Mon . Mon Jul 2018

Orders of precedence in China


Argentina

Australia

Bangladesh

Barbados

Belgium

Brazil

Canada

Alberta
British Columbia
Manitoba
New Brunswick
Nova Scotia
Ontario
Prince Edward Island
Quebec
Saskatchewan
Yukon

China

Hong Kong Macau

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Guatemala

Holy See

India

Indonesia

Israel

Italy

Jamaica

Malaysia

Johor Kedah Kelantan Malacca Negeri Sembilan Pahang Penang Perak Perlis Sabah Sarawak Selangor Terengganu

Malta

New Zealand

Nepal

Norway

Pakistan

Poland

Poland-Lithuania hist

Portugal

Philippines

Romania

Russia

South Africa

Spain

Sri Lanka

Singapore

Sweden

Switzerland

Thailand

Turkey

United Kingdom

England and Wales Scotland
 Northern Ireland
United States
  • Retired "Leaders of the Party and the State", except former members of the Politburo Standing Committee, ranked by the highest office they held, repeating the same order above
  • Central Military Commission members except chairpersons and vice-chairpersons are not considered national-level "Leaders of the Party and State" but merely leaders of the People's Liberation Army, and generally listed separately by protocol
    1. Current CMC members except chairpersons and vice-chairpersons
    2. Former CMC members except chairpersons and vice-chairpersons
  • Provincial-ministerial level officials
  • Order of seats

    1. Current General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee
    2. Former General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee
    3. Current members of the CPC Central Politburo Standing Committee except General Secretary, normally including:
      1. President of the People's Republic of China
      2. Premier of the State Council
      3. Chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee
      4. Chairperson of the CPPCC National Committee
      5. Chairman of the Central Military Commission
      6. Other members of the Politburo Standing Committee, normally including:
        • First-ranked Secretary of the CPC Central Secretariat
        • Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection
        • First-ranked Senior Vice Premier of the State Council
    4. Former members of the Central Politburo Standing Committee except former General Secretary
    5. Other current members of the Politburo, normally including:
      • Vice President
      • Vice Premiers of the State Council
      • Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission
    6. Current Members of the CPC Central Secretariat
    7. Vice Chairpersons of the National People's Congress Standing Committee
    8. State Councilors
    9. President of the Supreme People's Court
    10. Procurators-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate
    11. Vice Chairpersons of the CPPCC National Committee, at the bottom of the list of the current national-level "Leaders of the Party and the State" 党和国家领导人
    12. Retired "Leaders of the Party and the State", except former members of the Politburo Standing Committee, ranked by the highest office they held, repeating the same order above
    13. Central Military Commission members except chairpersons and vice-chairpersons are not considered national-level "Leaders of the Party and State" but merely leaders of the People's Liberation Army
      1. Current CMC members except chairpersons and vice-chairpersons
      2. Former CMC members except chairpersons and vice-chairpersons
    14. Provincial-ministerial level officials

    NB:

    • The ranking of a Vice President of the PRC is normally based on whether he is a current or former Politburo Standing Committee member or other member of the PolitburoPress coverage of the March 2018 National People's Congress ranked the new Vice President Wang Qishan immediately after the Standing Committee,from which he recently retired

    National Leaders

    National leaders are ranked based on the offices they hold, their seniority, or sometimes simply their perceived personal prestige During the Mao years, ranking of leaders was fairly arbitrary For instance, during the Cultural Revolution, Mao himself dictated the exact protocol sequence depending on who was held in favour at the time

    Since 1982, rankings gradually stabilized and more consistent patterns could be observed For instance, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China always ranked first in the protocol sequence This is despite the fact that some General Secretaries were not the pre-eminent political leaders For example, General Secretaries Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang both ranked first were, in practice, subordinate to "paramount leader" Deng Xiaoping, who was ranked behind them in protocol Deng at the time served as Chairman of the Central Military Commission and was ranked second overall in the leadership hierarchy

    The President is a largely ceremonial post, but it is typically ranked immediately after the General Secretary and before other offices of the state When the President and General Secretary are two different people prior to 1993, and in brief interregnums in 2003 and 2013, the President is ranked second to the General Secretary Between 1982 and 1987, the President ranked after the Premier

    After the President, the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, the Premier, and the Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference follow; this ordering seems to supersede the Standing Committee order when officeholders are not themselves part of the Standing Committee, although typically since 1993 the heads of the "four national bodies" are concurrently members of the Standing Committee Between 1997 and 2002, NPC Chair Li Peng was ranked second During the same period, the Premier, Zhu Rongji, as head of government, was ranked third The Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference CPPCC was ranked fourth This ordering remained consistent between 2002 and 2012, when NPC Chair Wu Bangguo ranked above Premier Wen Jiabao However, in 2013, this ordering changed The Premier, Li Keqiang, was ranked 2nd, immediately after the General Secretary, and in front of the NPC Chairman Zhang Dejiang

    The Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China, colloquially called the Zhengzhiju Changweihui in Chinese, is the apex of political power in China Its members Zhengzhiju Changwei are strictly ranked The heads of the four national bodies typically occupy the top four ranking spots of the Standing Committee The other members of the Standing Committee are ranked immediately after them The rankings of the remaining Standing Committee members are determined by a combination of the offices they hold and their seniority For example, Li Changchun served as a Standing Committee member with no strictly defined office between 2002 and 2012; between 2002 and 2007, he was ranked eighth in protocol sequence, but in 2007, having now served one term on the body, his rank rose to fifth, immediately after CPPCC chair Jia Qinglin and in front of putative successor and executive secretary of the Secretariat Xi Jinping

    The current ranking of the Politburo Standing Committee is as follows:

    Portrait Information Party positions State positions
    1st Name Xi Jinping General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee
    Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission
    Leader of the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms
    Chairman of the National Security Commission
    President of the People's Republic of China
    Chairman of the PRC Central Military Commission
    Birthplace Beijing
    NPC Constituency Inner Mongolia at-large
    Member since 22 October 2007
    2nd Name Li Keqiang Party Secretary of the State Council of the People's Republic of China
    Deputy Leader of the Central Leading Group for Comprehensively Deepening Reforms
    Vice Chairman of the National Security Commission
    Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China
    Birthplace Hefei, Anhui
    NPC Constituency Guangxi at-large
    Member since 22 October 2007
    3rd Name Li Zhanshu Party Secretary of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress
    Birthplace Pingshan County, Hebei
    NPC Constituency Jiangxi at-large
    Member since 25 October 2017
    4th Name Wang Yang Party Secretary of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
    Vice Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China
    Birthplace Suzhou, Anhui
    NPC Constituency Sichuan at-large
    Member since 25 October 2017
    5th Name Wang Huning Top-ranked Secretary of the Central Secretariat of the CPC To be determined
    Birthplace Shanghai
    NPC Constituency Hebei at-large
    Member since 25 October 2017
    6th Name Zhao Leji Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection To be determined
    Birthplace Xining, Qinghai
    NPC Constituency Heilongjiang at-large
    Member since 25 October 2017
    7th Name Han Zheng Vice Party Secretary of the State Council of the People's Republic of China First Vice Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China
    Birthplace Shanghai
    NPC Constituency Shaanxi at-large
    Member since 25 October 2017

    Other members of the CPC Politburo

    From its early history, the Politburo was theoretically a "leadership collective", with equal status accorded to each of its members In practice, the Politburo Standing Committee members have elevated status within the body and are considered its most important and powerful members When a new Politburo member list is first announced, or when the Politburo membership is being reported independently of other bodies, it is ordered by "the number of strokes in the surname character", a traditional method of 'alphabetization' of Chinese names; in these cases, all Politburo members, including PSC members, are named in this sequence Unlike the PSC, Politburo members are not ranked based on presumed level of power When it comes to seating protocol and official announcements about the Politburo in conjunction with other party and state bodies, the Politburo Standing Committee members are announced first, before the rest of the Politburo members

    The members of the Politburo Standing Committee are also Politburo members; since they are already named above, they are omitted from this list

    • Ding Xuexiang, Chief of the General Office of the Communist Party of China, effectively Xi's chief of staff
    • Wang Chen, Secretary-General of the National People's Congress
    • Liu He
    • Xu Qiliang, Vice chairman of the Central Military Commission
    • Sun Chunlan
    • Li Xi, party chief of Guangdong
    • Li Qiang, party chief of Shanghai
    • Li Hongzhong, party chief of Tianjin
    • Yang Jiechi
    • Yang Xiaodu, Deputy Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection
    • Zhang Youxia, Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission
    • Chen Xi, head of the Central Organization Department
    • Chen Quanguo, party chief of Xinjiang
    • Chen Min'er, party chief of Chongqing
    • Hu Chunhua
    • Guo Shengkun, Secretary of the Political and Legal Affairs Commission
    • Huang Kunming, head of the Central Propaganda Department
    • Cai Qi, party chief of Beijing

    Living former members of the Politburo Standing Committee

    Immediately following the 16th Party Congress, Jiang Zemin was ranked 2nd overall on the leadership protocol hierarchy, immediately after Hu Jintao At the conclusion of the 18th Party Congress, when Hu Jintao retired as General Secretary, Jiang was ranked 2nd overall, after Xi Jinping, and Hu Jintao was ranked 3rd, after Jiang Since 2013, judging mostly based on the official obituary notices of various deceased party officials, Jiang and Hu seemed to have progressively moved "lower" on the protocol strata, first below all current members of the Politburo Standing Committee, and as of 2014, behind all members of the sitting Politburo

    At major functions, Jiang and Hu sat immediately next to Xi Jinping, visually giving them prominence over the other Politburo Standing Committee members on television footage However, in the official bulletins of the functions, the names of Jiang and Hu were announced after all sitting members of the Politburo This convention was used at the National Day banquet held on September 30, 2014, the 2015 China Victory Day Parade atop Tiananmen Gate, and the opening session of the 19th Party Congress in October 2017

    It should be noted that former Politburo Standing Committee members who were not "in good standing" in official party evaluations are not included in this list; this includes those ousted from positions of power but not formally expelled from the party For instance, Zhao Ziyang and Hua Guofeng were typically omitted from this list when they were alive Zhou Yongkang, who was convicted on corruption charges in 2015, was also removed from this list

    Ranking based on official order of news announcements for the opening session of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China on October 17, 2017

    Name Image Born Joined Party Former highest posts Retired
    Jiang Zemin 1926 1946 General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
    President of the People's Republic of China
    Chairman of the Central Military Commission
    2005
    Hu Jintao 1942 1964 General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
    President of the People's Republic of China
    Chairman of the Central Military Commission
    2013
    Li Peng 1928 1945 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee
    Premier of the People's Republic of China
    Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee
    2003
    Zhu Rongji 1928 1949 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee
    Premier of the People's Republic of China
    2003
    Li Ruihuan 1934 1959 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee
    Chairman of the CPPCC National Committee
    2003
    Wu Bangguo 1941 1964 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee
    Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee
    2013
    Wen Jiabao 1942 1965 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee
    Premier of the People's Republic of China
    2013
    Jia Qinglin 1940 1959 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee
    Chairman of the CPPCC National Committee
    2013
    Song Ping 1917 1937 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee 1992
    Li Lanqing 1932 1952 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee
    First Vice Premier of the People's Republic of China
    2003
    Zeng Qinghong 1939 1960 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee
    First Secretary of the CPC Central Secretariat
    Vice President of the People's Republic of China
    2008
    Wu Guanzheng 1938 1962 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee
    Secretary of the CPC Central Commission for Discipline Inspection
    2007
    Li Changchun 1944 1965 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee 2012
    Luo Gan 1935 1960 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee
    Secretary of the CPC Central Political and Legislative Affairs Committee
    2007
    He Guoqiang 1943 1966 Member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee
    Secretary of the CPC Central Commission for Discipline Inspection
    2012

    Members of the Secretariat of the Communist Party of China

    All members of the Secretariat are concurrently members of the Politburo so they have already been listed above; the only Secretary of the Secretariat that does not hold Politburo membership is You Quan

    • You Quan, head of the Central United Front Department

    Vice-Chairpersons of the National People's Congress Standing Committee

    • Li Jianguo
    • Wang Shengjun
    • Chen Changzhi
    • Yan Junqi
    • Wang Chen
    • Shen Yueyue
    • Ji Bingxuan
    • Zhang Ping
    • Qiangba Puncog Tibetan
    • Arken Imirbaki Uyghur
    • Wan Exiang
    • Zhang Baowen
    • Chen Zhu

    State Councilors and Judiciary Chiefs

    • State Councilors: Yang Jing, Chang Wanquan, Yang Jiechi already mentioned as a member of the Politburo, Guo Shengkun already mentioned as a member of the Politburo, Wang Yong in order of rank
    • Chief Justice of the Supreme People's Court Zhou Qiang
    • Procurator-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate Cao Jianming

    Vice-chairpersons of the CPPCC National Committee

    In the following order:

    • Du Qinglin
    • Han Qide
    • Pagbalha Geleg Namgyai Tibetan
    • Tung Chee Hwa Hong Kong
    • Wan Gang
    • Lin Wenyi
    • Luo Fuhe
    • Edmund Ho Macau
    • Zhang Qingli
    • Li Haifeng
    • Chen Yuan
    • Lu Zhangong
    • Zhou Xiaochuan
    • Wang Jiarui
    • Wang Zhengwei
    • Ma Biao
    • Qi Xuchun
    • Chen Xiaoguang
    • Ma Peihua
    • Liu Xiaofeng
    • Wang Qinmin

    Members of the Central Military Commission

    • Wei Fenghe
    • Li Zuocheng
    • Miao Hua
    • Zhang Shengmin

    Rankings below the National Leadership

    See also: Provincial Party Standing Committee

    Within the People's Republic of China, there is a statutory "National Civil Service Rankings System" to determine ranking of officials below the minister-level, stretching from the very important positions Provincial Party Secretaries, for instance to the lowest positions for example, someone who is responsible for a township office Their relative ranking determines their annual salary, living stipends, entitlement to official residences and vehicles, pensions, benefits, and so forth Provincial leaders do not enjoy an elevated protocol rank in their own province of jurisdiction Rather they must still be placed behind all national leaders listed above

    For the purposes of protocol rankings, the heads of national ministries technically hold the same rank as provincial governors Therefore, they do not qualify as "national leaders" Departmental heads of the Communist Party of China, and ministers of the State Council are both called bùzhǎng 部长; literally "Head of Department" However, many Communist Party Department heads, such as heads of the Organization and Propaganda departments, almost always hold seats on the Politburo, and thus are ranked as "national leaders" Ministers of central government departments rarely hold Politburo seats When all else is equal, the party department heads rank above state department heads; for example, the head of the Communist Party's International Liaison Department will always rank ahead of the Minister of Foreign Affairs if they appear in the same function In a similar vein, the provincial Party Secretary will always rank above the provincial Governor

    The hierarchy of party vs state positions is strictly adhered to for official protocol, demonstrating the 'vanguard' status of the Communist Party in Chinese politics Generally, party positions are treated with more prestige than state positions of an equal level, but technically the official civil service privileges are the same for party and state officials of the same administrative level

    Local Party Committee rankings

    A Party Committee is the de facto highest ruling council of any given jurisdiction in the PRC, except for the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau

    In provincial, municipal, and other local-level protocol rankings, the four main institutions generally follow the ranking of:

    • Party Secretary
    • Chief of Government Governor, usually a Deputy Secretary
    • People's Congress Chair
    • People's Political Consultative Conference Chair

    Provincial party standing committees are powerful bodies whose membership is vetted directly by the Organization Department of the Communist Party of China based on the nomenklatura system The members of these bodies are generally ranked by date of accession to sub-provincial rank, although in practice there appears to be some variation to this rule

    See also

    • Politics of China
    • Generations of Chinese leadership
    • List of political parties in China#Institutional minor parties There is an order of precedence among the eight institutional minor parties

    References

    1. ^ Perhaps a notable exception is Zhou Yongkang, who held a seat on the Politburo as Minister of Public Security between 2002 and 2007
    1. ^ At the 11th Plenum of the 8th Central Committee in 1966, for example, Liu Shaoqi was demoted from second to eighth on the party hierarchy on personal orders from Mao, but retained the office of state president
    2. ^ See for example the rankings of national leaders during the memorial ceremony of the Panchen Lama held in 1989; at this event, the ordering of leaders was Zhao Ziyang as General Secretary, Yang Shangkun as President, Li Peng as Premier, Wan Li as NPC Chair, Li Xiannian as CPPCC chair, Qiao Shi as a member of the Politburo Standing Committee
    3. ^ For example, at the funeral of Ye Jianying in 1986, the order of leaders appeared as Hu Yaobang as General Secretary, Deng Xiaoping as CMC Chair, Zhao Ziyang as Premier, Li Xiannian as President, Chen Yun
    4. ^ "胡錦濤遭"降級" 排名跌至政治局委員外" Duowei News September 8, 2014 
    5. ^ "A Rare Glimpse into China's Second Black Box—the Powerful Elders" tiananmenstremendousachievementswordpresscom Retrieved 20 October 2014 
    6. ^ Xinwen Lianbo, CCTV, September 3, 2015
    7. ^ "十九大主席团常务委员会成员名单公布" IFeng October 17, 2017 
    8. ^ "中共中央办公厅、国务院办公厅关于新任副部长、副省长以上干部生活待遇的几项暂行规定--中国共产党新闻--中国共产党新闻网" cpcpeoplecomcn 


    Orders of precedence in China Information about


    Orders of precedence in China
    Orders of precedence in China
    Orders of precedence in China viewing the topic.
    Orders of precedence in China what, Orders of precedence in China who, Orders of precedence in China explanation

    There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video

    Random Posts

    Outline of Northern Ireland

    Outline of Northern Ireland

    The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Northern Ireland Northern I...
    Manner (confectionery)

    Manner (confectionery)

    Manner German pronunciation: ˈmanɐ  listen is a line of confectionery from the Austrian conglom...
    Frederiksværk

    Frederiksværk

    Frederiksværk is a town with a population of 12,076 1 January 2015 in Halsnæs Municipality on Zealan...
    Kalleby Runestone

    Kalleby Runestone

    The Kalleby Runestone is an enigmatic Iron Age runestone inscribed in Proto-Norse with the Elder Fut...