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Open-source software

open-source software, open-source software examples
Open-source software OSS is computer software with its source code made available with a license in which the copyright holder provides the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner According to scientists who studied it, open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration

The open-source software development, or collaborative development from multiple independent sources, generates an increasingly more diverse scope of design perspective than any one company is capable of developing and sustaining long term A 2008 report by the Standish Group states that adoption of open-source software models has resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year to consumers


  • 1 History
    • 11 End of 1990s: Foundation of the Open Source Initiative
  • 2 Definitions
    • 21 Open-source software licensing
    • 22 Certifications
  • 3 Open-source software development
    • 31 Development model
    • 32 Advantages and disadvantages
    • 33 Development tools
    • 34 Organizations
    • 35 Funding
  • 4 Comparisons with other software licensing/development models
    • 41 Closed source / proprietary software
    • 42 Free software
    • 43 Open-source versus source-available
    • 44 Open-sourcing
  • 5 Current applications and adoption
    • 51 Widely used open-source software
  • 6 Extensions for non-software usage
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 Further reading
  • 10 External links


Further information: History of free and open source software

End of 1990s: Foundation of the Open Source Initiative

In the early days of computing, programmers and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve the field of computing Eventually the open source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years 1970-1980 In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free software principles The paper received significant attention in early 1998, and was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software This source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey, Mozilla Firefox, Thunderbird and KompoZer

Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundation's free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry They concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, and looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code The new term they chose was "open source", which was soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, and others The Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles

While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves increasingly threatened by the concept of freely distributed software and universal access to an application's source code A Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that "open source is an intellectual property destroyer I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business" However, while FOSS has historically played a role outside of the mainstream of private software development, companies as large as Microsoft have begun to develop official open-source presences on the Internet IBM, Oracle, Google and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today's competitive open-source market There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS

The free software movement was launched in 1983 In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open-source software OSS as an expression which is less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world Software developers may want to publish their software with an open-source license, so that anybody may also develop the same software or understand its internal functioning With open-source software, generally anyone is allowed to create modifications of it, port it to new operating systems and processor architectures, share it with others or, in some cases, market it Scholars Casson and Ryan have pointed out several policy-based reasons for adoption of open source – in particular, the heightened value proposition from open source when compared to most proprietary formats in the following categories:

  • Security
  • Affordability
  • Transparency
  • Perpetuity
  • Interoperability
  • Flexibility
  • Localization—particularly in the context of local governments who make software decisions Casson and Ryan argue that "governments have an inherent responsibility and fiduciary duty to taxpayers" which includes the careful analysis of these factors when deciding to purchase proprietary software or implement an open-source option

The Open Source Definition, notably, presents an open-source philosophy, and further defines the terms of usage, modification and redistribution of open-source software Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition The most prominent and popular example is the GNU General Public License GPL, which "allows free distribution under the condition that further developments and applications are put under the same licence", thus also free

The open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, 1998 in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator as Mozilla A group of individuals at the session included Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, Tom Paquin, Jamie Zawinski, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Sameer Parekh, Eric Allman, Greg Olson, Paul Vixie, John Ousterhout, Guido van Rossum, Philip Zimmermann, John Gilmore and Eric S Raymond They used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the word "free" in English

Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, since 1969, started the open source movement, while others do not distinguish between open-source and free software movements

The Free Software Foundation FSF, started in 1985, intended the word "free" to mean freedom to distribute or "free as in free speech" and not freedom from cost or "free as in free beer" Since a great deal of free software already was and still is free of charge, such free software became associated with zero cost, which seemed anti-commercial

The Open Source Initiative OSI was formed in February 1998 by Eric Raymond and Bruce Perens With at least 20 years of evidence from case histories of closed software development versus open development already provided by the Internet developer community, the OSI presented the "open source" case to commercial businesses, like Netscape The OSI hoped that the usage of the label "open source", a term suggested by Peterson of the Foresight Institute at the strategy session, would eliminate ambiguity, particularly for individuals who perceive "free software" as anti-commercial They sought to bring a higher profile to the practical benefits of freely available source code, and they wanted to bring major software businesses and other high-tech industries into open source Perens attempted to register "open source" as a service mark for the OSI, but that attempt was impractical by trademark standards Meanwhile, due to the presentation of Raymond's paper to the upper management at Netscape—Raymond only discovered when he read the Press Release, and was called by Netscape CEO Jim Barksdale's PA later in the day—Netscape released its Navigator source code as open source, with favorable results


The logo of the Open Source Initiative

The Open Source Initiative's OSI definition is recognized by governments internationally as the standard or de facto definition In addition, many of the world's largest open source software projects and contributors, including Debian, Drupal Association, FreeBSD Foundation, Linux Foundation, Mozilla Foundation, Wikimedia Foundation, Wordpress Foundation have committed to upholding the OSI's mission and Open Source Definition through the OSI Affiliate Agreement

OSI uses The Open Source Definition to determine whether it considers a software license open source The definition was based on the Debian Free Software Guidelines, written and adapted primarily by Perens Perens did not base his writing on the "four freedoms" from the Free Software Foundation FSF, which were only widely available later

Under Perens' definition, open source describes a broad general type of software license that makes source code available to the general public with relaxed or non-existent restrictions on the use and modification of the code It is an explicit "feature" of open source that it puts very few restrictions on the use or distribution by any organization or user, in order to enable the rapid evolution of the software

Despite initially accepting it, Richard Stallman of the FSF now flatly opposes the term "Open Source" being applied to what they refer to as "free software" Although he agrees that the two terms describe "almost the same category of software", Stallman considers equating the terms incorrect and misleading Critics also oppose the professed pragmatism of the Open Source Initiative, as they fear that the free software ideals of freedom and community are threatened by compromising on the FSF's idealistic standards for software freedom The FSF considers free software to be a subset of open source software, and Richard Stallman explained that DRM software, for example, can be developed as open source, despite that it does not give its users freedom it restricts them, and thus doesn't qualify as free software

Open-source software licensing

Main article: Open-source license Further information: Free software license See also: Free and open-source software § Licensing, and Software license

When an author contributes code to an open-source project eg, Apacheorg they do so under an explicit license eg, the Apache Contributor License Agreement or an implicit license eg the open-source license under which the project is already licensing code Some open-source projects do not take contributed code under a license, but actually require joint assignment of the author's copyright in order to accept code contributions into the project

Examples of free software license / open-source licenses include Apache License, BSD license, GNU General Public License, GNU Lesser General Public License, MIT License, Eclipse Public License and Mozilla Public License

The proliferation of open-source licenses is a negative aspect of the open-source movement because it is often difficult to understand the legal implications of the differences between licenses With more than 180,000 open-source projects available and more than 1400 unique licenses, the complexity of deciding how to manage open-source usage within "closed-source" commercial enterprises has dramatically increased Some are home-grown, while others are modeled after mainstream FOSS licenses such as Berkeley Software Distribution "BSD", Apache, MIT-style Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or GNU General Public License "GPL" In view of this, open-source practitioners are starting to use classification schemes in which FOSS licenses are grouped typically based on the existence and obligations imposed by the copyleft provision; the strength of the copyleft provision

An important legal milestone for the open source / free software movement was passed in 2008, when the US federal appeals court ruled that free software licenses definitely do set legally binding conditions on the use of copyrighted work, and they are therefore enforceable under existing copyright law As a result, if end-users violate the licensing conditions, their license disappears, meaning they are infringing copyright Despite this licensing risk, most commercial software vendors are using open source software in commercial products while fulfilling the license terms, eg leveraging the Apache license


Certification can help to build user confidence Certification could be applied to the simplest component, to a whole software system The United Nations University International Institute for Software Technology, initiated a project known as "The Global Desktop Project" This project aims to build a desktop interface that every end-user is able to understand and interact with, thus crossing the language and cultural barriers The project would improve developing nations' access to information systems UNU/IIST hopes to achieve this without any compromise in the quality of the software by introducing certifications

Open-source software development

Main article: Open-source software development model

Development model

In his 1997 essay The Cathedral and the Bazaar, open-source evangelist Eric S Raymond suggests a model for developing OSS known as the bazaar model Raymond likens the development of software by traditional methodologies to building a cathedral, "carefully crafted by individual wizards or small bands of mages working in splendid isolation" He suggests that all software should be developed using the bazaar style, which he described as "a great babbling bazaar of differing agendas and approaches"

In the traditional model of development, which he called the cathedral model, development takes place in a centralized way Roles are clearly defined Roles include people dedicated to designing the architects, people responsible for managing the project, and people responsible for implementation Traditional software engineering follows the cathedral model

The bazaar model, however, is different In this model, roles are not clearly defined Gregorio Robles suggests that software developed using the bazaar model should exhibit the following patterns:

Users should be treated as co-developers The users are treated like co-developers and so they should have access to the source code of the software Furthermore, users are encouraged to submit additions to the software, code fixes for the software, bug reports, documentation etc Having more co-developers increases the rate at which the software evolves Linus's law states, "Given enough eyeballs all bugs are shallow" This means that if many users view the source code, they will eventually find all bugs and suggest how to fix them Note that some users have advanced programming skills, and furthermore, each user's machine provides an additional testing environment This new testing environment offers that ability to find and fix a new bug Early releases The first version of the software should be released as early as possible so as to increase one's chances of finding co-developers early Frequent integration Code changes should be integrated merged into a shared code base as often as possible so as to avoid the overhead of fixing a large number of bugs at the end of the project life cycle Some open source projects have nightly builds where integration is done automatically on a daily basis Several versions There should be at least two versions of the software There should be a buggier version with more features and a more stable version with fewer features The buggy version also called the development version is for users who want the immediate use of the latest features, and are willing to accept the risk of using code that is not yet thoroughly tested The users can then act as co-developers, reporting bugs and providing bug fixes High modularization The general structure of the software should be modular allowing for parallel development on independent components Dynamic decision making structure There is a need for a decision making structure, whether formal or informal, that makes strategic decisions depending on changing user requirements and other factors Cf Extreme programming

Data suggests, however, that OSS is not quite as democratic as the bazaar model suggests An analysis of five billion bytes of free/open source code by 31,999 developers shows that 74% of the code was written by the most active 10% of authors The average number of authors involved in a project was 51, with the median at 2

Advantages and disadvantages

Open source software is usually easier to obtain than proprietary software, often resulting in increased usage Additionally, the availability of an open source implementation of a standard can increase adoption of that standard It has also helped to build developer loyalty as developers feel empowered and have a sense of ownership of the end product

Moreover, lower costs of marketing and logistical services are needed for OSS OSS also helps companies keep abreast of technology developments It is a good tool to promote a company's image, including its commercial products The OSS development approach has helped produce reliable, high quality software quickly and inexpensively

Open source development offers the potential for a more flexible technology and quicker innovation It is said to be more reliable since it typically has thousands of independent programmers testing and fixing bugs of the software It is flexible because modular systems allow programmers to build custom interfaces, or add new abilities to it and it is innovative since open source programs are the product of collaboration among a large number of different programmers The mix of divergent perspectives, corporate objectives, and personal goals speeds up innovation

Moreover, free software can be developed in accord with purely technical requirements It does not require thinking about commercial pressure that often degrades the quality of the software Commercial pressures make traditional software developers pay more attention to customers' requirements than to security requirements, since such features are somewhat invisible to the customer

It is sometimes said that the open source development process may not be well defined and the stages in the development process, such as system testing and documentation may be ignored However this is only true for small mostly single programmer projects Larger, successful projects do define and enforce at least some rules as they need them to make the teamwork possible In the most complex projects these rules may be as strict as reviewing even minor change by two independent developers

Not all OSS initiatives have been successful, for example SourceXchange and Eazel Software experts and researchers who are not convinced by open source's ability to produce quality systems identify the unclear process, the late defect discovery and the lack of any empirical evidence as the most important problems collected data concerning productivity and quality It is also difficult to design a commercially sound business model around the open source paradigm Consequently, only technical requirements may be satisfied and not the ones of the market In terms of security, open source may allow hackers to know about the weaknesses or loopholes of the software more easily than closed-source softwareIt depends on control mechanisms in order to create effective performance of autonomous agents who participate in virtual organizations

Development tools

In OSS development, tools are used to support the development of the product and the development process itself

Revision control systems such as Concurrent Versions System CVS and later Subversion SVN and Git are examples of tools, often themselves open source, help manage the source code files and the changes to those files for a software project The projects are frequently hosted and published on sites like Launchpad, Bitbucket, and GitHub

Open source projects are often loosely organized with "little formalised process modelling or support", but utilities such as issue trackers are often used to organize open source software development Commonly used bugtrackers include Bugzilla and Redmine

Tools such as mailing lists and IRC provide means of coordination among developers Centralized code hosting sites also have social features that allow developers to communicate


Some of the "more prominent organizations" involved in OSS development include the Apache Software Foundation, creators of the Apache web server; the Linux Foundation, a nonprofit which as of 2012 employed Linus Torvalds, the creator of the Linux operating system kernel; the Eclipse Foundation, home of the Eclipse software development platform; the Debian Project, creators of the influential Debian GNU/Linux distribution; the Mozilla Foundation, home of the Firefox web browser; and OW2, European-born community developing open source middleware New organizations tend to have a more sophisticated governance model and their membership is often formed by legal entity members

Open Source Software Institute is a membership-based, non-profit 501 c6 organization established in 2001 that promotes the development and implementation of open source software solutions within US Federal, state and local government agencies OSSI's efforts have focused on promoting adoption of open source software programs and policies within Federal Government and Defense and Homeland Security communities

Open Source for America is a group created to raise awareness in the United States Federal Government about the benefits of open source software Their stated goals are to encourage the government's use of open source software, participation in open source software projects, and incorporation of open source community dynamics to increase government transparency

Mil-OSS is a group dedicated to the advancement of OSS use and creation in the military


Main article: Business models for open-source software

Open-source software is widely used both as independent applications and as components in non-open-source applications Many independent software vendors ISVs, value-added resellers VARs, and hardware vendors OEMs or ODMs use open-source frameworks, modules, and libraries inside their proprietary, for-profit products and services From a customer's perspective, the ability to use open technology under standard commercial terms and support is valuable They are willing to pay for the legal protection eg, indemnification from copyright or patent infringement, "commercial-grade QA", and professional support/training/consulting that are typical of commercial software, while also receiving the benefits of fine-grained control and lack of lock-in that comes with open-source

Comparisons with other software licensing/development models

Closed source / proprietary software

Main article: Comparison of open source and closed source

The debate over open source vs closed source alternatively called proprietary software is sometimes heated

The top four reasons as provided by Open Source Business Conference survey individuals or organizations choose open source software are:

  1. lower cost,
  2. security,
  3. no vendor 'lock in', and
  4. better quality

Since innovative companies no longer rely heavily on software sales, proprietary software has become less of a necessity As such, things like open source content management system—or CMS—deployments are becoming more commonplace In 2009, the US White House switched its CMS system from a proprietary system to Drupal open source CMS Further, companies like Novell who traditionally sold software the old-fashioned way continually debate the benefits of switching to open source availability, having already switched part of the product offering to open source code In this way, open source software provides solutions to unique or specific problems As such, it is reported that 98% of enterprise-level companies use open source software offerings in some capacity

With this market shift, more critical systems are beginning to rely on open source offerings, allowing greater funding such as US Department of Homeland Security grants to help "hunt for security bugs" According to a pilot study of organisations adopting or not adopting OSS; several factors of statistical significance were observed in the manager's beliefs in relation to a attitudes toward outcomes, b the influences and behaviours of others and c their ability to act

Proprietary source distributors have started to develop and contribute to the open source community due to the market share shift, doing so by the need to reinvent their models in order to remain competitive

Many advocates argue that open source software is inherently safer because any person can view, edit, and change code A study of the Linux source code has 017 bugs per 1000 lines of code while proprietary software generally scores 20–30 bugs per 1000 lines

Free software

Main article: Alternative terms for free software See also: Comparison of free and open-source software licenses

According to the Free software movement's leader, Richard Stallman, the main difference is that by choosing one term over the other ie either "open source" or "free software" one lets others know about what one's goals are: "Open source is a development methodology; free software is a social movement" Nevertheless, there is significant overlap between open source software and free software

The FSF said that the term "open source" fosters an ambiguity of a different kind such that it confuses the mere availability of the source with the freedom to use, modify, and redistribute it On the other hand, the "free software" term was criticized for the ambiguity of the word "free" as "available at no cost", which was seen as discouraging for business adoption, and for the historical ambiguous usage of the term

Developers have used the alternative terms Free and Open Source Software FOSS, or Free/Libre and Open Source Software FLOSS, consequently, to describe open source software that is also free software While the definition of open source software is very similar to the FSF's free software definition it was based on the Debian Free Software Guidelines, written and adapted primarily by Bruce Perens with input from Eric S Raymond and others

The term "open source" was originally intended to be trademarkable; however, the term was deemed too descriptive, so no trademark exists The OSI would prefer that people treat open source as if it were a trademark, and use it only to describe software licensed under an OSI approved license

OSI Certified is a trademark licensed only to people who are distributing software licensed under a license listed on the Open Source Initiative's list

Open-source versus source-available

Although the OSI definition of "open source software" is widely accepted, a small number of people and organizations use the term to refer to software where the source is available for viewing, but which may not legally be modified or redistributed Such software is more often referred to as source-available, or as shared source, a term coined by Microsoft in 2001 While in 2007 two shared source licenses were certified by the OSI, most of the shared source licenses are still source-available only

In 2007 Michael Tiemann, president of OSI, had criticized companies such as SugarCRM for promoting their software as "open source" when in fact it did not have an OSI-approved license In SugarCRM's case, it was because the software is so-called "badgeware" since it specified a "badge" that must be displayed in the user interface SugarCRM has since switched to GPLv3 Another example was Scilab prior to version 5, which called itself "the open source platform for numerical computation" but had a license that forbade commercial redistribution of modified versions


Open-sourcing is the act of propagating the open source movement, most often referring to releasing previously proprietary software under an open source/free software license, but it may also refer programing Open Source software or installing Open Source software

Notable software packages, previously proprietary, which have been open sourced include:

  • Netscape Navigator, the code of which became the basis of the Mozilla and Mozilla Firefox web browsers
  • StarOffice, which became the base of the OpenOfficeorg office suite
  • Global File System, was originally GPL'd, then made proprietary in 2001, but in 2004 was re-GPL'd
  • SAP DB, which has become MaxDB, and is now distributed and owned by MySQL AB
  • InterBase database, which was open sourced by Borland in 2000 and presently exists as a commercial product and an open-source fork Firebird

Before changing the license of software, distributors usually audit the source code for third party licensed code which they would have to remove or obtain permission for its relicense Backdoors and other malware should also be removed as they may easily be discovered after release of the code

Current applications and adoption

Main article: Free and open-source software § Adoption See also: Linux adoption and Free software § Adoption

"We migrated key functions from Windows to Linux because we needed an operating system that was stable and reliable – one that would give us in-house control So if we needed to patch, adjust, or adapt, we could"

Official statement of the United Space Alliance, which manages the computer systems for the International Space Station ISS, regarding why they chose to switch from Windows to Debian GNU/Linux on the ISS

Widely used open-source software

Main article: List of free and open-source software packages

Open source software projects are built and maintained by a network of volunteer programmers and are widely used in free as well as commercial products Prime examples of open-source products are the Apache HTTP Server, the e-commerce platform osCommerce, internet browsers Mozilla Firefox and Chromium the project where the vast majority of development of the freeware Google Chrome is done and the full office suite LibreOffice One of the most successful open-source products is the GNU/Linux operating system, an open-source Unix-like operating system, and its derivative Android, an operating system for mobile devices In some industries, open source software is the norm

Extensions for non-software usage

Main article: Open source model See also: Open content and Open collaboration

While the term "open source" applied originally only to the source code of software, it is now being applied to many other areas such as Open source ecology, a movement to decentralize technologies so that any human can use them However, it is often misapplied to other areas which have different and competing principles, which overlap only partially

The same principles that underlie open source software can be found in many other ventures, such as open-source hardware, Wikipedia, and open-access publishing Collectively, these principles are known as open source, open content, and open collaboration: "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants, who interact to create a product or service of economic value, which they make available to contributors and non-contributors alike"

This "culture" or ideology takes the view that the principles apply more generally to facilitate concurrent input of different agendas, approaches and priorities, in contrast with more centralized models of development such as those typically used in commercial companies

See also

  • Open-source software portal
  • Free software
  • Free software community
  • Free software movement
  • List of open source software packages
  • Open-content
  • Open source advocacy
  • Open source hardware
  • Open Source Initiative
  • Open Source Software Institute
  • Open source software security
  • Open source video games
  • Shared source
  • Timeline of open source software
  • User-generated content


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  5. ^ a b c Karl Fogel 2016 "Producing Open Source Software - How to Run a Successful Free Software Project" O'Reilly Media Retrieved 2016-04-11 But the problem went deeper than that The word "free" carried with it an inescapable moral connotation: if freedom was an end in itself, it didn't matter whether free software also happened to be better, or more profitable for certain businesses in certain circumstances Those were merely pleasant side effects of a motive that was, at its root, neither technical nor mercantile, but moral Furthermore, the "free as in freedom" position forced a glaring inconsistency on corporations who wanted to support particular free programs in one aspect of their business, but continue marketing proprietary software in others 
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  10. ^ Kelty, Christpher M 2008 "The Cultural Significance of free Software - Two Bits" PDF Duke University press - durham and london p 99 Prior to 1998, Free Software referred either to the Free Software Foundation and the watchful, micromanaging eye of Stallman or to one of thousands of different commercial, avocational, or university-research projects, processes, licenses, and ideologies that had a variety of names: sourceware, freeware, shareware, open software, public domain software, and so on The term Open Source, by contrast, sought to encompass them all in one movement 
  11. ^ Shea, Tom 1983-06-23 "Free software - Free software is a junkyard of software spare parts" InfoWorld Retrieved 2016-02-10 "In contrast to commercial software is a large and growing body of free software that exists in the public domain Public-domain software is written by microcomputer hobbyists also known as "hackers" many of whom are professional programmers in their work life Since everybody has access to source code, many routines have not only been used but dramatically improved by other programmers" 
  12. ^ Raymond, Eric S 1998-02-08 "Goodbye, "free software"; hello, "open source"" Retrieved 2008-08-13 After the Netscape announcement broke in January I did a lot of thinking about the next phase -- the serious push to get "free software" accepted in the mainstream corporate world And I realized we have a serious problem with "free software" itself Specifically, we have a problem with the term "free software", itself, not the concept I've become convinced that the term has to go 
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  18. ^ "MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif, April 1 /PRNewswire/ -- Netscape Communications and open source developers are celebrating the first anniversary, March 31, 1999, of the release of Netscape's browser source code to mozillaorg" Netscape Communications 1999-03-31 Retrieved 2013-01-10 The organization that manages open source developers working on the next generation of Netscape's browser and communication software This event marked a historical milestone for the Internet as Netscape became the first major commercial software company to open its source code, a trend that has since been followed by several other corporations Since the code was first published on the Internet, thousands of individuals and organizations have downloaded it and made hundreds of contributions to the software Mozillaorg is now celebrating this one-year anniversary with a party Thursday night in San Francisco 
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  28. ^ Stallman, Richard June 16, 2007 "Why "Open Source" misses the point of Free Software" Philosophy of the GNU Project Free Software Foundation Retrieved July 23, 2007 As the advocates of open source draw new users into our community, we free software activists have to work even more to bring the issue of freedom to those new users' attention We have to say, 'It's free software and it gives you freedom!'—more and louder than ever Every time you say 'free software' rather than 'open source,' you help our campaign 
  29. ^ a b Stallman, Richard June 19, 2007 "Why "Free Software" is better than "Open Source"" Philosophy of the GNU Project Free Software Foundation Retrieved July 23, 2007 Sooner or later these users will be invited to switch back to proprietary software for some practical advantage Countless companies seek to offer such temptation, and why would users decline Only if they have learned to value the freedom free software gives them, for its own sake It is up to us to spread this idea—and in order to do that, we have to talk about freedom A certain amount of the 'keep quiet' approach to business can be useful for the community, but we must have plenty of freedom talk too 
  30. ^ a b Stallman, Richard June 16, 2007 "Why "Open Source" misses the point of Free Software" Philosophy of the GNU Project Free Software Foundation Retrieved July 23, 2007 Under the pressure of the movie and record companies, software for individuals to use is increasingly designed specifically to restrict them This malicious feature is known as DRM, or Digital Restrictions Management see DefectiveByDesignorg, and it is the antithesis in spirit of the freedom that free software aims to provide Yet some open source supporters have proposed 'open source DRM' software Their idea is that by publishing the source code of programs designed to restrict your access to encrypted media, and allowing others to change it, they will produce more powerful and reliable software for restricting users like you Then it will be delivered to you in devices that do not allow you to change it This software might be 'open source,' and use the open source development model; but it won't be free software, since it won't respect the freedom of the users that actually run it If the open source development model succeeds in making this software more powerful and reliable for restricting you, that will make it even worse 
  31. ^ Rosen, Lawrence "Joint Works - Open Source Licensing: Software Freedom and Intellectual Property Law" flylibcom Retrieved 22 July 2016 
  32. ^ Andrew T Pham, Verint Systems Inc and Matthew B Weinstein and Jamie L Ryerson "Easy as ABC: Categorizing Open Source Licenses"; wwwIPOorg June 2010
  33. ^ Shiels, Maggie 2008-08-14 "Legal milestone for open source" BBC News Retrieved 2008-08-15 
  34. ^ a b Popp, Dr Karl Michael 2015 Best Practices for commercial use of open source software Norderstedt, Germany: Books on Demand ISBN 978-3738619096 
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  37. ^ a b c Raymond, Eric S 2000-09-11 "The Cathedral and the Bazaar" Retrieved 2004-09-19 
  38. ^ Robles, Gregorio 2004 "A Software Engineering Approach to Libre Software" PDF In Robert A Gehring, Bernd Lutterbeck Open Source Jahrbuch 2004 PDF Berlin: Technical University of Berlin Retrieved 2005-04-20 
  39. ^ Ghosh, RA; Robles, G; Glott, R 2002 "Free/Libre and Open Source Software: Survey and Study Part V" Maastricht: International Institute of Infonomics 
  40. ^ US Department of Defense "Open Source Software FAQ" Chief Information Officer Retrieved 22 July 2016 
  41. ^ a b Sharma, Srinarayan; Vijayan Sugumaran; Balaji Rajagopalan 2002 "A framework for creating hybrid-open source software communities" PDF Info Systems Journal 12: 7–25 doi:101046/j1365-2575200200116x 
  42. ^ Landry, John; Rajiv Gupta September 2000 "Profiting from Open Source" Harvard Business Review doi:101225/F00503 
  43. ^ Reynolds, Carl; Jeremy Wyatt February 2011 "Open Source, Open Standards, and Health Care Information Systems" JMIR 13 doi:102196/jmir1521 Retrieved 2011-03-17 
  44. ^ Plotkin, Hal December 1998 "What and Why you should know about open-source software" Harvard Management Update: 8–9 doi:101225/U9812D 
  45. ^ Payne, Christian February 2002 "On the Security of Open Source Software" Info Systems Journal 12 1: 61–78 doi:101046/j1365-2575200200118x 
  46. ^ "GNU Classpath Hacker's Guide: GNU Classpath Hacker's Guide" Gnuorg 2003-08-11 Retrieved 2012-03-25 
  47. ^ Meffert, Klaus; Neil Rotstan 2007 "Brief summary of coding style and practice used in JGAP" Java Genetic Algorithms Package Retrieved 2008-09-08 
  48. ^ Tripp, Andy 2007-07-16 "Classpath hackers frustrated with slow OpenJDK process" Javalobby 
  49. ^ a b Stamelos, Ioannis; Lefteris Angelis; Apostolos Oikonomou; Georgios L Bleris 2002 "Code Quality Analysis in Open Source Software Development" PDF Info System Journal 12: 43–60 doi:101109/MS20072 Retrieved 2008-09-08 
  50. ^ Gallivan, Michael J 2001 "Striking a Balance Between Trust and Control in a Virtual Organization: A Content Analysis of Open Source Software Case Studies" Info Systems Journal 11 4: 277–304 doi:101111/j1365-2575200100108x 
  51. ^ a b c Boldyreff, Cornelia; Lavery, Janet; Nutter, David; Rank, Stephen "Open Source Development Processes and Tools" PDF Flosshub Retrieved 22 July 2016 
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  54. ^ Baker, Jason "Top 4 open source issue tracking tools" opensourcecom Retrieved 22 July 2016 
  55. ^ François Letellier 2008, Open Source Software: the Role of Nonprofits in Federating Business and Innovation Ecosystems, AFME 2008
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  58. ^ from EntandoSrl Entando "Mil-OSS" Mil-OSS Retrieved 2012-03-25 
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  95. ^ "Open Source Ecology" building the world's first replicable open source self-sufficient decentralized high-appropriate-tech permaculture ecovillage 
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Further reading

  • Androutsellis-Theotokis, Stephanos; Spinellis, Diomidis; Kechagia, Maria; Gousios, Georgios 2010 "Open source software: A survey from 10,000 feet" PDF Foundations and Trends in Technology, Information and Operations Management 4 3–4: 187–347 doi:101561/0200000026 ISBN 978-1-60198-484-5 
  • Coleman, E Gabriella Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking Princeton UP, 2012
  • Fadi P Deek; James A M McHugh 2008 Open Source: Technology and Policy Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ISBN 978-0-511-36775-5 
  • Chris DiBona and Sam Ockman and Mark Stone, ed 1999 Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution O'Reilly ISBN 1-56592-582-3 
  • Joshua Gay, ed 2002 Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M Stallman PDF Boston: GNU Press, Free Software Foundation ISBN 1-882114-98-1 
  • Understanding FOSS
  • Benkler, Yochai 2002, "Coase's Penguin, or, Linux and The Nature of the Firm" Yale Law Journal 1123 Dec 2002: p36778 in Adobe pdf format
  • v Engelhardt, Sebastian 2008 "The Economic Properties of Software", Jena Economic Research Papers, Volume 2 2008, Number 2008-045 PDF 
  • Lerner, J & Tirole, J 2002: 'Some simple economics on open source', Journal Of Industrial Economics 502, p 197–234
  • Välimäki, Mikko 2005 The Rise of Open Source Licensing: A Challenge to the Use of Intellectual Property in the Software Industry PDF Turre Publishing 
  • Polley, Barry 2007-12-11 "Open Source Discussion Paper – version 10" PDF New Zealand Ministry of Justice Retrieved 2007-12-12 
  • Rossi, M A 2006: Decoding the free/open source software puzzle: A survey of theoretical and empirical contributions, in J Bitzer P Schröder, eds, 'The Economics of Open Source Software Development', p 15–55
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution — an online book containing essays from prominent members of the open source community
  • Whence The Source: Untangling the Open Source/Free Software Debate, essay on the differences between free software and open source, by Thomas Scoville
  • Berry, D M 2004 The Contestation of Code: A Preliminary Investigation into the Discourse of the Free Software and Open Software Movement, Critical Discourse Studies, Volume 11

External links

  • The Open Source Initiative's definition of open source
  • Free / Open Source Research Community — Many online research papers about Open Source
  • Open-source software at DMOZ

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