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Oneiromancy

oneiromancy meaning, oneiromancy examples
Oneiromancy from the Greek όνειροϛ oneiros, dream, and μαντεία manteia, prophecy is a form of divination based upon dreams; it is a system of dream interpretation that uses dreams to predict the future

Contents

  • 1 Biblical oneiromancy
  • 2 Oneirocritic literature
    • 21 Ancient oneirocritic literature
      • 211 Egyptian
      • 212 Mesopotamian
      • 213 Akkadian
      • 214 Greek
    • 22 Medieval oneirocritic literature
      • 221 Āstika
      • 222 Arabic
      • 223 European
      • 224 Japanese
    • 23 Modern oneirocritic literature
  • 3 Other oneiromantic traditions
  • 4 See also
  • 5 Notes
  • 6 References

Biblical oneiromancyedit

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Dreams occur throughout the Bible as omens or messages from God;

  • God speaks to Abram while he is in a deep sleep Genesis 15;
  • God speaks to Abimelech the King of Gerar concerning his intentions regarding Sarah, Abraham's wife Genesis 20;
  • Jacob dreams of a ladder to heaven Genesis 28;
  • his son Joseph dreamed of his future success Genesis 37 and interpreted the dreams of the Pharaoh of Egypt Genesis 41;
  • Solomon conversed with God in his dreams 1 Kings 3;
  • Daniel interpreted dreams in the Book of Daniel 2 and 4;
  • the Magi are told in a dream to avoid Herod on their journey home Matthew 2;
  • Joseph, when betrothed to Mary, was told not to fear taking Mary as his wife Matthew 1;
  • Joseph, now husband of Mary, was directed to flee with Mary and Jesus to Egypt Matthew 2;
  • Pilate's wife suffered in a dream because of Jesus Matthew 27;
  • Paul was told to go to Macedonia Acts 16

Deuteronomy 13:1-5 offers instruction about those who claim to have inspired but false dreams In Acts 2:17 the apostle Peter quotes Joel 2:28 saying that because of the Spirit now out poured "your old men will dream dreams"

Oneirocritic literatureedit

See also: Dream interpretation

Oneirocritic literature is the traditional ancient and medieval literary format of dream interpretation The ancient sources of oneirocritic literature are Kemetian Aegyptian, Akkadian Babylonian, and Hellenic Greek The medieval sources of oneirocritic literature are Āstika Hindu, Persian, Arabic, and European

Ancient oneirocritic literatureedit

Egyptianedit

The oldest oneirocritic manuscript hitherto discovered is the "Ramesside dream-book" now in the British Museum1 A unique exemplar of a book of dream-interpretation from pre-Hellenistic Egypt, the surviving fragments were translated into English by Kasia Szpakowska2

Mesopotamianedit

The Epic of Gilgamesh reflects heavily on the belief that our ancients looked to our dreams to predict, roughly, our future, by Gilgamesh's persistence to "sleep on things" and gather information from his dreams before making decisions The story has been retold countless times

Akkadianedit

This was a section of the extensive omen-literature, the most notable exemplar of which was the “Dream Book,” Iškar Zaqīqu3

Greekedit

Dream divination was a common feature of Greek and Roman religion and literature of all genres Aristotle and Plato discuss dreams in various works The only surviving Greco-Roman dreambook, the Oneirocritica, was written by Artemidorus Artemidorus cites a large number of previous authors, all now lost These include Artemidoros, Astrampsychos, Nikephoros, Germanos, and Manuel Palaiologos

  • In Book XIX of the Odyssey, Penelopē said that "dreams which issue forth from the gate of polished horn bring true issues to pass, when any mortal sees them" Here, there may be a pun4 of /KRainō/ 'I fulfill' with /KeRas/ 'horn'
  • Likewise, Herodotos distinguished5 /oneiros/ or /enar/ as "the prophetic, God-sent dream" from /en-upnion/ "the non-predictive dream"
  • In the scheme of Artemidoros, the "oneiros was subdivided into two great categories: allēgorikos, which corresponds to the Platonic theory of the predictive dream operating in the impure soul, and the theōrēmatikos, which is the dream represented in the pure state of the soul"6

Medieval oneirocritic literatureedit

Āstikaedit

The pertinent material is included in the several Purāṇa-s, such as the Liṅga Purāṇa7

Arabicedit

Here, dreams about specific numbers8 or about reading specific chapters9 of the Qurʼan are among the chief subjects of prognostication The most renowned of the Arabic texts of oneiromancy is the Great Book of Interpretation of Dreams

Europeanedit

Achmet is an adaptation of an Arabic book to the tastes of a European readership

Derived from older literature, modern dream-books are still in common use in Europe and the United States, being commonly sold along with good-luck charms

Japaneseedit

Sei Shonagon refers to having her dreams interpreted in The Pillow Book10

Modern oneirocritic literatureedit

Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud, and other psychoanalysts focused this idea and formed theories, experiments, and terminology around oneiromancy, most famously in Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams

Other oneiromantic traditionsedit

The indigenous Chontal of the Mexican state of Oaxaca use Calea zacatechichi, a flowering plant, for oneiromancy by placing it under the pillow of the dreamer Similarly, Entada rheedii is used in various African cultures

See alsoedit

  • Precognition
  • Synchronicity
  • Oneirology

Notesedit

  1. ^ "The Dream Book - Google Arts & Culture" Google Cultural Institute Retrieved 2016-10-16 
  2. ^ Szpakowska, Kasia : Behind Closed Eyes : Dreams and Nightmares in Ancient Egypt The Classical Press of Wales, Swansea, 2003 http://texts00gs/Behind_Closed_Eyeshtm
  3. ^ Nils P Heessel : Divinatorische Texte I : oneiromantische Omina Harrassowitz Verlag, 2007
  4. ^ Oberhelman 1981, p 3
  5. ^ Oberhelman 1981, p 4
  6. ^ Oberhelman 1981, p 8
  7. ^ Linga Purana Diamond Pocket Books Ltd ISBN 81-288-0679-3 pp 60-62
  8. ^ Gouda 1991, pp 296-301
  9. ^ Gouda 1991, pp 402-409
  10. ^ "古典に親しむ" dionnejp 

Referencesedit

  • AMERICAN ORIENTAL SERIES, Vol 89 = Noegel, Scott B : Nocturnal Ciphers : the Allusive Language of Dreams in the Ancient Near East New Haven, 2007
  • Oberhelman, Steven Michael : The Oneirocritic Literature of the Late Roman and Byzantine Eras of Greece PhD dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1981
  • Yehia Gouda : Dreams and Their Meanings in the Old Arab Tradition Vantage Pr, NY, 1991

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