Nohair theorem
no hair theorem, black hole no hair theoremThe nohair theorem postulates that all black hole solutions of the EinsteinMaxwell equations of gravitation and electromagnetism in general relativity can be completely characterized by only three externally observable classical parameters: mass, electric charge, and angular momentum All other information for which "hair" is a metaphor about the matter which formed a black hole or is falling into it, "disappears" behind the blackhole event horizon and is therefore permanently inaccessible to external observers Physicist John Archibald Wheeler expressed this idea with the phrase "black holes have no hair" which was the origin of the name In a later interview, John Wheeler says that Jacob Bekenstein coined this phrase
The first version of the nohair theorem for the simplified case of the uniqueness of the Schwarzschild metric was shown by Werner Israel in 1967 The result was quickly generalized to the cases of charged or spinning black holes There is still no rigorous mathematical proof of a general nohair theorem, and mathematicians refer to it as the nohair conjecture Even in the case of gravity alone ie, zero electric fields, the conjecture has only been partially resolved by results of Stephen Hawking, Brandon Carter, and David C Robinson, under the additional hypothesis of nondegenerate event horizons and the technical, restrictive and difficulttojustify assumption of real analyticity of the spacetime continuum
Contents
 1 Example
 2 Changing the reference frame
 3 Extensions
 4 Counterexamples
 5 Observational results
 6 See also
 7 References
 8 External links
Example
Suppose two black holes have the same masses, electrical charges, and angular momenta, but the first black hole is made out of ordinary matter whereas the second is made out of antimatter; nevertheless, they will be completely indistinguishable to an observer outside the event horizon None of the special particle physics pseudocharges ie, the global charges baryonic number, leptonic number, etc are conserved in the black hole
Changing the reference frame
Every isolated unstable black hole decays rapidly to a stable black hole; and excepting quantum fluctuations stable black holes can be completely described in a Cartesian coordinate system at any moment in time by these eleven numbers:
 massenergy M,
 linear momentum P three components,
 angular momentum J three components,
 position X three components,
 electric charge Q
These numbers represent the conserved attributes of an object which can be determined from a distance by examining its gravitational and electromagnetic fields All other variations in the black hole will either escape to infinity or be swallowed up by the black hole
By changing the reference frame one can set the linear momentum and position to zero and orient the spin angular momentum along the positive z axis This eliminates eight of the eleven numbers, leaving three which are independent of the reference frame: mass, angular momentum magnitude, and electric charge Thus any black hole which has been isolated for a significant period of time can be described by the Kerr–Newman metric in an appropriately chosen reference frame
Extensions
The nohair theorem was originally formulated for black holes within the context of a fourdimensional spacetime, obeying the Einstein field equation of general relativity with zero cosmological constant, in the presence of electromagnetic fields, or optionally other fields such as scalar fields and massive vector fields Proca fields, etc
It has since been extended to include the case where the cosmological constant is positive which recent observations are tending to support
Magnetic charge, if detected as predicted by some theories, would form the fourth parameter possessed by a classical black hole
Counterexamples
Counterexamples in which the theorem fails are known in spacetime dimensions higher than four; in the presence of nonabelian YangMills fields, nonabelian Proca fields, some nonminimally coupled scalar fields, or skyrmions; or in some theories of gravity other than Einstein’s general relativity However, these exceptions are often unstable solutions and/or do not lead to conserved quantum numbers so that "The 'spirit' of the nohair conjecture, however, seems to be maintained" It has been proposed that "hairy" black holes may be considered to be bound states of hairless black holes and solitons
In 2004, the exact analytical solution of a 3+1dimensional spherically symmetric black hole with minimally coupled selfinteracting scalar field was derived This showed that, apart from mass, electrical charge and angular momentum, black holes can carry a finite scalar charge which might be a result of interaction with cosmological scalar fields such as the inflaton The solution is stable and does not possess any unphysical properties; however, the existence of scalar field with desired properties is only speculative
Observational results
The LIGO results provide some experimental evidence consistent with the uniqueness or nohair theorem This observation is consistent with Stephen Hawking's theoretical work on black holes in the 1970s
See also
 Black hole information paradox
 Event Horizon Telescope
References
 ^ a b Misner, Charles W; Thorne, Kip S; Wheeler, John Archibald 1973 Gravitation San Francisco: W H Freeman pp 875–876 ISBN 0716703343 Retrieved 24 January 2013
 ^ "Interview with John Wheeler 2/3" – via YouTube
 ^ Israel, Werner 1967 "Event Horizons in Static Vacuum SpaceTimes" Phys Rev 164 5: 1776–1779 Bibcode:1967PhRv1641776I doi:101103/PhysRev1641776
 ^ Israel, Werner 1968 "Event horizons in static electrovac spacetimes" Commun Math Phys 8 3: 245–260 Bibcode:1968CMaPh8245I doi:101007/BF01645859
 ^ Carter, Brandon 1971 "Axisymmetric Black Hole Has Only Two Degrees of Freedom" Phys Rev Lett 26 6: 331–333 Bibcode:1971PhRvL26331C doi:101103/PhysRevLett26331
 ^ Bhattacharya, Sourav; Lahiri, Amitabha 2007 "No hair theorems for positive Λ" Physical Review Letters 99 20 arXiv:grqc/0702006v2 Bibcode:2007PhRvL99t1101B doi:101103/PhysRevLett99201101
 ^ Mavromatos, N E 1996 "Eluding the NoHair Conjecture for Black Holes" arXiv:grqc/9606008v1
 ^ Zloshchastiev, Konstantin G 2005 "Coexistence of Black Holes and a LongRange Scalar Field in Cosmology" Phys Rev Lett 94 12: 121101 arXiv:hepth/0408163 Bibcode:2005PhRvL94l1101Z doi:101103/PhysRevLett94121101 PMID 15903901
 ^ "Gravitational waves from black holes detected" BBC News 11 February 2016
 ^ https://physicsapsorg/articles/v9/52
 ^ https://wwwfacebookcom/stephenhawking/posts/965377523549345 Stephen Hawking
 ^ https://wwwbbccom/news/scienceenvironment35551144 Stephen Hawking celebrates gravitational wave discovery
External links
 Hawking, S W 2005 "Information Loss in Black Holes" Physical Review D 72 8 arXiv:hepth/0507171v2 Bibcode:2005PhRvD72h4013H doi:101103/PhysRevD72084013 , Stephen Hawking’s purported solution to the black hole unitarity paradox, first reported in July 2004



Types 


Size 


Formation 


Properties 


Models 


Issues 


Metrics 


Lists 


Related 

black hole no hair theorem, no hair theorem
Nohair theorem Information about

Nohair theorem beatiful post thanks!
29.10.2014
Nohair theorem
Nohair theorem
Nohair theorem viewing the topic.
There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video
Random Posts
B♭ (musical note)
B♭ Bflat; also called si bémol is the eleventh step of the Western chromatic scale starting from C ...Fourth dimension in art
New possibilities opened up by the concept of fourdimensional space and difficulties involved in tr...Holt Renfrew
Holt, Renfrew & Co, Limited, commonly known as Holt Renfrew or Holt's,1 is a chain of highend C...Later Silla
Later Silla 668–935, Hangul: 후신라; Hanja: 後新羅; RR: Hushila, Korean pronunciation: ...Search Engine
Our site has a system which serves search engine function.
You can search all data in our system with above button which written "What did you look for? "
Welcome to our simple, stylish and fast search engine system.
We have prepared this method why you can reach most accurate and most up to date knowladge.
The search engine that developed for you transmits you to the latest and exact information with its basic and quick system.
You can find nearly everything data which found from internet with this system.
Random Posts
Amorphous metal
An amorphous metal also known as metallic glass or glassy metal is a solid metallic material, usuall...Arthur Lake (bishop)
Arthur Lake September 1569 – 4 May 1626 was Bishop of Bath and Wells and a translator of the King Ja...John Hawkins (author)
Sir John Hawkins 29 March 1719 – 21 May 1789 was an English author and friend of Dr Samuel Johnson a...McDonnell Douglas MD12
The McDonnell Douglas MD12 was an aircraft design study undertaken by the McDonnell Douglas company...© Copyright © 2014. Search Engine