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Night eating syndrome

night eating syndrome, night eating syndrome treatment
Night eating syndrome NES is an eating disorder, characterized by a delayed circadian pattern of food intake1 Although there is some degree of comorbidity with binge eating disorder,1 it differs from binge eating in that the amount of food consumed in the evening/night is not necessarily objectively large nor is a loss of control over food intake required It was originally described by Dr Albert Stunkard in 1955 2 and is currently included in the other specified feeding or eating disorder category of the DSM-53 Research diagnostic criteria have been proposed1 and include evening hyperphagia consumption of 25% or more of the total daily calories after the evening meal and/or nocturnal awakening and ingestion of food two or more times per week The person must have awareness of the night eating to differentiate it from the parasomnia sleep-related eating disorder SRED Three of five associated symptoms must also be present: lack of appetite in the morning, urges to eat in the evening/at night, belief that one must eat in order to fall back to sleep at night, depressed mood, and/or difficulty sleeping

NES affects both men and women,4 between 1 and 2% of the general population,5 and approximately 10% of obese individuals6 The age of onset is typically in early adulthood spanning from late teenage years to late twenties and is often long-lasting,7 with children rarely reporting NES8 People with NES have been shown to have higher scores for depression and low self-esteem, and it has been demonstrated that nocturnal levels of the hormones melatonin and leptin are decreased9 The relationship between NES and the parasomnia SRED is in need of further clarification There is debate as to whether these should be viewed as separate diseases, or part of a continuum10 Consuming foods containing serotonin has been suggested to aid in the treatment of NES,11 but other research indicates that diet by itself cannot appreciably raise serotonin levels in the brain12 A few foods for example, bananas12 contain serotonin, but they do not affect brain serotonin levels,12 and various foods contain tryptophan, but the extent to which they affect brain serotonin levels must be further explored scientifically before conclusions can be drawn,12 and "the idea, common in popular culture, that a high-protein food such as turkey will raise brain tryptophan and serotonin is, unfortunately, false"12


NES is sometimes comorbid with excess weight; as many as 28% of individuals seeking gastric bypass surgery were found to suffer from NES in one study13 However, not all individuals with NES are overweight914 Night eating has been associated with diabetic complications15 Many people with NES also experience depressed mood 91617181920212223 and anxiety disorders21222425

See alsoedit

  • Nocturnal sleep related eating disorder


  1. ^ a b c Allison; et al 2010 "Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Night Eating Syndrome" International Journal of Eating Disorders 43: 241–247 doi:101002/eat20693 PMC 4531092 PMID 19378289 
  2. ^ Stunkard AJ; Grace WJ; Wolff HG 1955 "The night-eating syndrome; a pattern of food intake among certain obese patients" The American Journal of Medicine 19: 78–86 doi:101016/0002-93435590276-X PMID 14388031 
  3. ^ American Psychiatric Association 2013 Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 5th ed Washington, DC: Author
  4. ^ Striegel-Moore RH; Franko DL; Thompson D; Affenito S; Kraemer HC 2006 "Night eating: Prevalence and demographic correlates" Obesity 14: 139–147 doi:101038/oby200617 PMID 16493132 
  5. ^ Rand CSW; Macgregor MD; Stunkard AJ 1997 "The night eating syndrome in the general population and amongst post-operative obesity surgery patients" International Journal of Eating Disorders 22: 65–69 doi:101002/sici1098-108x19970722:1<65::aid-eat8>30co;2-0 PMID 9140737 
  6. ^ Stunkard AJ; Berkowitz R; Wadden T; Tanrikut C; Reiss E; Young L 1996 "Binge eating disorder and the night-eating syndrome" International Journal of Obesity 20: 1–6 PMID 8788315 
  7. ^ Wal Jillon S Vander 2012 "Night eating syndrome: A critical review of the literature" Clinical Psychology Review 32 1: 49–59 doi:101016/jcpr201111001 PMID 22142838 
  8. ^ Lundgren JD; Drapeau V; Allison KC; Gallant AR; Tremblay A; Lambert MA; Stunkard AJ 2012 "Prevalence and familial patterns of night eating in the Quebec adipose and lifestyle investigation in youth QUALITY study" Obesity 20: 1598–1603 doi:101038/oby201280 PMID 22469955 
  9. ^ a b c Birketvedt G; Florholmen J; Sundsfjord J; Østerud B; Dinges D; Bilker W; Stunkard AJ 1999 "Behavioral and neuroendocrine characteristics of the night-eating syndrome" Journal of the American Medical Association 282: 657–663 doi:101001/jama2827657 PMID 10517719 
  10. ^ Auger RR 2006 "Sleep-related eating disorders" Psychiatry 3: 64–70 
  11. ^ Shoar S; Shoar N; Khorgami Z; Shahabuddin Hoseini S; Naderan M 2012 "Prophylactic diet: A treatment for night eating syndrome" Hypothesis 10 1: e5 doi:105779/hypothesisv10i1241 
  12. ^ a b c d e Young, SN 2007, "How to increase serotonin in the human brain without drugs", J Psychiatry Neurosci, 32 6: 394–399, PMC 2077351, PMID 18043762 
  13. ^ O'Reardon JP; Stunkard AJ; Allison KC 2004 "Clinical trial of sertraline in the treatment of night eating syndrome" International Journal of Eating Disorders 35: 16–26 doi:101002/eat10224 PMID 14705153 
  14. ^ Lundgren JD; Shapiro JR; Bulik CM 2008 "Night eating patterns of patients with bulimia nervosa: a preliminary report" Eating and Weight Disorders: Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia, and Obesity 13: 171–175 doi:101007/bf03327503 
  15. ^ Morse SA; Ciechanowski PS; Katon WJ; Hirsch IB 2006 "Isn't this just bedtime snacking The potential adverse effects of night-eating symptoms on treatment adherence and outcomes in patients with diabetes" Diabetes Care 29: 1800–1804 doi:102337/dc06-0315 PMID 16873783 
  16. ^ Gluck ME; Geliebter A; Satoy T 2001 "Night eating syndrome is associated with depression, low self-esteem, reduced daytime hunger, and less weight loss in obese patients" Obesity Research 9: 264–267 doi:101038/oby200131 PMID 11331430 
  17. ^ Calugi S; Grave RD; Marchesini G 2009 "Night eating syndrome in class II-III obesity: Metabolic and psychopathological features" International Journal of Obesity 33: 899–904 doi:101038/ijo2009105 PMID 19506562 
  18. ^ Boseck JJ; Engel SG; Allison KC; Crosby RD; Mitchell JE; de Zwaan M 2007 "The application of ecological momentary assessment to the study of night eating" International Journal of Eating Disorders 40: 271–276 doi:101002/eat20359 PMID 17177212 
  19. ^ Allison KC; Ahima RS; O'Reardon JP; Dinges DF; Sharma V; Cummings DE; Stunkard AJ 2005 "Neuroendocrine profiles associated with energy intake, sleep, and stress in the night eating syndrome" Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 9: 6214–6217 
  20. ^ Striegel-Moore RH; Franko DL; Thompson D; Affenito S; May A; Kraemer HC 2008 "Exploring the typology of night eating syndrome" International Journal of Eating Disorders 41: 411–418 doi:101002/eat20514 PMID 18306340 
  21. ^ a b De Zwaan M; Roerig DB; Crosby RD; Karaz S; Mitchell JE 2006 "Nighttime eating: a descriptive study" International Journal of Eating Disorders 39: 224–232 doi:101002/eat20246 PMID 16511835 
  22. ^ a b Lundgren JD; Allison KC; O'Reardon JP; Stunkard AJ 2008 "A descriptive study of non-obese persons with night eating syndrome and a weight-matched comparison group" Eating Behaviors 9: 343–351 doi:101016/jeatbeh200712004 PMC 2536488 PMID 18549994 
  23. ^ Thompson SH; DeBate RD 2010 "An exploratory study of the relationship between night eating syndrome and depression among college students" Journal of College Student Psychotherapy 24: 39–48 doi:101080/87568220903400161 
  24. ^ Sassaroli S; Ruggiero GM; Vinai P; Cardetti S; Carpegna G; Ferrato N; Sampietro S 2009 "Daily and nightly anxiety amongst patients affected by night eating syndrome and binge eating disorder" Eating Disorders 17: 140–145 doi:101080/10640260802714597 PMID 19242843 
  25. ^ Napolitano MA; Head S; Babyak MA; Blumenthal JA 2001 "Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome: psychological and behavioral characteristics" International Journal of Eating Disorders 30: 193–203 doi:101002/eat1072 PMID 11449453 

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