Orchitis


Orchitis /ˌɔːrˈkaɪtɪs/ or orchiditis /ˌɔːrkɪˈdaɪtɪs/ from the Ancient Greek ὄρχις meaning "testicle"; same root as orchid is inflammation of the testes1 It can also involve swelling, heavy pains and frequent infection, and is more rarely known as didymitis as in epididymis

Contents

  • 1 Symptoms
  • 2 Causes
  • 3 Treatment
  • 4 Orchitis in animals
  • 5 References
  • 6 Further reading
  • 7 External links

Symptomsedit

Symptoms of orchitis are similar to those of testicular torsion These can include:citation needed

  • hematospermia blood in the semen
  • hematuria blood in the urine
  • severe pain
  • visible swelling of a testicle or testicles and often the inguinal lymph nodes on the affected side

Causesedit

Orchitis can be related to epididymitis infection that has spread to the testicles then called "epididymo-orchitis", sometimes caused by the sexually transmitted diseases chlamydia and gonorrhea It has also been reported in cases of males infected with brucellosis2 Orchitis can also be seen during active mumps, particularly in adolescent boys

Ischemic orchitis may result from damage to the blood vessels of the spermatic cord during inguinal herniorrhaphy, and may in the worst event lead to testicular atrophy3

Treatmentedit

In most cases where orchitis is caused by epididymitis, treatment is an oral antibiotic such as cefalexin or ciprofloxacin until infection clears up In both causes non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as naproxen or ibuprofen are recommended to relieve pain Sometimes stronger pain medications in the opiate category are called for and are frequently prescribed by experienced emergency room physicianscitation needed

Orchitis in animalsedit

Severe orchitis in rooster

Orchitis is not rare in bulls and ramscitation needed

It has also been described in roosters4

Referencesedit

  1. ^ "orchitis" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ Brucellosis in Humans and Animals World Health Organization Publication number WHO/CDS/EPR/20067 1page needed
  3. ^ Simons MP, Aufenacker T, Bay-Nielsen M, et al August 2009 "European Hernia Society guidelines on the treatment of inguinal hernia in adult patients" Hernia 13 4: 343–403 PMC 2719730  PMID 19636493 doi:101007/s10029-009-0529-7 
  4. ^ Monleon R, Martin MP, John Barnes H December 2008 "Bacterial orchitis and epididymo-orchitis in broiler breeders" Avian Pathology 37 6: 613–7 PMID 19023758 doi:101080/03079450802499134 

Further readingedit

  • Lefort C, Thoumas D, Badachi Y, et al July 2001 "Orchites ischémiques: À propos de 5 cas diagnostiqués en écho-Doppler couleur" Ischemic orchiditis: review of 5 cases diagnosed by color Doppler ultrasonography Journal De Radiologie in French 82 7: 839–42 PMID 11507447 INIST:1080037 
  • Chung JJ, Kim MJ, Lee T, Yoo HS, Lee JT September 1997 "Sonographic findings in tuberculous epididymitis and epididymo-orchitis" Journal of Clinical Ultrasound 25 7: 390–4 PMID 9282805 doi:101002/SICI1097-009619970925:7<390::AID-JCU7>30CO;2-5 
  • Fong Y, Wantz GE May 1992 "Prevention of ischemic orchitis during inguinal hernioplasty" Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics 174 5: 399–402 PMID 1570618 
  • Beard CM, Benson RC, Kelalis PP, Elveback LR, Kurland LT January 1977 "The incidence and outcome of mumps orchitis in Rochester, Minnesota, 1935 to 1974" Mayo Clinic Proceedings 52 1: 3–7 PMID 609284 
  • Bigazzi PE, Kosuda LL, Hsu KC, Andres GA February 1976 "Immune complex orchitis in vasectomized rabbits" The Journal of Experimental Medicine 143 2: 382–404 PMC 2190126  PMID 129498 doi:101084/jem1432382 
  • Lynch VP, Eakins D, Morrison E August 1968 "Granulomatous orchitis" British Journal of Urology 40 4: 451–8 PMID 5678169 doi:101111/j1464-410X1968tb11832x 
  • Dreyfuss W April 1954 "Acute granulomatous orchiditis" The Journal of Urology 71 4: 483–7 PMID 13152871 
  • Lambert B 1951 "The frequency of mumps and of mumps orchitis and the consequences for sexuality and fertility" Acta Genetica Et Statistica Medica 2 Suppl 1: 1–166 PMID 15444009 
  • Grünberg H 1926 "Three unusual cases of chronic orchitis clinically resembling tumors of the testis" Frankfurt Z Pathol 33: 217–27 

External linksedit

  • Overview at Mayo Clinic


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