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Outer Mongolia

outer mongolia china, outer mongolia capital
Outer Mongolia Mongolian: ᠭᠠᠳᠠᠭᠠᠳᠤ
ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠤᠯ Gadagadu Monggol in Mongolian script, and гадаад Монгол Gadaad Mongol in Mongolian Cyrillic; Chinese: 外蒙古; pinyin: Wài Měnggǔ1 was a territory of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty 1644–1912 Its area was roughly equivalent to that of the modern state of Mongolia, which is sometimes called "North Mongolia" in China today, plus the Russian republic of Tuva While the administrative North Mongolia only consisted of the four Khalkha aimags Setsen Khan Aimag, Tüsheet Khan Aimag, Sain Noyon Khan Aimag and Zasagt Khan Aimag, in the late Qing period "North Mongolia" was also used to refer to Khalkha plus Oirat areas Khovd and the directly-ruled Tannu Uriankhai Chinese: 唐努乌梁海

The name "North Mongolia" is contrasted with South Mongolia,1 an autonomous region of China South Mongolia was given its name because it was more directly administered by the Qing court; North Mongolia which is further from the capital Beijing had a greater degree of autonomy within the Qing domain2 The term ar mongol or Chinese: 漠北蒙古, lit "Mongolia located in the north of the Gobi" is sometimes used in Mongolian or Chinese language to refer to North Mongolia3 when making a distinction with South Mongolia, so as to elide the history of Qing rule and rather imply a geographic unity or distinction of regions inhabited by Mongols in the Mongolian Plateau There also exists an English term Northern Mongolia, but possibly with political connotations4 It can also be used to refer to Mongolia synchronically5 In the Mongolian language, the word ar refers to the back side of something, which has been extended to mean the northern side of any spatial entity, eg a mountain or a yurt The word öbür refers to the south and thus protected side of a mountain6 So the difference between South Mongolia and the Mongolian state is conceived of in the metaphor as at the backward northern side vs the south side of a mountain In contrast to Chinese: 漠北蒙古 pinyin: Mòběi Měnggǔ, there is also Chinese: 漠南蒙古 pinyin: Mònán Měnggǔ roughly referring to the region now known as South Mongolia, while the direct and possibly more sinocentristic Chinese counterpart for the term "South Mongolia" Chinese: 内蒙古; pinyin: Nèi Měnggǔ remained the standard terminology for the region

Today, "North Mongolia" is sometimes still informally used to refer to Mongolia Outer Mongolia is also used quite commonly in the Republic of China Taiwan To avoid confusion between the sovereign nation of Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia, but to recognize the sovereignty of Mongolia, media in China generally refer to the former as "State of Mongolia" Chinese: 蒙古国; pinyin: Ménggǔ Guó, that is the translation of the official name in Mongolian, Монгол Улс/Mongol Uls instead of just "Mongolia" Chinese: 蒙古; pinyin: Ménggǔ, that could refer to the whole Mongolia area

See alsoedit

  • History of Imperial China portal
  • China portal
  • Mongolia portal
  • South Mongolia
  • Tannu Uriankhai
  • Outer Northwest China


  1. ^ a b Huhbator Borjigin 2004 The history and political character of the name of 'Nei Menggu' South Mongolia Inner Asia 6: 61-80
  2. ^ The Cambridge History of China, volume 10, pg 49
  3. ^ cf Norcin, C 1999: Monggol kelen-ü toli Ömnud monggol-un arad-un keblel-ün qoriya Page 170
  4. ^ Bulag, Uradyn 1998 Nationalism and Hybridity in Mongolia Clarendon Press pp 179–180 
  5. ^ Bawden, Charles 1997: Mongolian-English dictionary London: Kegan Paul Page 23
  6. ^ cf Norcin, C 1999: Monggol kelen-ü toli Ömnud monggol-un arad-un keblel-ün qoriya Page 169, 580 ömnud: agula dabagan-u engger tal-a-yin gajar

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Outer Mongolia

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