Ottoman dynasty


The Ottoman dynasty was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman Ottoman Turkish: خاندان آل عثمان‎, Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān; Turkish: Osmanlı Hanedanı According to Ottoman tradition, the family originated from the Kayı tribenb 1 branch of the Oghuz Turks,2 under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia in the district of Bilecik Söğüt The Ottoman dynasty, named after Osman I, ruled the Ottoman Empire from c 1299 to 1922

During much of the Empire's history, the sultan was the absolute regent, head of state, and head of government, though much of the power often shifted to other officials such as the Grand Vizier During the First 1876–78 and Second Constitutional Eras 1908–20 of the late Empire, a shift to constitutional monarchy was enacted, with the Grand Vizier taking on a prime ministerial role as head of government and heading an elected General Assembly

The imperial family was deposed from power and the sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922 after the Turkish War of Independence The Republic of Turkey was declared the following year The living members of the dynasty were initially sent into exile as persona non gratae, though some have been allowed to return and live as private citizens in Turkey In its current form, the family is known as the Osmanoğlu family

Ottoman Ceremonial Barbering Cape detail, early 18th century, Turkey Each day, the Sultan wore a different elaborately embroidered cape for his daily barberingcitation needed Public displays of extraordinary splendor were considered essential to the maintenance of Ottoman imperial authoritycitation needed LACMA textile collection

Contents

  • 1 Titles
  • 2 See also
  • 3 Notes
  • 4 References
  • 5 External links

Titlesedit

Before Orhan's proclamation of the dynasty, the tribe was known as the Bilecik Söğüt Beylik or Beys but was renamed Osmanlı in honor of Osmancitation needed

The Ottoman dynasty is known in modern Turkish as Osmanlı Hanedanı, meaning "House of Osman"; in Ottoman Turkish it was known as Hanedan-ı Âl-i Osman, meaning "Dynasty of the Family Osman"

The first rulers of the dynasty did not take the title of Sultan, but rather Bey, a title roughly the Turkic equivalent of Lord, which would itself become a gubernatorial title and even a common military or honorific rank Thus they still formally acknowledged the sovereignty of the Seljuk Empire and its successor, the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm

The first Ottoman ruler to actually claim the title of Sultan was Murad I, who ruled from 1362 to 1389 The holder of the title Sultan سلطان in Arabic was in Arabic-Islamic dynasties originally the power behind the throne of the Caliph in Bagdad and it was later used for various independent Muslim Monarchs This title was senior to and more prestigious than that of Amir; it was not comparable to the title of Malik 'King', a secular title not yet common among Muslim rulers, or the Persian title of Shah, which was used mostly among Persian or Iranian related rulers

The Ottoman sultans also claimed the title of Caliph starting with Murad I,3 who transformed the Ottoman state into a transcontinental empire

With the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453, Sultan Mehmed II Fatih 1451 - 1481 claimed the title Kaysar-i-Rûm "Emperor of Rome" and proclaimed himself the protector of the Orthodox Church He appointed the Patriarch of Constantinople Gennadius Scholarius, whom he protected and whose status he elevated into leader of all the Eastern Orthodox Christians As Emperor of Rome he laid claim to all Roman territories, which at the time before the Fall of Constantinople, however, extended to little more than the city itself plus some areas in Morea Peloponnese

Sultan Mehmed II also took the title of Padishah in Turkish 'Padişah' پادشاه, a Persian title meaning "Master of Kings" and ranking as "Emperor", claiming superiority among the other kings His full style was Sultan Mehmed II Khan, Fatih Ghazi 'Abu'l Fath Victorious Conqueror, Father of Conquest, Padishah, Sovereign of the House of Osman, Emperor of Rome, Grand Sultan of Anatolia and Rumelia, Khan of Khans of the Two Lands and the Two Seas, Emperor of the three Cities of Constantinople, Edirne and Bursa He was the first Ottoman ruler to adopt the imperial title of Padishahcitation needed

The Ottoman claim to caliphate was strengthened when they defeated the Mamluks in 1517 and annexed Egypt during the rule of Selim I Selim also received the title "Custodian of the Two Noble Sanctuaries", Khadim al-Haramayn ash-Sharifayn in Arabic, from Barakat Effendi Grand Sharif of Mecca when conquering Hijaz and with it the Muslim Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina Selim I full style was: Sovereign of the House of Osman, Khan of Khans of the Two Lands and the Two Seas, Commander of the Faithful and Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe, Custodian of the Two Noble Sanctuaries, Emperor of the Three Cities of Constantinople, Adrianople and Bursa, Conqueror of the two Armies ie the European and Persian armiescitation needed

In Europe, all Ottoman Emperors were commonly referred to by the title of Sultan, rather than by those of Padishah or Caliph, which had a higher rank than that of Sultan, and were also often informally referred to by such terms unrelated to the Ottoman protocol as the Grand Turk and the Grand Seigneur or Gran Signore

The sultans further adopted in time many secondary formal titles as well, such as "Sovereign of the House of Osman", "Sultan of Sultans", and "Khan of Khans", these two meaning King of Kings and roughly ranking as "Emperor" These titles were known in Ottoman Turkish respectively as Hünkar-i Khanedan-i Âl-i Osman, Sultan us-Salatin and Khakan the latter enlarged as Khakan ül-Berreyn vel-Bahreyn by Mehmet II, Bayezid II and Selim I, meaning "Khan of Khans of the Two Lands Europe and Asia and the Two Seas Mediterranean and Indian"citation needed

As the empire grew, sultans adopted secondary titles expressing the empire's claim to be the legitimate successor of the absorbed states Furthermore, they tended to enumerate even regular provinces, not unlike the long lists of -mainly inherited- feudal titles in the full style of many Christian European monarchs

Some early Ottoman Sultans even had to accept the vassal status in the eyes of a foreign overlord For example, Tamerlane appointed in 1402 the Ottoman Sultan Süleyman Çelebi deposed in 1411, who was styled as-Sultan ul-Azam, Sayyid us-Saladin ul-Arab wal Ajam, Malik ur-Rikaab ul-Umam, Ghiyas ud-Daula wa ud-Dunya, Sultan ul-Islam wal-Muslimin, as-Sultan ibni us-Sultan, Hasib-i-Nasib-I-Zaman, Amir ul-Rumelia Grand Sultan, Righteous Lord of Arabs, Helper of the State and the People, Sultan of Islam and the Muslims, Sultan son of Sultans, Prince of Rumelia Again his brother, Mehmed I, who ended the Ottoman Interregnum, also held his post with a fief from Tamerlane; he took the title Sovereign of the House of Osman, Khan of Khans, Grand Sultan of Anatolia and Rumelia, and of the Cities of Adrianople and Philipopolis However, the vassalage of the Ottoman Sultanate ended with the death of Tamerlane during the reign of the next Ottoman ruler, Sultan Murad II, who took the style Sultan ul-Mujahidin, Sovereign of the House of Osman, Khan of Khans, Grand Sultan of Anatolia and Rumelia, and of the Cities of Adrianople and Philipopoliscitation needed

After the fall of the Ottoman dynasty as Emperors of the Ottoman State Padishah-ı Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmaniyye in Ottoman Turkish, Abdulmecid II 1922 was still proclaimed Caliph with the title Caliph "Halife", in modern Turkish by the republican Government of the Grand National Assembly of the city of Ankara on November 19, 1922 However, the Ottoman Caliphate too was abolished soon afterwards, and Abdulmecid II was utterly deposed and expelled from Turkey with the rest of the Ottoman dynasty on 3 March 1924 He officially continued to hold the title of the throne as the Head of the House of Osman "Osmanlı Hanedanı Reisi", in modern Turkish until his death

See alsoedit

  • History of the Turkic peoples
  • List of Turkic dynasties and countries
  • Amuca tribe
  • Osmanoğlu family, its current form
  • Ottoman Emperors family tree
  • Ottoman family tree more detailed
  • Line of succession to the Ottoman throne
  • List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire
  • List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire
  • List of the mothers of the Ottoman Sultans
  • List of Ottoman Grand Viziers
  • List of Ottoman Kaptan Pashas
  • List of Valide Sultans
  • Tuğra-Sultan's Signature

Notesedit

  1. ^ A claim which has come under criticism from many historians, who argue either that the Kayı genealogy was fabricated in the fifteenth century, or that there is otherwise insufficient evidence to believe in it1

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Kafadar, Cemal 1995 Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State p 122 ISBN 978-0-520-20600-7 That they hailed from the Kayı branch of the Oğuz confederacy seems to be a creative "rediscovery" in the genealogical concoction of the fifteenth century It is missing not only in Ahmedi but also, and more importantly, in the Yahşi Fakih-Aşıkpaşazade narrative, which gives its own version of an elaborate genealogical family tree going back to Noah If there was a particularly significant claim to Kayı lineage, it is hard to imagine that Yahşi Fakih would not have heard of it 
    • Lowry, Heath 2003 The Nature of the Early Ottoman State SUNY Press p 78 ISBN 0-7914-5636-6 Based on these charters, all of which were drawn up between 1324 and 1360 almost one hundred fifty years prior to the emergence of the Ottoman dynastic myth identifying them as members of the Kayı branch of the Oguz federation of Turkish tribes, we may posit that 
    • Shaw, Stanford 1976 History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey Cambridge University Press p 13 The problem of Ottoman origins has preoccupied students of history, but because of both the absence of contemporary source materials and conflicting accounts written subsequent to the events there seems to be no basis for a definitive statement 
  2. ^ Shaw, Stanford 1976 History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey Cambridge University Press p 13 
  3. ^ Lambton, Ann; Lewis, Bernard 1995 The Cambridge History of Islam: The Indian sub-continent, South-East Asia, Africa and the Muslim west 2 Cambridge University Press p 320 ISBN 9780521223102 

External linksedit

In English
  • Official website of the immediate living descendants of the Ottoman dynasty
  • Everything about Ottoman Empire Everything about the history, culture and civilization of Ottoman Empire
  • WorldStatesmen- Turkey
  • Ottoman Empire - The Family
In Turkish
  • Osmanlı Hanedanlığı, Ottoman dynasty
  • Osmanlı Sultanları
  • Tarihvemedeniyetorg
In French
  • Interview with Neslişah Sultan, granddaughter of the last emperor about her family's exile on YouTube
— Imperial house — House of Osman
New Dynasty
Empire founded
Ruling house of the Ottoman Empire
c 1299 – 19 November 1922
Vacant Monarchy and Caliphate abolished
Preceded by
‘Abbāsid dynasty
Caliphate dynasty
1517–3 March 1924


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