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Noctilucent cloud

noctilucent clouds, noctilucent cloud climate change temperature
Night clouds or noctilucent clouds are tenuous cloud-like phenomena in the upper atmosphere They are made of ice crystals and are only visible in a deep twilight Noctilucent roughly means night shining in Latin They are most commonly observed in the summer months at latitudes between 50° and 70° north and south of the equator These clouds can be observed only during local summer months and when the Sun is below the horizon for the observer, but while the clouds are still in sunlight

They are the highest clouds in Earth's atmosphere, located in the mesosphere at altitudes of around 76 to 85 kilometres 47 to 53 mi They are too faint to be seen during daylight, and are visible only when illuminated by sunlight from below the horizon while the lower layers of the atmosphere are in the Earth's shadow Noctilucent clouds are not fully understood and are a recently discovered meteorological phenomenon; there is no confirmed record of their observation before 1885, although they may have been observed a few decades earlier by Thomas Romney Robinson in Armagh Doubts now surround Robinson's out-of-season records, following observations, from several points around high northern latitudes, of NLC-like phenomena following the Chelyabinsk superbolide entry in February 2013 outside the NLC season that were in fact stratospheric dust reflections visible after sunset

Noctilucent clouds can form only under very restricted conditions during local summer; their occurrence can be used as a sensitive guide to changes in the upper atmosphere They are a relatively recent classification The occurrence of noctilucent clouds appears to be increasing in frequency, brightness and extent

Noctilucent clouds over Uppsala, Sweden Noctilucent clouds over Varbla, Estonia, 13 July 2016


  • 1 Formation
  • 2 Discovery and investigation
  • 3 Observation
  • 4 Connection to climate change
  • 5 See also
  • 6 Notes
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links


Night clouds or noctilucent clouds are composed of tiny crystals of water ice up to 100 nm in diameter and exist at a height of about 76 to 85 km 47 to 53 mi, higher than any other clouds in Earth's atmosphere Clouds in the Earth's lower atmosphere form when water collects on particles, but mesospheric clouds may form directly from water vapour in addition to forming on dust particles

Data from the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere satellite suggests that noctilucent clouds require water vapour, dust, and very cold temperatures to form The sources of both the dust and the water vapour in the upper atmosphere are not known with certainty The dust is believed to come from micrometeors, although particulates from volcanoes and dust from the troposphere are also possibilities The moisture could be lifted through gaps in the tropopause, as well as forming from the reaction of methane with hydroxyl radicals in the stratosphere

The exhaust from Space Shuttles, in use between 1981 and 2011, which was almost entirely water vapour after the detachment of the Solid Rocket Booster at a height of about 46 km, was found to generate minuscule individual clouds About half of the vapour was released into the thermosphere, usually at altitudes of 103 to 114 km 64 to 71 mi In August 2014, a SpaceX Falcon 9 also caused noctilucent clouds over Orlando, FL after a launch

Noctilucent Cloud visible over Orlando formed by a Falcon 9 about 90 minutes after lifting off

The exhaust can be transported to the Arctic region in little over a day, although the exact mechanism of this very high-speed transport is unknown As the water migrates northward, it falls from the thermosphere down into the colder mesosphere, which occupies the region of the atmosphere just below Although this mechanism is the cause of individual noctilucent clouds, it is not thought to be a major contributor to the phenomenon as a whole

As the mesosphere contains very little moisture, approximately one hundred millionth that of air from the Sahara desert, and is extremely thin, the ice crystals can form only at temperatures below about −120 °C −184 °F This means that noctilucent clouds form predominantly during summer when, counterintuitively, the mesosphere is coldest, therefore they can't be observed even if they are present inside the Polar circles because the Sun is never low enough under the horizon at this season at these latitudes Noctilucent clouds form mostly near the polar regions, because the mesosphere is coldest there Clouds in the southern hemisphere are about 1 km 062 mi higher than those in the northern hemisphere

Ultraviolet radiation from the Sun breaks water molecules apart, reducing the amount of water available to form noctilucent clouds The radiation is known to vary cyclically with the solar cycle and satellites have been tracking the decrease in brightness of the clouds with the increase of ultraviolet radiation for the last two solar cycles It has been found that changes in the clouds follow changes in the intensity of ultraviolet rays by about a year, but the reason for this long lag is not yet known

Noctilucent clouds are known to exhibit high radar reflectivity, in a frequency range of 50 MHz to 13 GHz This behaviour is not well understood but a possible explanation is that the ice grains become coated with a thin metal film composed of sodium and iron, which makes the cloud far more reflective to radar, although this explanation remains controversial Sodium and iron atoms are stripped from incoming micrometeors and settle into a layer just above the altitude of noctilucent clouds, and measurements have shown that these elements are severely depleted when the clouds are present Other experiments have demonstrated that, at the extremely cold temperatures of a noctilucent cloud, sodium vapour can rapidly be deposited onto an ice surface

Discovery and investigation

Noctilucent clouds over Bargerveen, Drenthe, Netherlands Noctilucent clouds over Stockholm Solna, Stockholm, Sweden

Noctilucent clouds are first known to have been observed in 1885, two years after the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa It remains unclear whether their appearance had anything to do with the volcanic eruption or whether their discovery was due to more people observing the spectacular sunsets caused by the volcanic debris in the atmosphere Studies have shown that noctilucent clouds are not caused solely by volcanic activity, although dust and water vapour could be injected into the upper atmosphere by eruptions and contribute to their formation Scientists at the time assumed the clouds were another manifestation of volcanic ash, but after the ash had settled out of the atmosphere, the noctilucent clouds persisted Finally, the theory that the clouds were composed of volcanic dust was disproved by Malzev in 1926 In the years following their discovery, the clouds were studied extensively by Otto Jesse of Germany, who was the first to photograph them, in 1887, and seems to have been the one to coin the term "noctilucent cloud", which means "night-shining cloud" His notes provide evidence that noctilucent clouds first appeared in 1885 He had been doing detailed observations of the unusual sunsets caused by the Krakatoa eruption the previous year and firmly believed that, if the clouds had been visible then, he would undoubtedly have noticed them Systematic photographic observations of the clouds were organized in 1887 by Jesse, Foerster, and Stolze and, after that year, continuous observations were carried out at the Berlin Observatory During this research, the height of the clouds was first determined, via triangulation The project was discontinued in 1896

In the decades after Otto Jesse's death in 1901, there were few new insights into the nature of noctilucent clouds Wegener's conjecture, that they were composed of water ice, was later shown to be correct Study was limited to ground-based observations and scientists had very little knowledge of the mesosphere until the 1960s, when direct rocket measurements began These showed for the first time that the occurrence of the clouds coincided with very low temperatures in the mesosphere

Noctilucent clouds were first detected from space by an instrument on the OGO-6 satellite in 1972 The OGO-6 observations of a bright scattering layer over the polar caps were identified as poleward extensions of these clouds A later satellite, the Solar Mesosphere Explorer, mapped the distribution of the clouds between 1981 and 1986 with its ultraviolet spectrometer The clouds were detected with a lidar in 1995 at Utah State University, even when they were not visible to the naked eye The first physical confirmation that water ice is indeed the primary component of noctilucent clouds came from the HALOE instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite in 2001

In 2001, the Swedish Odin satellite performed spectral analyses on the clouds, and produced daily global maps that revealed large patterns in their distribution

On April 25, 2007, the AIM satellite Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere was launched It is the first satellite dedicated to studying noctilucent clouds, and made its first observations on May 25, 2007 Images taken by the satellite show shapes in the clouds that are similar to shapes in tropospheric clouds, hinting at similarities in their dynamics

On August 28, 2006, scientists with the Mars Express mission announced that they found clouds of carbon dioxide crystals over Mars that extended up to 100 km 62 mi above the surface of the planet They are the highest clouds discovered over the surface of a planet Like noctilucent clouds on Earth, they can be observed only when the Sun is below the horizon

Research published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters in June 2009 suggests that noctilucent clouds observed following the Tunguska Event of 1908 are evidence that the impact was caused by a comet

The United States Naval Research Laboratory NRL and the United States Department of Defense Space Test Program STP conducted the Charged Aerosol Release Experiment CARE on September 19, 2009, using exhaust particles from a Black Brant XII suborbital sounding rocket launched from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to create an artificial noctilucent cloud The cloud was to be observed over a period of weeks or months by ground instruments and the Spatial Heterodyne IMager for MEsospheric Radicals SHIMMER instrument on the NRL/STP STPSat-1 spacecraft The rocket's exhaust plume was observed and reported to news organizations in the United States from New Jersey to Massachusetts


Noctilucent clouds photographed by the crew of the ISS Noctilucent clouds near the northern tip of Estonia

Noctilucent clouds are generally colourless or pale blue, although occasionally other colours including red and green occur The characteristic blue colour comes from absorption by ozone in the path of the sunlight illuminating the noctilucent cloud They can appear as featureless bands, but frequently show distinctive patterns such as streaks, wave-like undulations, and whirls They are considered a "beautiful natural phenomenon" Noctilucent clouds may be confused with cirrus clouds, but appear sharper under magnification Those caused by rocket exhausts tend to show colours other than silver or blue, because of iridescence caused by the uniform size of the water droplets produced

Noctilucent clouds may be seen by observers at a latitude of 50° to 65° They seldom occur at lower latitudes although there have been sightings as far south as Paris, Utah, Italy, Turkey and Spain, and closer to the poles it does not get dark enough for the clouds to become visible They occur during summer, from mid-May to mid-August in the northern hemisphere and between mid-November and mid-February in the southern hemisphere They are very faint and tenuous, and may be observed only in twilight around sunrise and sunset when the clouds of the lower atmosphere are in shadow, but the noctilucent cloud is illuminated by the Sun They are best seen when the Sun is between 6° and 16° below the horizon Although noctilucent clouds occur in both hemispheres, they have been observed thousands of times in the northern hemisphere, but fewer than 100 times in the southern Southern hemisphere noctilucent clouds are fainter and occur less frequently; additionally the southern hemisphere has a lower population and less land area from which to make observations

The clouds may show a large variety of different patterns and forms An identification scheme was developed by Fogle in 1970 that classified five different forms These classifications have since been modified and subdivided

They may be studied from the ground, from space, and directly by sounding rocket Also, some noctilucent clouds are made of smaller crystals, 30 nm or less, which are invisible to observers on the ground because they do not scatter enough light

Connection to climate change

It has been proposed that the relatively recent appearance of noctilucent clouds, and their gradual increase, may be linked to climate change The author of the first cited study, atmospheric scientist Gary Thomas of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado, has pointed out that the first sightings coincide with both Krakatoa and the nascent Industrial Revolution, and they have become more widespread and frequent throughout the twentieth century, including an uptick between 1964 and 1986 The connection of global warming to noctilucent clouds remains controversial, however Gary Thomas may have penned his paper after Wilfried Schröder, who might hold the distinction of being the first to explain noctilucent clouds as "indicators" for atmospheric processes Gerlands Beiträge zur Geophysik, 1971, Meteorologische Rundschau 1968–1970 Most recently in 2012 Lonnie Cumberland's physics PhD work supported viewing noctilucent clouds as a possible Miner's Canary for climate change as her third conclusion as a sign of increasing the presence of water in the high atmosphere NASA scientists speculate that methane may be driven higher into the mesophere where noctilucent clouds form by climate change and through reactions that end up producing water at such altitudes

Climate models predict that increased greenhouse gas emissions cause a cooling of the mesosphere, which would lead to more frequent and widespread occurrences of noctilucent clouds A complementing theory is that larger methane emissions from intensive farming activities produce more water vapour in the upper atmosphere Methane concentrations have more than doubled in the past 100 years

Tromp et al also suggest that a transition to a hydrogen economy would result in an increase in the free hydrogen concentration of the atmosphere by 1 ppm, which would increase the number of noctilucent clouds

See also

  • Aeronomy
  • Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere
  • Iridescent cloud
  • Polar mesospheric cloud
  • Polar stratospheric cloud


  1. ^ Robinson made a series of interesting observations between 1849 and 1852, and two of his entries in May 1850 may describe noctilucent clouds On the 1st of May he notes ‘strange luminous clouds in NW, not auroral' This does sound very much like NLCs even though early May falls outside the typical NLC 'window'; however it is still possible as NLCs can form at Armagh's latitude within this period
  2. ^ a b c d e f Phillips, Tony August 25, 2008 "Strange Clouds at the Edge of Space" NASA Archived from the original on February 1, 2010 
  3. ^ a b Hsu, Jeremy 2008-09-03 "Strange clouds spotted at the edge of Earth's atmosphere" USAtoday 
  4. ^ Simons, Paul 2008-05-12 "Mysterious noctilucent clouds span the heavens" TimesOnline Retrieved 2008-10-06 
  5. ^ Murray, BJ; Jensen, EJ 2000 "Homogeneous nucleation of amorphous solid water particles in the upper mesosphere" Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 72 1: 51–61 Bibcode:2010JASTP7251M doi:101016/jjastp200910007 
  6. ^ a b c d Chang, Kenneth 2007-07-24 "First Mission to Explore Those Wisps in the Night Sky" New York Times Retrieved 2008-10-05 
  7. ^ "Appearance of night-shining clouds has increased" Science Daily April 11, 2014 Retrieved May 7, 2014 
  8. ^ a b c About NLCs, Polar Mesospheric Clouds, from Atmospheric optics
  9. ^ "Study Finds Space Shuttle Exhaust Creates Night-Shining Clouds" Press release Naval Research Laboratories 2003-03-06 Retrieved 2008-10-19 
  10. ^ https://twittercom/SpaceX/status/498935052235857921 11 Aug 2014 SpaceX Falcon 9 caused spectacular noctilucent clouds
  12. ^ a b Phillips, Tony 2003-02-19 "Strange Clouds" NASA Archived from the original on 2008-10-12 Retrieved 2008-10-05 
  13. ^ a b c "Caltech Scientist Proposes Explanation for Puzzling Property of Night-Shining Clouds at the Edge of Space" Press release Caltech 2008-09-25 Archived from the original on 2008-09-29 Retrieved 2008-10-19 
  14. ^ a b c d e "Noctilucent clouds" Australian Antarctic Division 
  15. ^ Cole, Stephen 2007-03-14 "AIM at the Edge of Space" NASA 
  16. ^ "Project Studies Night Clouds, Radar Echoes" ECE News Virginia Tech: 3 Fall 2003 Retrieved 2008-10-19 
  17. ^ Rapp, M; Lubken, FJ 2009 "Comment on 'Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity' by P M Bellan" Geophys Res Lett 114 D11: D11204 Bibcode:2009JGRD11411204R doi:101029/2008JD011323 
  18. ^ Murray, BJ; Plane, JMC 2005 "Uptake of Fe, Na and K atoms on low-temperature ice: implications for metal atom scavenging in the vicinity of polar mesospheric clouds" Phys Chem Chem Phys 7 23: 3970–3979 Bibcode:2005PCCP73970M doi:101039/b508846a PMID 19810327 
  19. ^ a b Bergman, Jennifer 2004-08-17 "History of Observation of Noctilucent Clouds" Retrieved 2008-10-06 
  20. ^ Schröder, Wilfried "On the Diurnal Variation of Noctilucent Clouds" German Commission on History of Geophysics and Cosmical Physics Retrieved 2008-10-06 
  21. ^ Schröder 2001, p2457
  22. ^ Schröder 2001, p2459
  23. ^ Schröder 2001, p2460
  24. ^ Keesee, Bob "Noctilucent Clouds" University of Albany Retrieved 2008-10-19 
  25. ^ Schröder 2001, p2464
  26. ^ a b Gadsden 1995, p18
  27. ^ "Welcome" aguorg 
  28. ^ Hervig, Mark; Thompson, Robert E; McHugh, Martin; Gordley, Larry L; Russel, James M; Summers, Michael E March 2001 "First Confirmation that Water Ice is the Primary Component of Polar Mesospheric Clouds" Geophysical Research Letters 28 6: 971–974 Bibcode:2001GeoRL28971H doi:101029/2000GL012104 
  29. ^ Karlsson, B; Gumbel, J; Stegman, J; Lautier, N; Murtagh, DP; The Odin Team 2004 "Studies of Noctilucent Clouds by the Odin Satellite" PDF 35th COSPAR Scientific Assembly: 1921 Bibcode:2004cosp351921K Retrieved 2008-10-16 
  30. ^ "Launch of AIM Aboard a Pegasus XL Rocket" NASA Retrieved 2008-10-19 
  31. ^ NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio "The First Season of Noctilucent Clouds from AIM" NASA Retrieved 2008-10-19 
  32. ^ O'Carroll, Cynthia 2007-06-28 "NASA Satellite Captures First View of 'Night-Shining Clouds" 
  33. ^ SPACEcom staff 2006-08-28 "Mars Clouds Higher Than Any On Earth" SPACEcom Retrieved 2008-10-19 
  34. ^ Kelly, MC; CE Seyler; MF Larsen 2009-06-22 "Two-dimensional turbulence, space shuttle plume transport in the thermosphere, and a possible relation to the Great Siberian Impact Event" Geophysical Research Letters 36 14: L14103 Bibcode:2009GeoRL3614103K doi:101029/2009GL038362 
  35. ^ Ju, Anne 2009-06-24 "A mystery solved: Space shuttle shows 1908 Tunguska explosion was caused by comet" Cornell Chronicle Cornell University Retrieved 2009-06-25 
  36. ^ NASA 2009-09-19 "Night Time Artificial Cloud Study Using NASA Sounding Rocket" NASA 
  37. ^ "Rocket launch prompts calls of strange lights in sky" Cable News Network CNN 2009-09-20 
  38. ^ a b c d e Cowley, Les "Noctilucent Clouds, NLCs" Atmospheric Optics Retrieved 2008-10-18 
  39. ^ a b Gadsden 1995, p13
  40. ^ Gadsen, M October–December 1975 "Observations of the colour and polarization of noctilucent clouds" Annales de Géophysique 31: 507–516 Bibcode:1975AnG31507G 
  41. ^ Gadsden 1995, pp8–10
  42. ^ Gadsden 1995, p9
  43. ^ "Rocket Trails" Atmospheric Optics Archived from the original on 2008-08-04 Retrieved 2008-10-19 
  44. ^ Gadsden 1995, p8
  45. ^ Hultgren, K; et al 2011 "What caused the exceptional mid-latitudinal Noctilucent Cloud event in July 2009" Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 73 14-15: 2125–2131 Bibcode:2011JASTP732125H doi:101016/jjastp201012008 Retrieved 4 October 2011 
  46. ^ Tunç Tezel 13 Jul 2008 "NLC Surprise" The World At Night TWAN Retrieved 17 July 2014 
  47. ^ Calar Alto Observatory July 2012 "Noctilucent clouds from Calar Alto" Calar Alto Observatory Retrieved 17 July 2014 
  48. ^ a b Giles, Bill "Nacreous and Noctilucent Clouds" BBC Weather Archived from the original on 2008-10-11 Retrieved 2008-10-05 
  49. ^ Gadsden 1995, p11
  50. ^ a b A Klekociuk; R Morris; J French 2008 "First Antarctic ground-satellite view of ice aerosol clouds at the edge of space" Australian Antarctic Division Archived from the original on 2012-02-25 Retrieved 2008-10-19 
  51. ^ Gadsden 1995, pp9–10
  52. ^ Thomas, GE; Olivero, J 2001 "Noctilucent clouds as possible indicators of global change in the mesosphere" Advances in Space Research 28 7: 939–946 Bibcode:2001AdSpR28937T doi:101016/S0273-11770180021-1 
  53. ^ Sullivan, Brian K 2015-06-09 "You're About to See an Incredibly Rare Cloud, and It's Proof the Climate Is Changing" Bloombergcom Retrieved 2015-06-09 
  54. ^ Wilfried Schröder, Entwicklungsphasen der Erforschung der Leuchtenden Nachtwolken development phases of noctilucent cloud research, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1975, Michael Gadsden and Wilfried Schröder, Noctilucent clouds, Heidelberg, New York Springer Verlag, 1989, Wilfried Schröder, Noctilucent clouds, Bremen, Science Edition, 1998, Wilfried Schröder, Mesospheric Circulation and Noctilucent clouds, Bremen, Science Edition, 2006
  55. ^ Cumberland, Lonnie Spring 2012 On the Physical and Chemical Interactions between Polar Mesospheric Clouds and Upper Mesospheric Temperature and Ozone Chemistry Thesis Virginia, United States: George Mason University, Department of Physics p 315 Retrieved May 31, 2014 
  56. ^ Phillips, Tony Dec 23, 2013 "Electric-Blue Clouds Appear over Antarctica" [email protected] Headline News Retrieved May 31, 2014 
  57. ^ Tracey K Tromp; Run-Lie Shia; Mark Allen; John M Eiler; YL Yung June 2003 "Potential Environmental Impact of a Hydrogen Economy on the Stratosphere" Science Magazine 300 5626: 1740–1742 Bibcode:2003Sci3001740T doi:101126/science1085169 PMID 12805546 Retrieved 2008-10-19  See the letters in response for the controversy, one of which was written by Amory Lovins


  • Gadsden, M; Parviainen, P 1995 Observing Noctilucent Clouds PDF International Association of Geomagnetism & Aeronomy ISBN 0-9650686-0-9 Archived from the original PDF on 2008-10-31 Retrieved 2008-10-16 
  • Schröder, Wilfried November 2001 "Otto Jesse and the Investigation of Noctilucent Clouds 115 Years Ago" PDF Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 82 11: 2457–2468 Bibcode:2001BAMS822457S doi:101175/1520-04772001082<2457:OJATIO>23CO;2 Retrieved 2008-10-18 

External links

  • NLC time-lapse movies
  • AIM satellite mission
  • BBC News Article - Mission to Target Highest Clouds
  • Noctilucent Cloud Observers' Homepage
  • Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment SOFIE
  • Southern Noctilucent Clouds observed at Punta Arenas, Chile
  • NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Noctilucent Clouds Over Sweden 18 July 2006
  • BBC Article - Spacecraft Chases Highest Clouds
  • CNN Article - Rocket launch prompts calls of strange lights in sky
  • BBC News - Audio slideshow: Noctilucent clouds

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