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muhammad ali, muhammad
Muḥammad Arabic: محمد‎‎; c 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE is the central figure of Islam and widely regarded as its founder by non-Muslims He is known as the "Holy Prophet" to Muslims, almost all of whom consider him to be the last prophet sent by God to mankind to restore Islam, believed by Muslims to be the unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity and ensured that his teachings, practices, and the Quran, formed the basis of Islamic religious belief

Born approximately 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at an early age; he was raised under the care of his paternal uncle Abu Talib Periodically, he would seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer; later, at age 40, he reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave, where he stated he received his first revelation from God Three years later Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" lit islām to him is the only way dīn acceptable to God, and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam

Muhammad gained few early followers, and met hostility from some Meccan tribes To escape persecution, Muhammad sent some followers to Abyssinia before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina then known as Yathrib in the year 622 This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina In December 629, after eight years of intermittent conflict with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca The attack went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died Before his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam

The revelations each known as Ayah, lit "Sign ", which Muhammad reported receiving until his death, form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the "Word of God" and around which the religion is based Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices sunnah, found in the Hadith and sira literature, are also upheld by Muslims and used as sources of Islamic law see Sharia


  • 1 Names and appellations in the Quran
  • 2 Sources
    • 21 Quran
    • 22 Early biographies
    • 23 Hadith
  • 3 Pre-Islamic Arabia
  • 4 Life
    • 41 In Mecca
      • 411 Childhood and early life
    • 42 Beginnings of the Quran
    • 43 Opposition
    • 44 Isra and Mi'raj
    • 45 Last years in Mecca before Hijra
    • 46 Hijra
      • 461 Migration to Medina
      • 462 Establishment of a new polity
      • 463 Beginning of armed conflict
      • 464 Conflict with Mecca
      • 465 Siege of Medina
      • 466 Truce of Hudaybiyyah
    • 47 Final years
      • 471 Conquest of Mecca
      • 472 Conquest of Arabia
      • 473 Farewell pilgrimage
      • 474 Death and tomb
    • 48 After Muhammad
  • 5 Early social changes under Islam
  • 6 Appearance
  • 7 Household
  • 8 Legacy
    • 81 Muslim views
      • 811 Islamic depictions
      • 812 Medieval Christian views
      • 813 Emergence of positive views in Europe
      • 814 Views by modern historians
      • 815 Other religious views
    • 82 Criticism
    • 83 Praise and veneration
  • 9 See also
  • 10 Notes
  • 11 References
  • 12 Bibliography
    • 121 Encyclopedias
  • 13 Further reading
  • 14 External links

Names and appellations in the Quran

Main article: Names and titles of Muhammad The name Muhammad written in Thuluth, a script variety of Islamic calligraphy

The name Muhammad /mʊˈhæməd, -ˈhɑːməd/ means "praiseworthy" and appears four times in the Quran The Quran addresses Muhammad in the second person by various appellations; prophet, messenger, servant of God 'abd, announcer bashir, witness shahid, bearer of good tidings mubashshir, warner nathir, reminder mudhakkir, one who calls dā‘ī, light personified noor, and the lightgiving lamp siraj munir Muhammad is sometimes addressed by designations deriving from his state at the time of the address: thus he is referred to as the enwrapped al-muzzammil in Quran 73:1 and the shrouded al-muddaththir in Quran 74:1 In Sura Al-Ahzab 33:40 God singles out Muhammad as the "Seal of the Prophets", or the last of the prophets The Quran also refers to Muhammad as Aḥmad "more praiseworthy" Arabic: أحمد‎‎, Sura As-Saff 61:6


Main articles: Historiography of early Islam and Historicity of Muhammad


A folio from an early Quran, written in Kufic script Abbasid period, 8th–9th century

The Quran is the central religious text of Islam Muslims believe it represents the words of God revealed by the archangel Gabriel to Muhammad The Quran, however, provides minimal assistance for Muhammad's chronological biography; most Quranic verses do not provide significant historical context

Early biographies

Main article: Sirah Rasul Allah

An important source may be found in the historic works by writers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Muslim era AH – 8th and 9th century CE These include the traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad the sira literature, which provide additional information about Muhammad's life

The earliest surviving written sira biographies of Muhammad and quotes attributed to him is Ibn Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written c 767 CE 150 AH Although the work was lost, this sira was used verbatim at great length by Ibn Hisham and Al-Tabari Another early history source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by al-Waqidi death 207 of Muslim era, and the work of his secretary Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi death 230 of Muslim era

Many scholars accept the earliest biographies as accurate, though their accuracy is unascertainable Recent studies have led scholars to distinguish between the traditions touching legal matters and purely historical events In the former sphere, traditions could have been subject to invention while in the latter sphere, aside from exceptional cases, the material may have been only subject to "tendential shaping"


Main article: Hadith

Another important source may be found in hadith collections, accounts of the verbal and physical teachings and traditions of Muhammad Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by notable individuals such as Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik bin Anas, al-Daraqutni etc

Some Western academics cautiously view the hadith collections as accurate historical sources Scholars such as Madelung do not reject the narrations which have been compiled in later periods, but judge them in the context of history and on the basis of their compatibility with the events and figures Muslim scholars on the other hand typically place a greater emphasis on the hadith literature instead of the biographical literature, since hadiths maintain a verifiable chain of transmission isnad, whereas the lack of such a chain for the biographical literature makes it less verifiable in their eyes

Pre-Islamic Arabia

Main articles: Pre-Islamic Arabia, Jahiliyyah, and Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia Arabian peninsula, Byzantine and Sassanid-Persian empires in c 600 CE, on the eve of rise of Islam Main tribes and settlements of Arabia in Muhammad's lifetime

The Arabian Peninsula was largely arid and volcanic, making agriculture difficult except near oases or springs The landscape was dotted with towns and cities; two of the most prominent being Mecca and Medina Medina was a large flourishing agricultural settlement, while Mecca was an important financial center for many surrounding tribes Communal life was essential for survival in the desert conditions, supporting indigenous tribes against the harsh environment and lifestyle Tribal grouping was encouraged with unity being based on blood relations Indigenous Arabs were either nomadic or sedentary, the former constantly travelling from one place to another seeking water and pasture for their flocks, while the latter settled and focused on trade and agriculture Nomadic survival also depended on raiding caravans or oases; nomads did not view this as a crime

Byzantine and Sassanian empires dominated the pre-Islamic Middle East region The Roman-Persian Wars had devastated the region, making the empires unpopular amongst local tribes Politically Arabia at the time was divided between two tribal confederations, the Banu Qais, loosely allied with Byzantium and who were originally powerful in Northern and Western Arabia, and the Banu Kalb, who had originally come from Yemen, and were loosely allied with Sassanid Persia

In pre-Islamic Arabia, gods or goddesses were viewed as protectors of individual tribes, their spirits being associated with sacred trees, stones, springs and wells As well as being the site of an annual pilgrimage, the Kaaba shrine in Mecca housed 360 idols of tribal patron deities Three goddesses were associated with Allah as his daughters: Allāt, Manāt and al-‘Uzzá Monotheistic communities existed in Arabia, including Christians and Jews Hanifs – native pre-Islamic Arabs who "professed a rigid monotheism" – are also sometimes listed alongside Jews and Christians in pre-Islamic Arabia, although their historicity is disputed among scholars According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad himself was a Hanif and one of the descendants of Ishmael, son of Abraham


In Mecca

Timeline of Muhammad in Mecca
Important dates and locations in the life of Muhammad
c 569 Death of his father, Abdullah
c 570 Possible date of birth: 12 or 17 Rabi al Awal: in Mecca Arabia
c 576 Death of his mother, Amina
c 583 his grand father transfers him to Syria
c 595 Meets and marries Khadijah
597 Birth of Zainab, his first daughter, followed by: Ruqayyah, Umm Khultoom, and Fatima Zahra
610 Qur'anic revelation begins in the Cave of Hira on the Jabaal an Nur the "Mountain of Light" near Mecca
610 Prophethood begins at 40 years old: Angel Jebreel Gabriel said to appear to him on the mountain and call him: The Prophet of Allah
610 Begins in secret to gather followers in Mecca
c 613 Begins spreading message of Islam publicly to all Meccans
c 614 Heavy persecution of Muslims begins
c 615 Emigration of a group of Muslims to Ethiopia
616 Banu Hashim clan boycott begins
619 The year of sorrows: Khadija his wife and Abu Talib his uncle die
619 Banu Hashim clan boycott ends
c 620 Isra and Mi'raj reported ascension to heaven to meet God
622 Hijra, emigration to Medina called Yathrib
624 Battle of Badr
625 Battle of Uhud
627 Battle of the Trench also known as the siege of Medina
628 The Meccan tribe of Quraysh and the Muslim community in Medina signed a 10-year truce called the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
629 Conquest of Mecca
632 Farewell pilgrimage and death, in what is now Saudi Arabia
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Main article: Muhammad in Mecca

Muhammad was born in Mecca and lived there for roughly the first 52 years of his life c 570–622 This period is generally divided into two phases, before and after declaring his prophetic visions

Childhood and early life

See also: Mawlid and Family tree of Muhammad

Muhammad was born about the year 570 and his birthday is believed to be in the month of Rabi' al-awwal He belonged to the Banu Hashim clan, part of the Quraysh tribe, and was one of Mecca's prominent families, although it appears less prosperous during Muhammad's early lifetime Tradition places the year of Muhammad's birth as corresponding with the Year of the Elephant, which is named after the failed destruction of Mecca that year by the Abraha, Yemen's king, who supplemented his army with elephants Alternatively some 20th century scholars have suggested different years, such as 568 or 569

Miniature from Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami al-Tawarikh, c 1315, illustrating the story of Muhammad's role in re-setting the Black Stone in 605 Ilkhanate period

Muhammad's father, Abdullah, died almost six months before he was born According to Islamic tradition, soon after birth he was sent to live with a Bedouin family in the desert, as desert life was considered healthier for infants; some western scholars reject this tradition's historicity Muhammad stayed with his foster-mother, Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb, and her husband until he was two years old At the age of six, Muhammad lost his biological mother Amina to illness and became an orphan For the next two years, until he was eight years old, Muhammad was under the guardianship of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, of the Banu Hashim clan until his death He then came under the care of his uncle Abu Talib, the new leader of the Banu Hashim According to Islamic historian William Montgomery Watt there was a general disregard by guardians in taking care of weaker members of the tribes in Mecca during the 6th century, "Muhammad's guardians saw that he did not starve to death, but it was hard for them to do more for him, especially as the fortunes of the clan of Hashim seem to have been declining at that time"

In his teens, Muhammad accompanied his uncle on Syrian trading journeys to gain experience in commercial trade Islamic tradition states that when Muhammad was either nine or twelve while accompanying the Meccans' caravan to Syria, he met a Christian monk or hermit named Bahira who is said to have foreseen Muhammad's career as a prophet of God

Little is known of Muhammad during his later youth, available information is fragmented, causing difficulty to separate history from legend It is known that he became a merchant and "was involved in trade between the Indian ocean and the Mediterranean Sea" Due to his upright character he acquired the nickname "al-Amin" Arabic: الامين, meaning "faithful, trustworthy" and "al-Sadiq" meaning "truthful" and was sought out as an impartial arbitrator His reputation attracted a proposal in 595 from Khadijah, a 40-year-old widow Muhammad consented to the marriage, which by all accounts was a happy one

Several years later, according to a narration collected by historian Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad was involved with a well-known story about setting the Black Stone in place in the wall of the Kaaba in 605 CE The Black Stone, a sacred object, was removed to facilitate renovations to the Kaaba The Meccan leaders could not agree which clan should return the Black Stone to its place They decided to ask the next man who comes through the gate to make that decision That man was the 35-year-old Muhammad; this event happened five years before the first revelation by Gabriel to him He asked for a cloth and laid the Black Stone in its center The clan leaders held the corners of the cloth and together carried the Black Stone to the right spot, then Muhammad laid the stone, satisfying the honour of all

Beginnings of the Quran

See also: Muhammad's first revelation, History of the Quran, and Wahy The cave Hira in the mountain Jabal al-Nour where, according to Muslim belief, Muhammad received his first revelation

Muhammad began to pray alone in a cave named Hira on Mount Jabal al-Nour, near Mecca for several weeks every year Islamic tradition holds that during one of his visits to that cave, in the year 610 the angel Gabriel appeared to him and commanded Muhammad to recite verses that would be included in the Quran Consensus exists that the first Quranic words revealed were the beginning of Surah 96:1 Muhammad was deeply distressed upon receiving his first revelations After returning home, Muhammad was consoled and reassured by Khadijah and her Christian cousin, Waraqah ibn Nawfal Waraqah is variously described as an Ebionite priest possibly of Mecca or Nestorian He also feared that others would dismiss his claims as being possessed Shi'a tradition states Muhammad was not surprised or frightened at Gabriel's appearance; rather he welcomed the angel, as if he was expected The initial revelation was followed by a three-year pause a period known as fatra during which Muhammad felt depressed and further gave himself to prayers and spiritual practices When the revelations resumed he was reassured and commanded to begin preaching: "Thy Guardian-Lord hath not forsaken thee, nor is He displeased"

A depiction of Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel From the manuscript Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307, Ilkhanate period

Sahih Bukhari narrates Muhammad describing his revelations as "sometimes it is revealed like the ringing of a bell" Aisha reported, "I saw the Prophet being inspired Divinely on a very cold day and noticed the sweat dropping from his forehead as the Inspiration was over" According to Welch these descriptions may be considered genuine, since they are unlikely to have been forged by later Muslims Muhammad was confident that he could distinguish his own thoughts from these messages According to the Quran, one of the main roles of Muhammad is to warn the unbelievers of their eschatological punishment Quran 38:70, Quran 6:19 Occasionally the Quran did not explicitly refer to Judgment day but provided examples from the history of extinct communities and warns Muhammad's contemporaries of similar calamities Quran 41:13–16 Muhammad did not only warn those who rejected God's revelation, but also dispensed good news for those who abandoned evil, listening to the divine words and serving God Muhammad's mission also involves preaching monotheism: The Quran commands Muhammad to proclaim and praise the name of his Lord and instructs him not to worship idols or associate other deities with God

The key themes of the early Quranic verses included the responsibility of man towards his creator; the resurrection of the dead, God's final judgment followed by vivid descriptions of the tortures in Hell and pleasures in Paradise, and the signs of God in all aspects of life Religious duties required of the believers at this time were few: belief in God, asking for forgiveness of sins, offering frequent prayers, assisting others particularly those in need, rejecting cheating and the love of wealth considered to be significant in the commercial life of Mecca, being chaste and not killing newborn girls


See also: Persecution of Muslims by the Meccans and Migration to Abyssinia

According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad's wife Khadija was the first to believe he was a prophet She was followed by Muhammad's ten-year-old cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib, close friend Abu Bakr, and adopted son Zaid Around 613, Muhammad began to preach to the public Quran 26:214 Most Meccans ignored him and mocked him, though a few became his followers There were three main groups of early converts to Islam: younger brothers and sons of great merchants; people who had fallen out of the first rank in their tribe or failed to attain it; and the weak, mostly unprotected foreigners

The last ayah from the sura An-Najm in the Quran: "So prostrate to Allah and worship " Muhammad's message of monotheism one God challenged the traditional order

According to Ibn Saad, opposition in Mecca started when Muhammad delivered verses that condemned idol worship and the polytheism practiced by the Meccan forefathers However, the Quranic exegesis maintains that it began as Muhammad started public preaching As his followers increased, Muhammad became a threat to the local tribes and rulers of the city, whose wealth rested upon the Ka'aba, the focal point of Meccan religious life that Muhammad threatened to overthrow Muhammad's denunciation of the Meccan traditional religion was especially offensive to his own tribe, the Quraysh, as they were the guardians of the Ka'aba Powerful merchants attempted to convince Muhammad to abandon his preaching; he was offered admission to the inner circle of merchants, as well as an advantageous marriage He refused both of these offers

Tradition records at great length the persecution and ill-treatment towards Muhammad and his followers Sumayyah bint Khabbab, a slave of a prominent Meccan leader Abu Jahl, is famous as the first martyr of Islam; killed with a spear by her master when she refused to give up her faith Bilal, another Muslim slave, was tortured by Umayyah ibn Khalaf who placed a heavy rock on his chest to force his conversion

In 615, some of Muhammad's followers emigrated to the Ethiopian Aksumite Empire and founded a small colony under the protection of the Christian Ethiopian emperor Aṣḥama ibn Abjar Ibn Sa'ad mentions two separate migrations According to him, most of the Muslims returned to Mecca prior to Hijra, while a second group rejoined them in Medina Ibn Hisham and Tabari, however, only talk about one migration to Ethiopia These accounts agree that Meccan persecution played a major role in Muḥammad's decision to suggest that a number of his followers seek refuge among the Christians in Abyssinia According to the famous letter of ʿUrwa preserved in al-Tabari, the majority of Muslims returned to their native town as Islam gained strength and high ranking Meccans, such as Umar and Hamzah converted

However, there is a completely different story on the reason why the Muslims returned from Ethiopia to Mecca According to this account – initially mentioned by Al-Waqidi then rehashed by Ibn Sa'ad and Tabari, but not by Ibn Hisham and not by Ibn Ishaq – Muhammad, desperately hoping for an accommodation with his tribe, pronounced a verse acknowledging the existence of three Meccan goddesses considered to be the daughters of Allah Muhammad retracted the verses the next day at the behest of Gabriel, claiming that the verses were whispered by the devil himself Instead, a ridicule of these gods was offered This episode known as "The Story of the Cranes" translation: قصة الغرانيق, transliteration: Qissat al Gharaneeq is also known as "Satanic Verses" According to the story this led to a general reconciliation between Muḥammad and the Meccans, and the Abyssinia Muslims began to return home When they arrived Gabriel had informed Muḥammad the two verses were not part of the revelation, but had been inserted by Satan Notable scholars at the time argued against the historic authenticity of these verses and the story itself on various grounds Al-Waqidi was severely criticized by Islamic scholars such as Malik ibn Anas, al-Shafi’i, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Al-Nasa’i, al-Bukhari, Abu Dawood, Al-Nawawi and others as a liar and forgerer Later, the incident received some acceptance among certain groups, though strong objections to it continued onwards past the 10th century The objections continued until rejection of these verses and the story itself eventually became the only acceptable orthodox Muslim position

In 617, the leaders of Makhzum and Banu Abd-Shams, two important Quraysh clans, declared a public boycott against Banu Hashim, their commercial rival, to pressure it into withdrawing its protection of Muhammad The boycott lasted three years but eventually collapsed as it failed in its objective During this, Muhammad was only able to preach during the holy pilgrimage months in which all hostilities between Arabs was suspended

Isra and Mi'raj

Main article: Isra and Mi'raj The Al-Aqsa Mosque, part of the al-Haram ash-Sharif complex in Jerusalem and built in 705, was named the "farthest mosque" to honor the possible location to which Muhammad travelled in his night journey The al-Haram ash-Sharif is the third holiest place on earth for Muslims

Islamic tradition states that in 620, Muhammad experienced the Isra and Mi'raj, a miraculous night-long journey said to have occurred with the angel Gabriel At the journey's beginning, the Isra, he is said to have travelled from Mecca on a winged steed Buraq to "the farthest mosque" in Arabic: masjid al-aqsa Later, during the Mi'raj, Muhammad is said to have toured heaven and hell, and spoke with earlier prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, and Jesus Ibn Ishaq, author of the first biography of Muhammad, presents the event as a spiritual experience; later historians, such as Al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir, present it as a physical journey

Some western scholars hold that the Isra and Mi'raj journey traveled through the heavens from the sacred enclosure at Mecca to the celestial al-Baytu l-Maʿmur heavenly prototype of the Kaaba; later traditions indicate Muhammad's journey as having been from Mecca to Jerusalem

Last years in Mecca before Hijra

Quranic inscriptions on the Dome of the Rock, adjacent to the Al-Aqsa Mosque in the al-Haram ash-Sharif The Dome of the Rock marks the spot Muhammad is believed to have ascended to heaven

Muhammad's wife Khadijah and uncle Abu Talib both died in 619, the year thus being known as the "year of sorrow" With the death of Abu Talib, leadership of the Banu Hashim clan passed to Abu Lahab, a tenacious enemy of Muhammad Soon afterwards, Abu Lahab withdrew the clan's protection over Muhammad This placed Muhammad in danger; the withdrawal of clan protection implied that blood revenge for his killing would not be exacted Muhammad then visited Ta'if, another important city in Arabia, and tried to find a protector, but his effort failed and further brought him into physical danger Muhammad was forced to return to Mecca A Meccan man named Mut'im ibn Adi and the protection of the tribe of Banu Nawfal made it possible for him to safely re-enter his native city

Many people were visiting Mecca on business or as pilgrims to the Kaaba Muhammad took this opportunity to look for a new home for himself and his followers After several unsuccessful negotiations, he found hope with some men from Yathrib later called Medina The Arab population of Yathrib were familiar with monotheism and were prepared for the appearance of a prophet because a Jewish community existed there They also hoped, by the means of Muhammad and the new faith, to gain supremacy over Mecca; the Yathrib were jealous of its importance as the place of pilgrimage Converts to Islam came from nearly all Arab tribes in Medina; by June of the subsequent year, seventy-five Muslims came to Mecca for pilgrimage and to meet Muhammad Meeting him secretly by night, the group made what is known as the "Second Pledge of al-`Aqaba", or, in Orientalists' view, the "Pledge of War" Following the pledges at Aqabah, Muhammad encouraged his followers to emigrate to Yathrib As with the migration to Abyssinia, the Quraysh attempted to stop the emigration However, almost all Muslims managed to leave


Timeline of Muhammad in Medina
c 622 Emigrates to Medina Hijra
623 Caravan Raids begin
623 Al Kudr Invasion
624 Battle of Badr: Muslims defeat Meccans
624 Battle of Sawiq, Abu Sufyan captured
624 Expulsion of Banu Qaynuqa
624 Invasion of Thi Amr, Muhammad raids Ghatafan tribes
624 Assassination of Khaled b Sufyan & Abu Rafi
625 Battle of Uhud: Meccans defeat Muslims
625 Tragedy of Bir Maona and Al Raji
625 Invasion of Hamra al-Asad, successfully terrifies enemy to cause retreat
625 Banu Nadir expelled after Invasion
625 Invasion of Nejd, Badr and Dumatul Jandal
627 Battle of the Trench
627 Invasion of Banu Qurayza, successful siege
628 Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, gains access to Kaaba
628 Conquest of the Khaybar oasis
629 First hajj pilgrimage
629 Attack on Byzantine Empire fails: Battle of Mu'tah
630 Bloodless conquest of Mecca
630 Battle of Hunayn
630 Siege of Ta'if
631 Rules most of the Arabian peninsula
632 Attacks the Ghassanids: Tabuk duick
632 Farewell hajj pilgrimage
632 Death, on June 8 in Medina
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Main article: Hijra Islam

The Hijra is the migration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE In June 622, warned of a plot to assassinate him, Muhammad secretly slipped out of Mecca and moved his followers to Medina, 450 kilometres 280 miles north of Mecca

Migration to Medina

Main article: Muhammad in Medina

A delegation, consisting of the representatives of the twelve important clans of Medina, invited Muhammad to serve as chief arbitrator for the entire community; due to his status as a neutral outsider There was fighting in Yathrib: primarily the dispute involved its Arab and Jewish inhabitants, and was estimated to have lasted for around a hundred years before 620 The recurring slaughters and disagreements over the resulting claims, especially after the Battle of Bu'ath in which all clans were involved, made it obvious to them that the tribal concept of blood-feud and an eye for an eye were no longer workable unless there was one man with authority to adjudicate in disputed cases The delegation from Medina pledged themselves and their fellow-citizens to accept Muhammad into their community and physically protect him as one of themselves

Muhammad instructed his followers to emigrate to Medina, until nearly all his followers left Mecca Being alarmed at the departure, according to tradition, the Meccans plotted to assassinate Muhammad With the help of Ali, Muhammad fooled the Meccans watching him, and secretly slipped away from the town with Abu Bakr By 622, Muhammad emigrated to Medina, a large agricultural oasis Those who migrated from Mecca along with Muhammad became known as muhajirun emigrants

Establishment of a new polity

Main article: Constitution of Medina

Among the first things Muhammad did to ease the longstanding grievances among the tribes of Medina was to draft a document known as the Constitution of Medina, "establishing a kind of alliance or federation" among the eight Medinan tribes and Muslim emigrants from Mecca; this specified rights and duties of all citizens, and the relationship of the different communities in Medina including the Muslim community to other communities, specifically the Jews and other "Peoples of the Book" The community defined in the Constitution of Medina, Ummah, had a religious outlook, also shaped by practical considerations and substantially preserved the legal forms of the old Arab tribes

Several ordinances were proclaimed to win over the numerous and wealthy Jewish population These were soon rescinded as the Jews insisted on preserving the entire Mosaic law, and did not recognize him as a prophet because he was not of the race of David

The first group of converts to Islam in Medina were the clans without great leaders; these clans had been subjugated by hostile leaders from outside This was followed by the general acceptance of Islam by the pagan population of Medina, with some exceptions According to Ibn Ishaq, this was influenced by the conversion of Sa'd ibn Mu'adh a prominent Medinan leader to Islam Medinans who converted to Islam and helped the Muslim emigrants find shelter became known as the ansar supporters Then Muhammad instituted brotherhood between the emigrants and the supporters and he chose Ali as his own brother

Beginning of armed conflict

Main articles: List of expeditions of Muhammad and Battle of Badr

Following the emigration, the people of Mecca seized property of Muslim emigrants to Medina Armed conflict would later break out between the Meccan pagans and the Muslims Muhammad delivered Quranic verses permitting Muslims to fight the Meccans see sura Al-Hajj, Quran 22:39–40 According to the traditional account, on 11 February 624, while praying in the Masjid al-Qiblatayn in Medina, Muhammad received revelations from God that he should be facing Mecca rather than Jerusalem during prayer Muhammad adjusted to the new direction, and his companions praying with him followed his lead, beginning the tradition of facing Mecca during prayer

In March 624, Muhammad led some three hundred warriors in a raid on a Meccan merchant caravan The Muslims set an ambush for the caravan at Badr Aware of the plan, the Meccan caravan eluded the Muslims A Meccan force was sent to protect the caravan, and went on to confront the Muslims upon receiving word that the caravan was safe The Battle of Badr commenced Though outnumbered more than three to one, the Muslims won the battle, killing at least forty-five Meccans with fourteen Muslims dead They also succeeded in killing many Meccan leaders, including Abu Jahl Seventy prisoners had been acquired, many of whom were ransomed in return for wealth or freed Muhammad and his followers saw the victory as confirmation of their faith and Muhammad ascribed the victory as assisted from an invisible host of angels The Quranic verses of this period, unlike the Meccan verses, dealt with practical problems of government and issues like the distribution of spoils

The victory strengthened Muhammad's position in Medina and dispelled earlier doubts among his followers As a result, the opposition to him became less vocal Pagans who had not yet converted were very bitter about the advance of Islam Two pagans, Asma bint Marwan of the Aws Manat tribe and Abu 'Afak of the 'Amr b 'Awf tribe, had composed verses taunting and insulting the Muslims They were killed by people belonging to their own or related clans, and Muhammad did not disapprove of the killings This report however is considered by some to be a fabrication Most members of those tribes converted to Islam and there was hardly any opposition from the pagans left

Muhammad expelled from Medina the Banu Qaynuqa, one of three main Jewish tribes, but some historians contend that the expulsion happened after Muhammad's death According to al-Waqidi, after Abd-Allah ibn Ubaiy spoke for them, Muhammad refrained from executing them and commanded that they be exiled from Medina Following the Battle of Badr, Muhammad also made mutual-aid alliances with a number of Bedouin tribes to protect his community from attacks from the northern part of Hejaz

Conflict with Mecca

Main article: Battle of Uhud The Masjid al-Qiblatayn, where Muhammad established the new Qibla, or direction of prayer The Kaaba in Mecca long held a major economic and religious role for the area Seventeen months after Muhammad's arrival in Medina, it became the Muslim Qibla, or direction for prayer salat The Kaaba has been rebuilt several times; the present structure, built in 1629, is a reconstruction of an earlier building dating to 683

The Meccans were eager to avenge their defeat To maintain economic prosperity, the Meccans needed to restore their prestige, which had been reduced at Badr In the ensuing months, the Meccans sent ambush parties to Medina while Muhammad led expeditions against tribes allied with Mecca and sent raiders onto a Meccan caravan Abu Sufyan gathered an army of three thousand men and set out for an attack on Medina

A scout alerted Muhammad of the Meccan army's presence and numbers a day later The next morning, at the Muslim conference of war, dispute arose over how best to repel the Meccans Muhammad and many senior figures suggested it would be safer to fight within Medina and take advantage of the heavily fortified strongholds Younger Muslims argued that the Meccans were destroying crops, and huddling in the strongholds would destroy Muslim prestige Muhammad eventually conceded to the younger Muslims and readied the Muslim force for battle Muhammad led his force outside to the mountain of Uhud the location of the Meccans camp and fought the Battle of Uhud on 23 March 625 Although the Muslim army had the advantage in early encounters, lack of discipline on the part of strategically placed archers led to a Muslim defeat; 75 Muslims were killed including Hamza, Muhammad's uncle who became one of the best known martyrs in the Muslim tradition The Meccans did not pursue the Muslims, instead they marched back to Mecca declaring victory The announcement is probably because Muhammad was wounded and thought dead When they discovered that Muhammad lived, the Meccans did not return due to false information about new forces coming to his aid The attack had failed to achieve their aim of completely destroying the Muslims The Muslims buried the dead, and returned to Medina that evening Questions accumulated about the reasons for the loss; Muhammad delivered Quranic verses 3:152 indicating that the defeat was twofold: partly a punishment for disobedience, partly a test for steadfastness

Abu Sufyan directed his effort towards another attack on Medina He gained support from the nomadic tribes to the north and east of Medina; using propaganda about Muhammad's weakness, promises of booty, memories of Quraysh prestige and through bribery Muhammad's new policy was to prevent alliances against him Whenever alliances against Medina were formed, he sent out expeditions to break them up Muhammad heard of men massing with hostile intentions against Medina, and reacted in a severe manner One example is the assassination of Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf, a chieftain of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir Al-Ashraf went to Mecca and wrote poems that roused the Meccans' grief, anger and desire for revenge after the Battle of Badr Around a year later, Muhammad expelled the Banu Nadir from Medina forcing their emigration to Syria; he allowed them to take some possessions, as he was unable to subdue the Banu Nadir in their strongholds The rest of their property was claimed by Muhammad in the name of God as it was not gained with bloodshed Muhammad surprised various Arab tribes, individually, with overwhelming force, causing his enemies to unite to annihilate him Muhammad's attempts to prevent a confederation against him were unsuccessful, though he was able to increase his own forces and stopped many potential tribes from joining his enemies

Siege of Medina

Main article: Battle of the Trench

With the help of the exiled Banu Nadir, the Quraysh military leader Abu Sufyan mustered a force of 10,000 men Muhammad prepared a force of about 3,000 men and adopted a form of defense unknown in Arabia at that time; the Muslims dug a trench wherever Medina lay open to cavalry attack The idea is credited to a Persian convert to Islam, Salman the Persian The siege of Medina began on 31 March 627 and lasted two weeks Abu Sufyan's troops were unprepared for the fortifications, and after an ineffectual siege, the coalition decided to return home The Quran discusses this battle in sura Al-Ahzab, in verses 33:9–27 During the battle, the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza, located to the south of Medina, entered into negotiations with Meccan forces to revolt against Muhammad Although the Meccan forces were swayed by suggestions that Muhammad was sure to be overwhelmed, they desired reassurance in case the confederacy was unable to destroy him No agreement was reached after prolonged negotiations, partly due to sabotage attempts by Muhammad's scouts After the coalition's retreat, the Muslims accused the Banu Qurayza of treachery and besieged them in their forts for 25 days The Banu Qurayza eventually surrendered; according to Ibn Ishaq, all the men apart from a few converts to Islam were beheaded, while the women and children were enslaved Walid N Arafat and Barakat Ahmad have disputed the accuracy of Ibn Ishaq's narrative Arafat believes that Ibn Ishaq's Jewish sources, speaking over 100 years after the event, conflated this account with memories of earlier massacres in Jewish history; he notes that Ibn Ishaq was considered an unreliable historian by his contemporary Malik ibn Anas, and a transmitter of "odd tales" by the later Ibn Hajar Ahmad argues that only some of the tribe was killed, while some of the fighters were merely enslaved Watt finds Arafat's arguments "not entirely convincing", while Meir J Kister has contradicted the arguments of Arafat and Ahmad

In the siege of Medina, the Meccans exerted the available strength to destroy the Muslim community The failure resulted in a significant loss of prestige; their trade with Syria vanished Following the Battle of the Trench, Muhammad made two expeditions to the north, both ended without any fighting While returning from one of these journeys or some years earlier according to other early accounts, an accusation of adultery was made against Aisha, Muhammad's wife Aisha was exonerated from accusations when Muhammad announced he had received a revelation confirming Aisha's innocence and directing that charges of adultery be supported by four eyewitnesses sura 24, An-Nur

Truce of Hudaybiyyah

Main article: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah

"In your name, O God!
This is the treaty of peace between Muhammad Ibn Abdullah and Suhayl Ibn Amr They have agreed to allow their arms to rest for ten years During this time each party shall be secure, and neither shall injure the other; no secret damage shall be inflicted, but honesty and honour shall prevail between them Whoever in Arabia wishes to enter into a treaty or covenant with Muhammad can do so, and whoever wishes to enter into a treaty or covenant with the Quraysh can do so And if a Qurayshite comes without the permission of his guardian to Muhammad, he shall be delivered up to the Quraysh; but if, on the other hand, one of Muhammad's people comes to the Quraysh, he shall not be delivered up to Muhammad This year, Muhammad, with his companions, must withdraw from Mecca, but next year, he may come to Mecca and remain for three days, yet without their weapons except those of a traveller; the swords remaining in their sheaths"

—The statement of the treaty of Hudaybiyyah

Although Muhammad had delivered Quranic verses commanding the Hajj, the Muslims had not performed it due to Quraysh enmity In the month of Shawwal 628, Muhammad ordered his followers to obtain sacrificial animals and to prepare for a pilgrimage umrah to Mecca, saying that God had promised him the fulfillment of this goal in a vision when he was shaving his head after completion of the Hajj Upon hearing of the approaching 1,400 Muslims, the Quraysh dispatched 200 cavalry to halt them Muhammad evaded them by taking a more difficult route, enabling his followers to reach al-Hudaybiyya just outside Mecca According to Watt, although Muhammad's decision to make the pilgrimage was based on his dream, he was also demonstrating to the pagan Meccans that Islam did not threaten the prestige of the sanctuaries, that Islam was an Arabian religion

Negotiations commenced with emissaries travelling to and from Mecca While these continued, rumors spread that one of the Muslim negotiators, Uthman bin al-Affan, had been killed by the Quraysh Muhammad called upon the pilgrims to make a pledge not to flee or to stick with Muhammad, whatever decision he made if the situation descended into war with Mecca This pledge became known as the "Pledge of Acceptance" Arabic: بيعة الرضوان , bay'at al-ridhwān‎‎ or the "Pledge under the Tree" News of Uthman's safety allowed for negotiations to continue, and a treaty scheduled to last ten years was eventually signed between the Muslims and Quraysh The main points of the treaty included: cessation of hostilities, the deferral of Muhammad's pilgrimage to the following year, and agreement to send back any Meccan who emigrated to Medina without permission from their protector

Many Muslims were not satisfied with the treaty However, the Quranic sura "Al-Fath" The Victory Quran 48:1–29 assured them that the expedition must be considered a victorious one It was later that Muhammad's followers realized the benefit behind the treaty These benefits included the requirement of the Meccans to identify Muhammad as an equal, cessation of military activity allowing Medina to gain strength, and the admiration of Meccans who were impressed by the pilgrimage rituals

After signing the truce, Muhammad assembled an expedition against the Jewish oasis of Khaybar, known as the Battle of Khaybar This was possibly due to housing the Banu Nadir who were inciting hostilities against Muhammad, or to regain prestige from what appeared as the inconclusive result of the truce of Hudaybiyya According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad also sent letters to many rulers, asking them to convert to Islam the exact date is given variously in the sources He sent messengers with letters to Heraclius of the Byzantine Empire the eastern Roman Empire, Khosrau of Persia, the chief of Yemen and to some others In the years following the truce of Hudaybiyya, Muhammad directed his forces against the Arabs on Transjordanian Byzantine soil in the Battle of Mu'tah

Final years

Conquest of Mecca

Main articles: Conquest of Mecca and Muhammad after the conquest of Mecca A depiction of Muhammad with veiled face advancing on Mecca from Siyer-i Nebi, a 16th-century Ottoman manuscript The angels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil and Azrail, are also shown

The truce of Hudaybiyyah had been enforced for two years The tribe of Banu Khuza'a had good relations with Muhammad, whereas their enemies, the Banu Bakr, had allied with the Meccans A clan of the Bakr made a night raid against the Khuza'a, killing a few of them The Meccans helped the Banu Bakr with weapons and, according to some sources, a few Meccans also took part in the fighting After this event, Muhammad sent a message to Mecca with three conditions, asking them to accept one of them These were: either the Meccans would pay blood money for the slain among the Khuza'ah tribe, they disavow themselves of the Banu Bakr, or they should declare the truce of Hudaybiyyah null

The Meccans replied that they accepted the last condition Soon they realized their mistake and sent Abu Sufyan to renew the Hudaybiyyah treaty, a request that was declined by Muhammad

Muhammad began to prepare for a campaign In 630, Muhammad marched on Mecca with 10,000 Muslim converts With minimal casualties, Muhammad seized control of Mecca He declared an amnesty for past offences, except for ten men and women who were "guilty of murder or other offences or had sparked off the war and disrupted the peace" Some of these were later pardoned Most Meccans converted to Islam and Muhammad proceeded to destroy all the statues of Arabian gods in and around the Kaaba According to reports collected by Ibn Ishaq and al-Azraqi, Muhammad personally spared paintings or frescos of Mary and Jesus, but other traditions suggest that all pictures were erased The Quran discusses the conquest of Mecca

Conquest of Arabia

Main articles: Battle of Hunayn and Battle of Tabouk Conquests of Muhammad green lines and the Rashidun caliphsblack lines Shown: Byzantine empireNorth and west & Sassanid-Persian empire North east

Following the conquest of Mecca, Muhammad was alarmed by a military threat from the confederate tribes of Hawazin who were raising an army twice Muhammad's size The Banu Hawazin were old enemies of the Meccans They were joined by the Banu Thaqif inhabiting the city of Ta'if who adopted an anti-Meccan policy due to the decline of the prestige of Meccans Muhammad defeated the Hawazin and Thaqif tribes in the Battle of Hunayn

In the same year, Muhammad organized an attack against northern Arabia because of their previous defeat at the Battle of Mu'tah and reports of hostility adopted against Muslims With great difficulty he assembled thirty thousand men; half of whom on the second day returned with Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy, untroubled by the damning verses which Muhammad hurled at them Although Muhammad did not engage with hostile forces at Tabuk, he received the submission of some local chiefs of the region

He also ordered destruction of any remaining pagan idols in Eastern Arabia The last city to hold out against the Muslims in Western Arabia was Taif Muhammad refused to accept the city's surrender until they agreed to convert to Islam and allowed men to destroy the statue of their goddess Allat

A year after the Battle of Tabuk, the Banu Thaqif sent emissaries to surrender to Muhammad and adopt Islam Many bedouins submitted to Muhammad to safeguard against his attacks and to benefit from the spoils of war However, the bedouins were alien to the system of Islam and wanted to maintain independence: namely their code of virtue and ancestral traditions Muhammad required a military and political agreement according to which they "acknowledge the suzerainty of Medina, to refrain from attack on the Muslims and their allies, and to pay the Zakat, the Muslim religious levy"

Farewell pilgrimage

Main article: Farewell Pilgrimage Anonymous illustration of al-Bīrūnī's The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries, depicting Muhammad prohibiting Nasi' during the Farewell Pilgrimage, 17th-century Ottoman copy of a 14th-century Ilkhanate manuscript Edinburgh codex

In 632, at the end of the tenth year after migration to Medina, Muhammad completed his first truly Islamic pilgrimage, thereby teaching his followers the rites of the annual Great Pilgrimage, known as Hajj After completing the pilgrimage, Muhammad delivered a famous speech, known as the Farewell Sermon, at Mount Arafat east of Mecca In this sermon, Muhammad advised his followers not to follow certain pre-Islamic customs For instance, he said a white has no superiority over a black, nor a black has any superiority over a white except by piety and good action He abolished old blood feuds and disputes based on the former tribal system and asked for old pledges to be returned as implications of the creation of the new Islamic community Commenting on the vulnerability of women in his society, Muhammad asked his male followers to "be good to women, for they are powerless captives awan in your households You took them in God's trust, and legitimated your sexual relations with the Word of God, so come to your senses people, and hear my words " He told them that they were entitled to discipline their wives but should do so with kindness He addressed the issue of inheritance by forbidding false claims of paternity or of a client relationship to the deceased, and forbade his followers to leave their wealth to a testamentary heir He also upheld the sacredness of four lunar months in each year According to Sunni tafsir, the following Quranic verse was delivered during this event: "Today I have perfected your religion, and completed my favours for you and chosen Islam as a religion for you" Quran 5:3 According to Shia tafsir, it refers to the appointment of Ali ibn Abi Talib at the pond of Khumm as Muhammad's successor, this occurring a few days later when Muslims were returning from Mecca to Medina

Death and tomb

Mausoleum of Muhammad

A few months after the farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and suffered for several days with fever, head pain, and weakness He died on Monday, 8 June 632, in Medina, at the age of 62 or 63, in the house of his wife Aisha With his head resting on Aisha's lap, he asked her to dispose of his last worldly goods seven coins, then spoke his final words:

O Allah, to Ar-Rafiq Al-A'la exalted friend, highest abode or the uppermost, highest company in heaven

— Muhammad

Ar-Rafiq Al-A'la may be referring to God He was buried where he died in Aisha's house During the reign of the Umayyad caliph al-Walid I, al-Masjid an-Nabawi the Mosque of the Prophet was expanded to include the site of Muhammad's tomb The Green Dome above the tomb was built by the Mamluk sultan Al Mansur Qalawun in the 13th century, although the green color was added in the 16th century, under the reign of Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent Among tombs adjacent to that of Muhammad are those of his companions Sahabah, the first two Muslim caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar, and an empty one that Muslims believe awaits Jesus When bin Saud took Medina in 1805, Muhammad's tomb was stripped of its gold and jewel ornaments Adherents to Wahhabism, bin Sauds' followers destroyed nearly every tomb dome in Medina in order to prevent their veneration, and the one of Muhammad is said to have narrowly escaped Similar events took place in 1925 when the Saudi militias retook—and this time managed to keep—the city In the Wahhabi interpretation of Islam, burial is to take place in unmarked graves Although frowned upon by the Saudis, many pilgrims continue to practice a ziyarat—a ritual visit—to the tomb

Al-Masjid an-Nabawi "the Prophet's mosque" in Medina, Saudi Arabia, with the Green Dome built over Muhammad's tomb in the center

After Muhammad

Further information: Succession to Muhammad, Rashidun, and Muslim conquests Expansion of the caliphate, 622–750 CE    Muhammad, 622–632    Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661    Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750

Muhammad united several of the tribes of Arabia into a single Arab Muslim religious polity in the last years of his life With Muhammad's death, disagreement broke out over who his successor would be Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, Muhammad's friend and collaborator With additional support Abu Bakr was confirmed as the first caliph This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated the successor by Muhammad at Ghadir Khumm Abu Bakr immediately moved to strike against the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire forces because of the previous defeat, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an event that Muslim historians later referred to as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy"

The pre-Islamic Middle East was dominated by the Byzantine and Sassanian empires The Roman-Persian Wars between the two had devastated the region, making the empires unpopular amongst local tribes Furthermore, in the lands that would be conquered by Muslims many Christians Nestorians, Monophysites, Jacobites and Copts were disaffected from the Eastern Orthodox Church which deemed them heretics Within a decade Muslims conquered Mesopotamia, Byzantine Syria, Byzantine Egypt, large parts of Persia, and established the Rashidun Caliphate

Early social changes under Islam

Main article: Early social changes under Islam

According to William Montgomery Watt religion, for Muhammad, was not a private and individual matter but "the total response of his personality to the total situation in which he found himself He was responding to the religious and intellectual aspects of the situation but also to the economic, social, and political pressures to which contemporary Mecca was subject" Bernard Lewis says there are two important political traditions in Islam – Muhammad as a statesman in Medina, and Muhammad as a rebel in Mecca His view believed Islam as a great change, akin to a revolution, when introduced to new societies

Historians generally agree that Islamic social changes in areas such as social security, family structure, slavery and the rights of women and children improved on the status quo of Arab society For example, according to Lewis, Islam "from the first denounced aristocratic privilege, rejected hierarchy, and adopted a formula of the career open to the talents" Muhammad's message transformed society and moral orders of life in the Arabian Peninsula; society focused on the changes to perceived identity, world view, and the hierarchy of values Economic reforms addressed the plight of the poor, which was becoming an issue in pre-Islamic Mecca The Quran requires payment of an alms tax zakat for the benefit of the poor; as Muhammad's power grew he demanded that tribes who wished to ally with him implement the zakat in particular


A hilya containing a description of Muhammad, by Hâfiz Osman 1642–1698

The description given in Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi's book Shama'il al-Mustafa, attributed to Ali ibn Abi Talib is as followed:

Muhammad was middle-sized, did not have lank or crisp hair, was not fat, had a white circular face, wide black eyes, and long eye-lashes When he walked, he walked as though he went down a declivity He had the "seal of prophecy" between his shoulder blades He was bulky His face shone like the moon He was taller than middling stature but shorter than conspicuous tallness He had thick, curly hair The plaits of his hair were parted His hair reached beyond the lobe of his ear His complexion was azhar Muhammad had a wide forehead, and fine, long, arched eyebrows which did not meet Between his eyebrows there was a vein which distended when he was angry The upper part of his nose was hooked; he was thick bearded, had smooth cheeks, a strong mouth, and his teeth were set apart He had thin hair on his chest His neck was like the neck of an ivory statue, with the purity of silver Muhammad was proportionate, stout, firm-gripped, even of belly and chest, broad-chested and broad-shouldered

The "seal of prophecy" between Muhammad's shoulders is generally described as having been a type of raised mole the size of a pigeon's egg Another description of Muhammad was provided by Umm Ma'bad, a woman he met on his journey to Medina:

I saw a man, pure and clean, with a handsome face and a fine figure He was not marred by a skinny body, nor was he overly small in the head and neck He was graceful and elegant, with intensely black eyes and thick eyelashes There was a huskiness in his voice, and his neck was long His beard was thick, and his eyebrows were finely arched and joined together

When silent, he was grave and dignified, and when he spoke, glory rose up and overcame him He was from afar the most beautiful of men and the most glorious, and close up he was the sweetest and the loveliest He was sweet of speech and articulate, but not petty or trifling His speech was a string of cascading pearls, measured so that none despaired of its length, and no eye challenged him because of brevity In company he is like a branch between two other branches, but he is the most flourishing of the three in appearance, and the loveliest in power He has friends surrounding him, who listen to his words If he commands, they obey implicitly, with eagerness and haste, without frown or complaint

Descriptions like these were often reproduced in calligraphic panels hilya or, in Turkish, hilye, which in the 17th century developed into an art form of their own in the Ottoman Empire


Main articles: Muhammad's wives and Ahl al-Bayt The tomb of Muhammad is located in the quarters of his third wife, Aisha Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Medina

Muhammad's life is traditionally defined into two periods: pre-hijra emigration in Mecca from 570 to 622, and post-hijra in Medina from 622 until 632 Muhammad is said to have had thirteen wives in total although two have ambiguous accounts, Rayhana bint Zayd and Maria al-Qibtiyya, as wife or concubine Eleven of the thirteen marriages occurred after the migration to Medina

At the age of 25, Muhammad married the wealthy Khadijah bint Khuwaylid who was 40 years old The marriage lasted for 25 years and was a happy one Muhammad did not enter into marriage with another woman during this marriage After Khadija's death, Khawla bint Hakim suggested to Muhammad that he should marry Sawda bint Zama, a Muslim widow, or Aisha, daughter of Um Ruman and Abu Bakr of Mecca Muhammad is said to have asked for arrangements to marry both Muhammad's marriages after the death of Khajida were contracted mostly for political or humanitarian reasons The women were either widows of Muslims killed in battle and had been left without a protector, or belonged to important families or clans whom it was necessary to honor and strengthen alliances with

According to traditional sources Aisha was six or seven years old when betrothed to Muhammad, with the marriage not being consummated until she had reached puberty at the age of nine or ten years old She was therefore a virgin at marriage Muslim authors who calculate Aisha's age based on other sources of information, such that available about her sister Asma about whom more is known, estimate that she was over thirteen and perhaps in her late teens at the time of her marriage

After migration to Medina, Muhammad now in his fifties married several more women

Muhammad did household chores and helped with housework such as preparing food, sewing clothes, and repairing shoes He is also said to have had accustomed his wives to dialogue; he listened to their advice, and the wives debated and even argued with him

Khadijah is said to have had four daughters with Muhammad Ruqayyah bint Muhammad, Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad, Zainab bint Muhammad, Fatimah Zahra and two sons Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad and Qasim ibn Muhammad, who both died in childhood All but one of his daughters, Fatimah, died before him Some Shi'a scholars contend that Fatimah was Muhammad's only daughter Maria al-Qibtiyya bore him a son named Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, but the child died when he was two years old

Nine of Muhammad's wives survived him Aisha, who became known as Muhammad's favourite wife in Sunni tradition, survived him by decades and was instrumental in helping assemble the scattered sayings of Muhammad that form the Hadith literature for the Sunni branch of Islam

Muhammad's descendants through Fatimah are known as sharifs, syeds or sayyids These are honorific titles in Arabic, sharif meaning 'noble' and sayed or sayyid meaning 'lord' or 'sir' As Muhammad's only descendants, they are respected by both Sunni and Shi'a, though the Shi'a place much more emphasis and value on their distinction

Zayd ibn Harith was a slave that Muhammad bought, freed, and then adopted as his son He also had a wetnurse According to a BBC summary, "the Prophet Muhammad did not try to abolish slavery, and bought, sold, captured, and owned slaves himself But he insisted that slave owners treat their slaves well and stressed the virtue of freeing slaves Muhammad treated slaves as human beings and clearly held some in the highest esteem"


Muslim views

Main article: Muhammad in Islam

Following the attestation to the oneness of God, the belief in Muhammad's prophethood is the main aspect of the Islamic faith Every Muslim proclaims in Shahadah that "I testify that there is no god but God, and I testify that Muhammad is a Messenger of God" The Shahadah is the basic creed or tenet of Islam Islamic belief is that ideally the Shahadah is the first words a newborn will hear; children are taught it immediately and it will be recited upon death Muslims repeat the shahadah in the call to prayer adhan and the prayer itself Non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed

In Islamic belief, Muhammad is regarded as the last prophet sent by God for the benefit of mankind Quran 10:37 states that "it the Quran is a confirmation of revelations that went before it, and a fuller explanation of the Book – wherein there is no doubt – from The Lord of the Worlds" Similarly Quran 46:12 states "And before this was the book of Moses, as a guide and a mercy And this Book confirms it", while 2:136 commands the believers of Islam to "Say: we believe in God and that which is revealed unto us, and that which was revealed unto Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes, and that which Moses and Jesus received, and which the prophets received from their Lord We make no distinction between any of them, and unto Him we have surrendered"

The Muslim profession of faith, the Shahadah, illustrates the Muslim conception of the role of Muhammad: "There is no god except the God and Muhammad is the Messenger of God" Topkapı Palace

Muslim tradition credits Muhammad with several miracles or supernatural events For example, many Muslim commentators and some Western scholars have interpreted the Surah 54:1–2 as referring to Muhammad splitting the Moon in view of the Quraysh when they began persecuting his followers Islamic historian Denis Gril believes the Quran does not overtly describe Muhammad performing miracles, and the supreme miracle of Muhammad is identified with the Quran itself

According to Islamic tradition, Muhammad was attacked by the people of Ta'if and was badly injured The tradition also describes an angel appearing to him and offering retribution against the assailants It is said that Muhammad rejected the offer and prayed for the people of Ta'if

The Sunnah represents actions and sayings of Muhammad preserved in reports known as Hadith, and covers a broad array of activities and beliefs ranging from religious rituals, personal hygiene, burial of the dead to the mystical questions involving the love between humans and God The Sunnah is considered a model of emulation for pious Muslims and has to a great degree influenced the Muslim culture The greeting that Muhammad taught Muslims to offer each other, "may peace be upon you" Arabic: as-salamu `alaykum is used by Muslims throughout the world Many details of major Islamic rituals such as daily prayers, the fasting and the annual pilgrimage are only found in the Sunnah and not the Quran

Calligraphic rendering of "peace be upon him", customarily added after Muhammad's name in writing The phrase is encoded as a ligature at Unicode codepoint U+FDFA ﷺ‎

The Sunnah contributed much to the development of Islamic law, particularly from the end of the first Islamic century Muslim mystics, known as sufis, who were seeking for the inner meaning of the Quran and the inner nature of Muhammad, viewed the prophet of Islam not only as a prophet but also as a perfect human-being All Sufi orders trace their chain of spiritual descent back to Muhammad

Muslims have traditionally expressed love and veneration for Muhammad Stories of Muhammad's life, his intercession and of his miracles particularly "Splitting of the moon" have permeated popular Muslim thought and poetry Among Arabic odes to Muhammad, Qasidat al-Burda "Poem of the Mantle" by the Egyptian Sufi al-Busiri 1211–1294 is particularly well known, and widely held to possess a healing, spiritual power The Quran refers to Muhammad as "a mercy rahmat to the worlds" Quran 21:107 The association of rain with mercy in Oriental countries has led to imagining Muhammad as a rain cloud dispensing blessings and stretching over lands, reviving the dead hearts, just as rain revives the seemingly dead earth see, for example, the Sindhi poem of Shah ʿAbd al-Latif Muhammad's birthday is celebrated as a major feast throughout the Islamic world, excluding Wahhabi-dominated Saudi Arabia where these public celebrations are discouraged When Muslims say or write the name of Muhammad, they usually follow it with Peace be upon him Arabic: sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam In casual writing, this is sometimes abbreviated as PBUH or SAW; in printed matter, a small calligraphic rendition is commonly used ﷺ

Islamic depictions

Main article: Depictions of Muhammad Muhammad's entry into Mecca and the destruction of idols Muhammad is shown as a flame in this manuscript Found in Bazil's Hamla-i Haydari, Kashmir, 1808

In line with the hadith prohibition against creating images of sentient living beings, which is particularly strictly observed with respect to God and Muhammad, Islamic religious art is focused on the word Muslims generally avoid depictions of Muhammad, and mosques are decorated with calligraphy and Quranic inscriptions or geometrical designs, not images or sculptures Today, the interdiction against images of Muhammad – designed to prevent worship of Muhammad, rather than God – is much more strictly observed in Sunni Islam 85%–90% of Muslims and Ahmadiyya Islam 1% than among Shias 10%–15% While both Sunnis and Shias have created images of Muhammad in the past, Islamic depictions of Muhammad are rare They have, until recently, mostly been limited to the private and elite medium of the miniature, and since about 1500 most depictions show Muhammad with his face veiled, or symbolically represent him as a flame

The earliest extant depictions come from 13th century Anatolian Seljuk and Ilkhanid Persian miniatures, typically in literary genres describing the life and deeds of Muhammad During the Ilkhanid period, when Persia's Mongol rulers converted to Islam, competing Sunni and Shi'a groups used visual imagery, including images of Muhammad, to promote their particular interpretation of Islam's key events Influenced by the Buddhist tradition of representational religious art predating the Mongol elite's conversion, this innovation was unprecedented in the Islamic world, and accompanied by a "broader shift in Islamic artistic culture away from abstraction toward representation" in "mosques, on tapestries, silks, ceramics, and in glass and metalwork" besides books In the Persian lands, this tradition of realistic depictions lasted through the Timurid dynasty until the Safavids took power in the early 16th century The Safavaids, who made Shi'i Islam the state religion, initiated a departure from the traditional Ilkhanid and Timurid artistic style by covering Muhammad's face with a veil to obscure his features and at the same time represent his luminous essence Concomitantly, some of the unveiled images from earlier periods were defaced Later images were produced in Ottoman Turkey and elsewhere, but mosques were never decorated with images of Muhammad Illustrated accounts of the night journey mi'raj were particularly popular from the Ilkhanid period through the Safavid era During the 19th century, Iran saw a boom of printed and illustrated mi'raj books, with Muhammad's face veiled, aimed in particular at illiterates and children in the manner of graphic novels Reproduced through lithography, these were essentially "printed manuscripts" Today, millions of historical reproductions and modern images are available in some Muslim countries, especially Turkey and Iran, on posters, postcards, and even in coffee-table books, but are unknown in most other parts of the Islamic world, and when encountered by Muslims from other countries, they can cause considerable consternation and offense

Medieval Christian views

See also: Medieval Christian views on Muhammad

The earliest documented Christian knowledge of Muhammad stems from Byzantine sources They indicate that both Jews and Christians saw Muhammad as a false prophet Another Greek source for Muhammad is Theophanes the Confessor, a 9th-century writer The earliest Syriac source is the 7th-century writer John bar Penkaye

According to Hossein Nasr, the earliest European literature often refers to Muhammad unfavorably A few learned circles of Middle Ages Europe – primarily Latin-literate scholars – had access to fairly extensive biographical material about Muhammad They interpreted the biography through a Christian religious filter; one that viewed Muhammad as a person who seduced the Saracens into his submission under religious guise Popular European literature of the time portrayed Muhammad as though he were worshipped by Muslims, similar to an idol or a heathen god

In later ages, Muhammad came to be seen as a schismatic: Brunetto Latini's 13th century Li livres dou tresor represents him as a former monk and cardinal, and Dante's Divine Comedy Inferno, Canto 28, written in the early 1300s, puts Muhammad and his son-in-law, Ali, in Hell "among the sowers of discord and the schismatics, being lacerated by devils again and again"

Emergence of positive views in Europe

After the Reformation, Muhammad was often portrayed in a similar way Guillaume Postel was among the first to present a more positive view of Muhammad Gottfried Leibniz praised Muhammad because "he did not deviate from the natural religion" Henri de Boulainvilliers, in his Vie de Mahomed which was published posthumously in 1730, described Muhammad as a gifted political leader and a just lawmaker He presents him as a divinely inspired messenger whom God employed to confound the bickering Oriental Christians, to liberate the Orient from the despotic rule of the Romans and Persians, and to spread the knowledge of the unity of God from India to Spain Voltaire had both a positive and negative opinion on Muhammad: in his play Le fanatisme, ou Mahomet le Prophète he vilifies Muhammad as a symbol of fanaticism, and in a published essay in 1748 he calls him "a sublime and hearty charlatan", but in his historical survey Essai sur les mœurs , he presents him as legislator and a conqueror and calls him an "enthusiast", not an imposter Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in his Social Contract 1762, brushing aside hostile legends of Muhammad as a trickster and impostor, presents him as a sage legislator who wisely fused religious and political powers Emmanuel Pastoret published in 1787 his Zoroaster, Confucius and Muhammad, in which he presents the lives of these three "great men", "the greatest legislators of the universe", and compares their careers as religious reformers and lawgivers He rejects the common view that Muhammad is an impostor and argues that the Quran proffers "the most sublime truths of cult and morals"; it defines the unity of God with an "admirable concision" Pastoret writes that the common accusations of his immorality are unfounded: on the contrary, his law enjoins sobriety, generosity, and compassion on his followers: the "legislator of Arabia" was "a great man" Napoleon Bonaparte admired Muhammad and Islam, and described him as a model lawmaker and a great man Thomas Carlyle in his book Heroes and Hero Worship and the Heroic in History 1840 describes Muhammad as " silent great soul; one of those who cannot but be in earnest" Carlyle's interpretation has been widely cited by Muslim scholars as a demonstration that Western scholarship validates Muhammad's status as a great man in history

Views by modern historians

According to William Montgomery Watt and Richard Bell, recent writers generally dismiss the idea that Muhammad deliberately deceived his followers, arguing that Muhammad "was absolutely sincere and acted in complete good faith" and Muhammad's readiness to endure hardship for his cause, with what seemed to be no rational basis for hope, shows his sincerity Watt says that sincerity does not directly imply correctness: In contemporary terms, Muhammad might have mistaken his subconscious for divine revelation Watt and Bernard Lewis argue that viewing Muhammad as a self-seeking impostor makes it impossible to understand Islam's development Alford T Welch holds that Muhammad was able to be so influential and successful because of his firm belief in his vocation

Other religious views

See also: Judaism's views on Muhammad and Muhammad in the Bahá'í Faith

Bahá'ís venerate Muhammad as one of a number of prophets or "Manifestations of God" He is thought to be the final manifestation, or seal of the Adamic cycle, but consider his teachings to have been superseded by those of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahai faith, and the first of Manifestation of the current cycle


Main article: Criticism of Muhammad

As early as the 7th century Muhammad was attacked by non-Muslim Arab contemporaries for preaching monotheism In modern times, criticism has also dealt with Muhammad's sincerity in claiming to be a prophet, his morality, warfare, and his marriages

Praise and veneration

Praise and veneration of Muhammad have been expressed throughout the life of Muhammad, where from an early age, he was referred to as al-Amin faithful, trustworthy and as-Sadiq truthful Muslim scholars, thinkers, mystics and other religious scholars have expressed praise and veneration of Muhammad throughout history and it remains an integral part of the Islamic tradition Topics of the praise and veneration of Muhammad include the personality, character, teachings, morality, conduct, actions, and way of life

See also

  • Ashtiname of Muhammad
  • Arabian tribes that interacted with Muhammad
  • Diplomatic career of Muhammad
  • Glossary of Islam
  • List of founders of religious traditions
  • Muhammad in film
  • Muhammad in the Bible
  • List of biographies of Muhammad
  • The Message 1976 film
  • Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet documentary
  • Military career of Muhammad
  • Prophethood Ahmadiyya
  • Relics of Muhammad
  • Umm Ayman Barakah
  • Biography portal
  • Islam portal
  • Middle East portal
  • Muhammad portal


  1. ^ Full name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim Arabic: ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم‎‎, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim
  2. ^ The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community considers Muhammad to be the "Seal of the Prophets" Khātam an-Nabiyyīn and the last law-bearing Prophet but not the last Prophet See:
    • Simon Ross Valentine 2008 Islam and the Ahmadiyya Jama'at: History, Belief, Practice Columbia University Press p 134 ISBN 978-1-85065-916-7 
    • "Finality of Prophethood | Hadhrat Muhammad PUBH the Last Prophet" Ahmadiyya Muslim Community 
    There are also smaller sects which believe Muhammad to be not the last Prophet:
    • The Nation of Islam considers Elijah Muhammad to be a prophet source: African American Religious Leaders – p 76, Jim Haskins, Kathleen Benson – 2008
    • United Submitters International consider Rashad Khalifa to be a prophet Source: Daniel Pipes, Miniatures: Views of Islamic and Middle Eastern Politics, p 98 2004
  3. ^ 'Islam' is always referred to in the Quran as a dīn, a word that means "way" or "path" in Arabic, but is usually translated in English as "religion" for the sake of convenience
  4. ^ The aforementioned Islamic histories recount that as Muhammad was reciting Sūra Al-Najm Q53, as revealed to him by the Archangel Gabriel, Satan tempted him to utter the following lines after verses 19 and 20: "Have you thought of Allāt and al-'Uzzā and Manāt the third, the other; These are the exalted Gharaniq, whose intercession is hoped for" Allāt, al-'Uzzā and Manāt were three goddesses worshiped by the Meccans cf Ibn Ishaq, A Guillaume p 166
  5. ^ "Apart from this one-day lapse, which was excised from the text, the Quran is simply unrelenting, unaccommodating and outright despising of paganism" The Cambridge companion to Muhammad, Jonathan E Brockopp, p 35
  6. ^ "Although, there could be some historical basis for the story, in its present form, it is certainly a later, exegetical fabrication Sura LIII, 1–20 and the end of the sura are not a unity, as is claimed by the story, XXII, 52 is later than LIII, 2107 and is almost certainly Medinan; and several details of the story- the mosque, the sadjda, and others not mentioned in the short summary above do not belong to Meccan setting Caetani and J Burton have argued against the historicity of the story on other grounds, Caetani on the basis of week isnads, Burton concluded that the story was invented by jurists so that XXII 52 could serve as a Kuranic proof-text for their abrogation theories""Kuran" in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Vol 5 1986, p 404


  1. ^ Elizabeth Goldman 1995, p 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition Many earlier mainly non-Islamic traditions refer to him as still alive at the time of the invasion of Palestine See Stephen J Shoemaker,The Death of a Prophet: The End of Muhammad's Life and the Beginnings of Islam, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011
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    • Sherrard Beaumont Burnaby 1901 Elements of the Jewish and Muhammadan calendars: with rules and tables and explanatory notes on the Julian and Gregorian calendars G Bell p 465 
    • Hamidullah, Muhammad February 1969 "The Nasi', the Hijrah Calendar and the Need of Preparing a New Concordance for the Hijrah and Gregorian Eras: Why the Existing Western Concordances are Not to be Relied Upon" PDF The Islamic Review & Arab Affairs: 6–12 
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  221. ^ Esposito 1998, p 30
  222. ^ Watt, The Cambridge History of Islam, p 52
  223. ^ Ali Sultaan Asani; Kamal Abdel-Malek; Annemarie Schimmel October 1995 Celebrating Muḥammad: images of the prophet in popular Muslim poetry University of South Carolina Press ISBN 978-1-57003-050-5 Retrieved 5 November 2011 
  224. ^ a b Annemarie Schimmel 1985 And Muhammad is his messenger: the veneration of the Prophet in Islamic piety University of North Carolina Press p 34 ISBN 978-0-8078-1639-4 Retrieved 5 November 2011 
  225. ^ a b Omid Safi 17 November 2009 Memories of Muhammad: why the Prophet matters HarperCollins pp 273–274 ISBN 978-0-06-123134-6 Retrieved 5 November 2011 
  226. ^ Carl W Ernst Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World p 78 
  227. ^ See for example Marco Schöller, Banu Qurayza, Encyclopedia of the Quran mentioning the differing accounts of the status of Rayhana
  228. ^ a b Barbara Freyer Stowasser, Wives of the Prophet, Encyclopedia of the Quran
  229. ^ Subhani, Jafar "Chapter 9" The Message Ansariyan Publications, Qom 
  230. ^ Esposito 1998, p 18
  231. ^ Bullough 1998, p 119
  232. ^ Reeves 2003, p 46
  233. ^ Momen 1985, p 9
  234. ^ a b c D A Spellberg, Politics, Gender, and the Islamic Past: the Legacy of A'isha bint Abi Bakr, Columbia University Press, 1994, p 40
  235. ^ Karen Armstrong, Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet, Harper San Francisco, 1992, p 145
  236. ^ Karen Armstrong, Muhammad: Prophet For Our Time, HarperPress, 2006, p 105
  237. ^ Muhammad Husayn Haykal, The Life of Muhammad, North American Trust Publications 1976, p 139
  238. ^ Barlas 2002, pp 125–26
  239. ^ AC Brown, Jonathan 2014 Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy Oneworld Publications pp 143–44 ISBN 978-1780744209 
  240. ^ AC Brown, Jonathan 2014 Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy Oneworld Publications p 316 n° 50 ISBN 978-1780744209 Evidence that the Prophet waited for Aisha to reach physical maturity before consummation comes from al-Ṭabarī, who says she was too young for intercourse at the time of the marriage contract; 
  241. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:58:234, Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:58:236, Sahih al-Bukhari, 7:62:64, Sahih al-Bukhari, 7:62:65, Sahih al-Bukhari, 7:62:88, Sahih Muslim, 8:3309, 8:3310, 8:3311, 41:4915, Sunan Abu Dawood, 41:4917
  242. ^ Tabari, Volume 9, Page 131; Tabari, Volume 7, Page 7
  243. ^ Barlas, Asma 2012 "Believing Women" in Islam: Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur'an University of Texas Press p 126 On the other hand, however, Muslims who calculate 'Ayesha's age based on details of her sister Asma's age, about whom more is known, as well as on details of the Hijra the Prophet's migration from Mecca to Madina, maintain that she was over thirteen and perhaps between seventeen and nineteen when she got married Such views cohere with those Ahadith that claim that at her marriage Ayesha had "good knowledge of Ancient Arabic poetry and genealogy" and "pronounced the fundamental rules of Arabic Islamic ethics 
  244. ^ "The Concept of Polygamy and the Prophet's Marriages Chapter: The Other Wives" 
  245. ^ Ali, Muhammad 1997 Muhammad the Prophet Ahamadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam p 150 ISBN 978-0913321072 
  246. ^ Ayatollah Qazvini "Ayesha married the Prophet when she was young In Persian and Arabic" 
  247. ^ AC Brown, Jonathan 2014 Misquoting Muhammad: The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy Oneworld Publications pp 146–47 ISBN 978-1780744209 
  248. ^ Tariq Ramadan 2007, pp 168–69
  249. ^ Asma Barlas 2002, p 125
  250. ^ Armstrong 1992, p 157
  251. ^ a b Nicholas Awde 2000, p 10
  252. ^ Ordoni 1990 pp 32, 42–44
  253. ^ "Ali" Encyclopædia Britannica Online 
  254. ^ Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya recorded the list of some names of Muhammad's female-slaves in Zad al-Ma'ad, Part I, p 116
  255. ^ "Slavery in Islam" BBC Retrieved 16 April 2016 
  256. ^ Farah 1994, p 135
  257. ^ Clark, Malcolm 2003 Islam for Dummies Indiana: Wiley Publishing Inc p 100 
  258. ^ Nigosian, S A 2004 Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices Indiana: Indiana University Press p 17 ISBN 0-253-21627-3 
  259. ^ Juan E Campo, ed 2009 Encyclopedia of Islam Facts on File p 494 ISBN 978-0-8160-5454-1 
  260. ^ "Muhammad" Encyclopædia Britannica Online Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc 2013 Retrieved 27 January 2013 
  261. ^ AJ Wensinck, Muʿd̲j̲iza, Encyclopedia of Islam
  262. ^ a b Denis Gril, Miracles, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an
  263. ^ Daniel Martin Varisco, Moon, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an
  264. ^ A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims chapter "Muhammad's Visit to Ta’if" on al-islamorg
  265. ^ Muhammad, Encyclopædia Britannica, p 9
  266. ^ "Arabic Presentation Forms-A" PDF The Unicode Standard, Version 52 Mountain View, Ca: Unicode, Inc 1 October 2009 Retrieved 9 May 2010 
  267. ^ J Schacht, Fiḳh, Encyclopedia of Islam
  268. ^ Muhammad, Encyclopædia Britannica, pp 11–12
  269. ^ Suzanne Pinckney Stetkevych 24 May 2010 The mantle odes: Arabic praise poems to the Prophet Muḥammad Indiana University Press p xii ISBN 978-0-253-22206-0 Retrieved 27 January 2012 
  270. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Encyclopædia Britannica, Muhammad, p 13
  271. ^ Ann Goldman, Richard Hain, Stephen Liben 2006, p 212
  272. ^ a b c Kees Wagtendonk 1987 "Images in Islam" In Dirk van der Plas Effigies dei: essays on the history of religions Brill pp 119–24 ISBN 978-90-04-08655-5 Retrieved 1 December 2011 
  273. ^ John L Esposito 2011 What everyone needs to know about Islam 2 ed Oxford University Press pp 14–15 ISBN 978-0-19-979413-3 
  274. ^ a b F E Peters 10 November 2010 Jesus and Muhammad: Parallel Tracks, Parallel Lives Oxford University Press pp 159–61 ISBN 978-0-19-974746-7 Retrieved 1 December 2011 
  275. ^ Safi2010 2 November 2010 2 November 2010 HarperCollins p 32 ISBN 978-0-06-123135-3 Retrieved 29 December 2011 
  276. ^ a b c Safi, Omid 5 May 2011 "Why Islam does not ban images of the Prophet" Washington Post Retrieved 27 December 2011 
  277. ^ a b c Freek L Bakker 15 September 2009 The challenge of the silver screen: an analysis of the cinematic portraits of Jesus, Rama, Buddha and Muhammad BRILL pp 207–09 ISBN 978-90-04-16861-9 Retrieved 1 December 2011 
  278. ^ Christiane Gruber 2009 "Between Logos Kalima and Light Nur: Representations of the Muslim Prophet Muhammad in Islamic Painting" In Gulru Necipoglu Muqarnas 26 BRILL pp 234–35 ISBN 978-90-04-17589-1 
  279. ^ a b c Johan Elverskog 2010 Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road University of Pennsylvania Press p 167 ISBN 978-0-8122-4237-9 
  280. ^ Johan Elverskog 2010 Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road University of Pennsylvania Press pp 164–69 ISBN 978-0-8122-4237-9 
  281. ^ Christiane Gruber 2011 "When Nubuvvat encounters Valayat: Safavid painting of the "Prophet" Mohammad's Mi'raj, c 1500–50" In Pedram Khosronejad The Art and Material Culture of Iranian Shi'ism: Iconography and Religious Devotion in Shi'i Islam I B Tauris pp 46–47 ISBN 978-1-84885-168-9 
  282. ^ Elizabeth Edwards; Kaushik Bhaumik 2008 Visual sense: a cultural reader Berg p 344 ISBN 978-1-84520-741-0 
  283. ^ D Fairchild Ruggles 2011 Islamic Art and Visual Culture: An Anthology of Sources John Wiley and Sons p 56 ISBN 978-1-4051-5401-7 
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  285. ^ Walter Emil Kaegi, Jr, "Initial Byzantine Reactions to the Arab Conquest", Church History, Vol 38, No 2 June 1969, pp 139–42, quoting from Doctrina Jacobi nuper baptizati 86–87
  286. ^ Philip K Hitti, History of the Arabs, 10th edition 1970, p 112
  287. ^ Lewis 2002
  288. ^ Brockopp, Jonathan E 2010 The Cambridge Companion to Muḥammad New York: Cambridge UP pp 240–42 ISBN 978-0521713726 
  289. ^ Talk Of Napoleon At St Helena'' 1903, pp 279–80
  290. ^ Brockopp, Jonathan E, ed 2010 The Cambridge Companion to Muhammad Cambridge Companions to Religion Cambridge University Press ISBN 978-0-521-71372-6 
  291. ^ Younos, Farid 2010 Islamic Culture Cambridge Companions to Religion AuthorHouse p 15 ISBN 978-1-4918-2344-6  CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter link
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  293. ^ Kecia Ali 2014 The Lives of Muhammad Harvard UP p 48 
  294. ^ Watt, Bell 1995 p 18
  295. ^ Watt 1974, p 232
  296. ^ Watt 1974, p 17
  297. ^ Watt, The Cambridge history of Islam, p 37
  298. ^ Lewis 1993, p 45
  299. ^ Smith, P 1999 A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications p 251 ISBN 1-85168-184-1 
  300. ^ "A Bahá'í Approach to the Claim of Finality in Islam" bahai-librarycom Retrieved 2016-06-20 
  301. ^ Muhammad AbdulRaoof 1999, Prophet Muhammad PBUH A Blessing For Mankind, IIPH, p 10, ISBN 9960-672-89-1 
  302. ^ Schimmel 1985, p 70
  303. ^ "Follow Prophet Muhammad PBUH to get global peace: Dalai Lama" thenewscompk Retrieved 16 January 2016 
  304. ^ David Thomas 2013, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Routledge, p 110, ISBN 1135179603 


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  • Wijdan, Ali 23–28 August 1999 "From the Literal to the Spiritual: The Development of Prophet Muhammad's Portrayal from 13th century Ilkhanid Miniatures to 17th century Ottoman Art" Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art Utrecht, The Netherlands eds M Kiel, N Landman, and H Theunissen 7: 1–24 
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  • Ballard, Harold Wayne; Donald N Penny; W Glenn Jonas 2002 A Journey of Faith: An Introduction to Christianity Mercer University Press ISBN 0-86554-746-7 
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  • Bogle, Emory C 1998 Islam: Origin and Belief Texas University Press ISBN 0-292-70862-9 
  • Brown, Daniel 2003 A New Introduction to Islam Blackwell Publishing Professional ISBN 978-0-631-21604-9 
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  • Ernst, Carl 2004 Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World University of North Carolina Press ISBN 0-8078-5577-4 
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  • Esposito, John 1999 The Islamic Threat: Myth Or Reality Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-513076-6 
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  • Farah, Caesar 1994 Islam: Beliefs and Observances 5th ed Barron's Educational Series ISBN 978-0-8120-1853-0 
  • Glubb, John Bagot 2002 The Life and Times of Muhammad Hodder & Stoughton ISBN 0-8154-1176-6 
  • Goldman, Elizabeth 1995 Believers: spiritual leaders of the world Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-508240-0 
  • Goldman, Ann; Richard Hain; Stephen Liben 2006 Oxford Textbook of Palliative Care for Children Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-852653-9 
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  • ibn Isa, Muhammad Imam Tirmidhi 2011 Syama'il Muhammadiyah: KeanggunanMu Ya Rasulullah Hardcover in Arabic and Malay Malaysia: PTS Islamika Sdn Bhd p 388 ISBN 978-967-3-66064-3 
  • Ishaq, Ibn 2002 Guillaume, Alfred, ed The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-636033-1 
  • Jacobs, Louis 1995 The Jewish Religion: A Companion Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-826463-1 
  • Kelsay, John 1993 Islam and War: A Study in Comparative Ethics Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 0-664-25302-4 
  • Khan, Majid Ali 1998 Muhammad The Final Messenger Islamic Book Service, New Delhi, 110002 India ISBN 81-85738-25-4 
  • Kochler, Hans 1982 Concept of Monotheism in Islam & Christianity IPO ISBN 3-7003-0339-4 
  • Lapidus, Ira 2002 A History of Islamic Societies 2nd ed Cambridge University Press ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3 
  • Larsson, Göran 2003 Ibn Garcia's Shu'Ubiyya Letter: Ethnic and Theological Tensions in Medieval Al-Andalus Brill Academic Publishers ISBN 90-04-12740-2 
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  • Lings, Martin 1983 Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources Islamic Texts Society ISBN 978-0-946621-33-0  US edn by Inner Traditions International, Ltd
  • Madelung, Wilferd 1997 The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-64696-0 
  • Momen, Moojan 1985 An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shiʻism Yale University Press ISBN 0-300-03531-4 
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  • Rahman, Fazlur 1979 Islam University of Chicago Press ISBN 0-226-70281-2 
  • Ramadan, Tariq 2007 In the Footsteps of the Prophet: Lessons from the Life of Muhammad Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-530880-8 
  • Razwi, Ali Asgher 1997 A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims World Federation of K S I Muslim Communities Islamic Centre ISBN 0-9509879-1-3 
  • Reeves, Minou 2003 Muhammad in Europe: A Thousand Years of Western Myth-Making NYU Press ISBN 978-0-8147-7564-6 
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  • Watt, W Montgomery 1956 Muhammad at Medina Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-577307-1 
  • Watt, W Montgomery 1953 Muhammad at Mecca Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-577277-6 ASIN: B000IUA52A 
  • Weil, Gustav; Sanders, Frank K; Dunning, Harry W 1895 "An Introduction to the Quran" The Biblical World The University of Chicago Press 5 3: 181–191 doi:101086/471621 JSTOR 3135387 
  • Weil, Gustav 1895 "An Introduction to the Quran II" The Biblical World The University of Chicago Press 5 4: 273–286 doi:101086/471639 JSTOR 3135160 


  • William H McNeill; Jerry H Bentley; David Christian, eds 2005 Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History Berkshire Publishing Group ISBN 978-0-9743091-0-1 
  • Richard C Martin; Said Amir Arjomand; Marcia Hermansen; Abdulkader Tayob; Rochelle Davis; John Obert Voll, eds 2003 Encyclopedia of Islam & the Muslim World MacMillan Reference Books ISBN 978-0-02-865603-8 
  • P J Bearman; Th Bianquis; C E Bosworth; E van Donzel; W P Heinrichs eds Encyclopaedia of Islam Online Brill Academic Publishers ISSN 1573-3912 
  • Lindsay Jones, ed 2005 Encyclopedia of Religion 2nd ed MacMillan Reference Books ISBN 978-0-02-865733-2 
  • Jane Dammen McAuliffe, ed 2005 Encyclopedia of the Qur'an Brill Academic Publishers ISBN 978-90-04-12356-4 
  • Encyclopedia of World History Oxford University Press 1998 ISBN 0-19-860223-5 
  • The New Encyclopædia Britannica Rev ed Encyclopædia Britannica, Incorporated 2005 ISBN 978-1-59339-236-9 

Further reading

See also: List of biographies of Muhammad
  • Ahmad, Mirza Bashir 2011 Life & Character of the Seal of Prophets, Vols 1 PDF Islam International Publications ISBN 9781-84880-052-6 
  • Ahmad, Mirza Bashir 2011 Life & Character of the Seal of Prophets, Vols 2 PDF Islam International Publications ISBN 9781-84880-052-6 
  • Andrae, Tor 2000 Mohammed: The Man and His Faith Dover ISBN 0-486-41136-2 
  • Berg, Herbert ed 2003 Method and Theory in the Study of Islamic Origins E J Brill ISBN 90-04-12602-3 
  • Bush, George 1831 The Life of Mohammed: Founder of the Religion of Islam, and of the Empire of the Saracens J & J Harper 
  • Cook, Michael 1983 Muhammad Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-287605-8 
  • Hamidullah, Muhammad 1998 The Life and Work of the Prophet of Islam Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute ISBN 969-8413-00-6 
  • Motzki, Harald, ed 2000 The Biography of Muhammad: The Issue of the Sources – Islamic History and Civilization: Studies and Texts, Vol 32 Brill ISBN 90-04-11513-7  CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  • Musa, A Y Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave, 2008
  • Rubin, Uri 1995 The Eye of the Beholder: The Life of Muhammad as Viewed by the Early Muslims A Textual Analysis Darwin Press ISBN 0-87850-110-X 
  • Schimmel, Annemarie 1985 And Muhammad is His Messenger: The Veneration of the Prophet in Islamic Piety The University of North Carolina Press ISBN 0-8078-4128-5 
  • Spencer, Robert 2006 The Truth About Muhammad Regnery Publishing, USA ISBN 978-1-59698-028-0 

External links

  • Muhammad, article on Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  • Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet — PBS Site
  • Ibn Ishaq: The life of Muhammad, a translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, with introduction and notes, by A Guillaume, Oxford University Press, 1955, ISBN 0 19 636033 1

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