue to eat The only sign specific to OPA is a watery nasal discharge, consisting of lung fluid produced by the affected lung tissue; lifting the hind legs of the animal above the level of its head will cause large volumes of this fluid to flow from the nostrils
There are no reliable tests for the diagnosis of OPA in live animals which are suitable for use on farms, so diagnosis can only be confirmed at necropsy post-mortem examination On necropsy, lungs are interspersed with multifocal tumors Some of these are small discrete nodules and others will involve the entire half of a lung lobule JSRV acutely transforms the lung epithelia into cancerous cells, with type-2 pneumocytes and club cells being the likely target for JSRV transformation The tumors have overactive secretory functions, which are a hallmark of OPA
The retroviral antigen levels of JSRV are very high in OPA tumors and can be detected in the lung secretions of infected sheep It is thought that infected animals secrete the virus before showing signs, so the virus is easily spread within flocks
OPA has been found in most countries where sheep are farmed, with the exception of Australia and New Zealand OPA has been eradicated in Iceland
No breed or sex of sheep appears to be predisposed to OPA Most affected sheep show signs at 2 to 4 years of age
OPA is not a notifiable disease, and therefore it is difficult to assess its prevalence
OPA was first described in the UK in 1888, and described in detail in South Africa in 1891 The disease was initially known as jaagsiekte , a word derived from Afrikaans, meaning "chasing sickness," so called because animals are in respiratory distress as if they are out of breath from being chased It has also been known as sheep pulmonary adenomatosis and ovine pulmonary carcinoma
OPA has been used as an animal model for human lung cancer, because OPA is histologically similar to human adenocarcinoma in situ of the lung
Society and culture
Dolly the sheep, the first mammal successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell, was euthanized after it was confirmed that she had OPA
- ^ "279 Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma adenomatosis" Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals 2016 PDF World Organisation for Animal Health 2016 Retrieved 2017-01-23
- ^ a b c d Meuten, DJ, ed 2016 "Chapter 12: Tumors of the respiratory tract" Tumors in domestic animals 5th ed John Wiley & Sons pp 467–498 ISBN 9781119181194
- ^ Cousens, C; Gibson, L; Finlayson, J; Pritchard, I; Dagleish, MP 18 April 2015 "Prevalence of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma Jaagsiekte in a UK slaughterhouse sheep study" The Veterinary record 176 16: 413 doi:101136/vr102880 PMID 25721510
- ^ a b c d Griffiths, DJ; Martineau, HM; Cousens, C May 2010 "Pathology and pathogenesis of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma" Journal of Comparative Pathology 142 4: 260–283 doi:101016/jjcpa200912013 PMID 20163805 Retrieved 2017-01-25
- ^ De Las Heras, M; González, L; Sharp, JM 2003 "Pathology of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma" In Fan, Hung Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus and Lung Cancer Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg pp 55–79 ISBN 9783642628979 Retrieved 2017-01-24
- ^ a b York, DF; Querat, G 2002 "Chapter 1: A history of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma jaagsiekte and experiments leading to the deduction of the JSRV nucleotide sequence" In Fan, Hung Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and lung cancer Volume 275 of Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology Berlin: Springer-Verlag pp 1–23 ISBN 9783540440963
- ^ Sharp, J M; DeMartini, J C 2003 "Natural History of JSRV in Sheep" In Fan, Hung Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus and Lung Cancer Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg pp 55–79 ISBN 9783642628979 Retrieved 2017-01-23
- ^ Youssef, G; Wallace, WA; Dagleish, MP; Cousens, C; Griffiths, DJ 2015 "Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma: a large animal model for human lung cancer" ILAR journal 56 1: 99–115 doi:101093/ilar/ilv014 PMID 25991702
- ^ Kuehn, BM 2003 "Goodbye, Dolly; first cloned sheep dies at six years old" Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 222 8: 1060–1, 1065 PMID 12710763
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