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Mono (software)

mono software development, mono (software)
Mono is a free and open source project led by Xamarin, a subsidiary of Microsoft4 formerly by Novell and originally by Ximian to create an Ecma standard-compliant, NET Framework-compatible set of tools including, among others, a C# compiler and a Common Language Runtime The logo of Mono is a stylized monkey's face, mono being Spanish for monkey5

The stated purpose of Mono is not only to be able to run Microsoft NET applications cross-platform, but also to bring better development tools to Linux developers6 Mono can be run on many software systems including Android, most Linux distributions, BSD, macOS, Windows, Solaris, and even some game consoles such as PlayStation 3, Wii, and Xbox 360

The Mono project has been controversial within the open-source community, as it implements portions of NET Framework that may be covered by Microsoft patents Although standardized portions of NET Framework are covered under Microsoft's "Open Specification Promise"—a covenant stating that Microsoft will not assert its patents against implementations of its specifications under certain conditions, other portions are not, which led to concerns that the Mono project could become the target of patent infringement lawsuits Following Microsoft's open sourcing of several core NET technologies since 2014 and its acquisition of Xamarin in the beginning of 2016, an updated patent promise has been issued for the Mono project see below


  • 1 History
  • 2 Current status and roadmap
    • 21 Moonlight
  • 3 Mono components
  • 4 Framework architecture
    • 41 Code Execution Engine
    • 42 Garbage collector
    • 43 Class library
      • 431 Namespaces and assemblies
    • 44 Common Language Infrastructure and Common Language Specification
    • 45 Managed and unmanaged code
    • 46 Mono-specific innovations
    • 47 System requirements
    • 48 Related projects
    • 49 Other implementations
  • 5 MonoDevelop
  • 6 XamariniOS and XamarinAndroid
    • 61 XamariniOS
    • 62 XamarinAndroid
  • 7 License
  • 8 Mono and Microsoft's patents
  • 9 Software developed with Mono
  • 10 See also
  • 11 References
    • 111 Citations
    • 112 Sources
  • 12 External links


Release History7
Date Version8 Notes
2004-06-30 109 C# 10 support
2004-09-21 1110
2006-11-09 1211 C# 20 support
2008-10-06 2012 Mono's APIs are now in par with NET 20 Introduces the C# 30 and Visual Basic 8 compilers New Mono-specific APIs: MonoCecil, MonoCairo and MonoPosix Gtk# 212 is released The Gendarme verification tool and Mono Linker are introduced
2009-01-13 2213 Mono switches its JIT engine to a new internal representation14 that gives it a performance boost and introduces SIMD support in the MonoSimd15 MonoSimd namespace
Mono introduces Full Ahead of Time compilation that allows developers to create full static applications and debuts the C# Compiler as a Service16 and the C# Interactive Shell17 C# REPL
2009-03-30 2418 This release mostly polishes all the features that shipped in 22 and became the foundation for the Long-Term support of Mono in SUSE Linux
2009-12-15 2619 The Mono runtime is now able to use LLVM as a code generation backend and this release introduces Mono co-routines, the Mono Soft Debugger and the CoreCLR security system required for Moonlight and other Web-based plugins
On the class library SystemIOPackaging, WCF client, WCF server, LINQ to SQL debut The Interactive shell supports auto-completion and the LINQ to SQL supports multiple database backends The xbuild build system is introduced
2010-09-22 2820 Defaults to NET 40 profile, C# 40 support, new generational garbage collector, includes Parallel Extensions, WCF Routing, CodeContracts, ASPNET 40, drops the 10 profile support; the LLVM engine tuned to support 999% of all generated code, runtime selectable llvm and gc; incorporates Dynamic Language Runtime, MEF, ASPNET MVC2, OData Client open source code from Microsoft; Will become release 30
2011-02-15 21021
2012-10-18 3022 C# 50 support, async support, Async Base Class Library Upgrade and MVC4 - Partial, no async features support
2013-07-24 3223 Default Garbage Collector is now the SGEN, instead of Boehm
2014-03-31 3424
2014-08-12 3625
2014-09-04 3826
2014-10-04 31027
2015-01-13 31228
2015-04-29 4029 Defaults to NET 45 profile and ships only NET 45 assemblies, defaults to C# 60 First release to integrate Microsoft open source NET Core code

When Microsoft first announced their NET Framework in June 2000 it was described as "a new platform based on Internet standards",30 and in December of that year the underlying Common Language Infrastructure was published as an open standard, "ECMA-335",31 opening up the potential for independent implementations32 Miguel de Icaza of Ximian believed that NET had the potential to increase programmer productivity and began investigating whether a Linux version was feasible33 Recognizing that their small team could not expect to build and support a full product, they launched the Mono open source project, on July 19, 2001 at the O'Reilly conference

After three years' development, Mono 10 was released on June 30, 200434 Mono evolved from its initial focus of a developer platform for Linux desktop applications to supporting a wide range of architectures and operating systems - including embedded systems35

After Novell was acquired by Attachmate in April 2011, Attachmate announced hundreds of layoffs for the Novell workforce,36 putting in question the future of Mono3738

On May 16, Miguel de Icaza announced in his blog that Mono would continue to be supported by Xamarin, a company he founded after being laid off from Novell The original Mono team had also moved to the new company Xamarin planned to keep working on Mono and had planned to rewrite the commercial NET stacks for iOS and Android from scratch, because Novell still owned MonoTouch and Mono for Android at the time39 After this announcement, the future of the project was questioned, MonoTouch and Mono for Android being in direct competition with the existing commercial offerings now owned by Attachmate, and considering that the Xamarin team would have difficulties proving that they did not use technologies they formerly developed when they were employed by Novell for the same work40 However, in July 2011, Novell, now a subsidiary of Attachmate, and Xamarin, announced that it granted a perpetual license to Xamarin for Mono, MonoTouch and Mono for Android, which officially took stewardship of the project4142

Current status and roadmapedit

Mono's current version is 462 as of November 2016update This version provides the core API of the NET Framework and support for Visual BasicNET and C# versions 20, 30, and 40 LINQ to Objects, XML, and SQL are part of the distribution C# 60 is now the default mode of operation for the C# compiler Windows Forms 20 is also supported, but not actively developed, and as such its support on Mono is incomplete43 Version 40 is the first version that incorporates Microsoft original source code that was released by Microsoft as part of the NET Core project

Mono's aim is to achieve full support for the features in NET 45 except Windows Presentation Foundation WPF which the Mono team do not plan to support due to the amount of work it would need,43 Windows Workflow Foundation WF, limited Windows Communication Foundation WCF44 Some missing parts of the NET Framework are under development in an experimental Mono subproject called Olive45

The Mono project has also created a Visual Basic NET compiler and a runtime designed for running VBNET applications It is currently being developed by Rolf Bjarne Kvinge


Main article: Moonlight runtime

An open source implementation of Microsoft Silverlight, called Moonlight, has been included since Mono 1946 Moonlight 10, which supports the Silverlight 10 APIs, was released January 20, 2009 Moonlight 20 supports Silverlight 20 and some features of Silverlight 3047 A preview release of Moonlight 30 was announced in February 2010 and contains updates to Silverlight 3 support48

The Moonlight project was abandoned on May 29, 201249 According to Miguel, two factors sealed the fate of the project: Microsoft added "artificial restrictions" that " made it useless for desktop programming ", and the technology had not gained enough traction on the Web

Mono componentsedit

Mono consists of three groups of components:

  1. Core components
  2. Mono/Linux/GNOME development stack
  3. Microsoft compatibility stack

The core components include the C# compiler, the virtual machine for the Common Language Infrastructure and the core class libraries These components are based on the Ecma-334 and Ecma-335 standards,50 allowing Mono to provide a standards compliant, free and open source CLI virtual machine Microsoft issued a statement that covers both standards under their Community Promise license51

The Mono/Linux/GNOME development stack provide tools for application development while using the existing GNOME and free and open source libraries These include: Gtk# for graphical user interface GUI development, Mozilla libraries for working with the Gecko rendering engine, Unix integration libraries MonoPosix, database connectivity libraries, a security stack, and the XML schema language RelaxNG Gtk# allows Mono applications to integrate into the Gnome desktop as native applications The database libraries provide connectivity to the object-relational database db4o, Firebird, Microsoft SQL Server MSSQL, MySQL, Open Database Connectivity ODBC, Oracle, PostgreSQL, SQLite, and many others The Mono project tracks developing database components at its website52

The Microsoft compatibility stack provides a pathway for porting Windows NET applications to GNU/Linux This group of components include ADONET, ASPNET, and Windows Forms, among others As these components are not covered by Ecma standards, some of them remain subject to patent fears and concerns

Framework architectureedit

Simplified Mono architecture

The major components of Mono include:

  • Code Execution Engine
  • Class Libraries
    • Base Class Library
    • NET Compatibility Class Libraries
    • Mono specific class libraries:
      • Cross platform class libraries for both Mono and NET Gtk#, MonoCecil, MonoCSharp, TextTemplating
      • Unix-specific class libraries POSIX, Filesystem in Userspace FUSE, curses
      • Platform-specific class libraries bindings for: Mac, iOS, Android, MeeGo
  • CLI Assemblies
  • CLI Metadata
  • Mono's Common Language Runtime
    • Compatible with the ECMA Common Language Infrastructure/NET Common Language Runtime
    • Mono-specific enhancements:
      • MonoSIMD support
      • Mono co-routines and continuations
  • Mono-specific enhancements
  • Native interop services and COM interop
  • Security - Transparent Code Framework

Code Execution Engineedit

The Mono runtime contains a code execution engine that translates ECMA CIL byte codes into native code and supports a number of processors: ARM, MIPS in 32-bit mode only, SPARC, PowerPC, S390 in 64-bit mode, x86, x86-64 and IA-64 for 64-bit modes

The code generator is exposed in three modes:

  • Just-in-time JIT compilation: The runtime will turn ECMA CIL byte codes into native code as the code runs
  • Ahead-of-Time AOT compilation: this code turns the ECMA CIL byte codes typically found on a exe or dll file and generates native code stored in an operating system, architecture and CPU specific file for a fooexe file, it would produce fooexeso on Linux This mode of operation compiles most of the code that is typically done at runtime There are some exceptions like trampolines and other administrative code that still require the JIT to function, so AOT images are not fully standalone
  • Full Static Compilation: this mode is only supported on a handful of platforms and takes the Ahead-of-Time compilation process one step further and generates all the trampolines, wrappers and proxies that are required into a static file that can be statically linked into a program and completely eliminates the need for a JIT at runtime This is used on Apple's iOS, Sony's PlayStation 3 and Microsoft's Xbox 360 operating systemscitation needed

Starting with Mono 26, it is possible to configure Mono to use the LLVM as the code generation engine instead of Mono's own code generation engine This is useful for high performance computing loads and other situations where the execution performance is more important than the startup performance

Starting with the Mono 27 preview, it is no longer necessary to pick one engine over the other at configuration time The code generation engine can be selected at startup by using the --llvm or --nollvm command line arguments, and it defaults to the fast Mono code generation engine

Garbage collectoredit

As of Mono 28, the Mono runtime ships with two garbage collectors: a generational collector53 and the Boehm conservative collector

The default garbage collector prior to Mono 311 the Boehm-Demers-Weiser Conservative Garbage Collector,5354 has significant limitations compared to commercial garbage-collected runtimes like the Java Virtual Machine or the NET framework's runtime Because the garbage collector can exhibit memory leaks on certain classes of applications, it may be unsuitable for long-running server applications

As of October 2010update, a new generational collector called the Simple Generational GC SGen-GC became available as part of Mono Starting with Mono 311 this is the default For versions of Mono from 28 to 310, users can elect to use the SGen garbage collector by passing the --gc=sgen switch to the Mono runtime at startup53 This new garbage collector has many advantages over a traditional conservative scanner It uses generational garbage collection where new objects are allocated from a nursery, during the garbage collection cycle, all objects that survived are migrated to an older generation memory pool The idea being that many objects are transient and can quickly be collected and only a handful of objects are long-term objects that live for the entire life of the application To improve performance this collector assigns memory pools to each thread to let threads allocate new memory blocks without having to coordinate with other threads Migration of objects from the nursery to the old generation is done by copying the data from the nursery to the old generation pool and updating any live pointers that point to the data to point to the new location This can be expensive for large objects, so Mono's SGen uses a separate pool of memory for large objects Large Object Section and uses a mark-and-sweep algorithm for those objects

Currently SGen treats the stack and registers conservatively and pins any objects that could be referenced by any of these roots The upcoming version of Mono scans the managed stack precisely, reducing the number of pinned objects

Class libraryedit

The class library provides a comprehensive set of facilities for application development They are primarily written in C#, but due to the Common Language Specification they can be used by any NET language The class library is structured into namespaces, and deployed in shared libraries known as assemblies Speaking of the NET framework is primarily referring to this class library55

Namespaces and assembliesedit

Namespaces are a mechanism for logically grouping similar classes into a hierarchical structure This prevents naming conflicts The structure is implemented using dot-separated words, where the most common top-level namespace is System, such as SystemIO and SystemNet There are other top-level namespaces as well, such as Accessibility and Windows A user can define a namespace by placing elements inside a namespace block

Assemblies are the physical packaging of the class libraries These are dll files, just like but not to be confused with Win32 shared libraries Examples of assemblies are mscorlibdll, Systemdll, SystemDatadll and Accessibilitydll Namespaces are often distributed among several assemblies and one assembly can be composed of several files

Common Language Infrastructure and Common Language Specificationedit

The Common Language Infrastructure CLI, or more commonly known as the Common Language Runtime, is implemented by the Mono executable The runtime is used to execute compiled NET applications The common language infrastructure is defined by the ECMA standard50 To run an application, you must invoke the runtime with the relevant parameters

The Common Language Specification CLS is specified in chapter 6 of ECMA-335 and defines the interface to the CLI, such as conventions like the underlying types for Enum The Mono compiler generates an image that conforms to the CLS This is the Common Intermediate Language The Mono runtime takes this image and runs it The ECMA standard formally defines a library that conforms to the CLS as a framework

Managed and unmanaged codeedit

Within a native NET/Mono application, all code is managed; that is, it is governed by the CLI's style of memory management and thread safety Other NET or Mono applications can use legacy code, which is referred to as unmanaged, by using the SystemRuntimeInteropServices libraries to create C# bindings Many libraries which ship with Mono use this feature of the CLI, such as Gtk#

Mono-specific innovationsedit

Mono has innovated in some areas with new extensions to the core C# and CLI specifications:

  • C# Compiler as a Service Use the C# compiler as a library16
  • C# Interactive Shell17
  • SIMD support15 as part of the MonoSIMD namespace, where method calls to special vector types are directly mapped to the underlying processor CPU SIMD instructions
  • Full static compilation of NET code56 used on Mono/iPhone, Mono/PS3
  • Mono coroutines used to implement micro-threading code and continuations, mostly for game developers57
  • Assembly injection to live processes58
  • Use of LLVM as JIT backend
  • Cxxi and CppSharp direct interop with C++ code and libraries

In addition, Mono is available on a variety of operating systems and architectures59

System requirementsedit

Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 81, Windows 10, MacOSX or Linux

Related projectsedit

Several projects extend Mono and allow developers to use it in their development environment These projects include:


  • Banshee Media Player a cross-platform music media player built with Mono and Gtk# and also a driver of dozens of C#-based libraries and projects for media handling
  • Beagle a search system for Unix systems
  • Gecko#, bindings for embedding the layout engine used in Mozilla Gecko
  • Gtk#, C# wrappers around the underlying GTK+ and GNOME libraries, written in C and available on Linux, MacOS and Windows
  • Mono Migration Analyzer MoMA, a tool which aids Windows NET developers in finding areas in their code that might not be cross-platform and therefore not work in Mono on Linux and other Unixes
  • MonoCross, a cross-platform model–view–controller design pattern where the Model and Controller are shared across platforms and the Views are unique for each platform for an optimized User Interface The framework requires XamariniOS and XamarinAndroid
  • MvvmCross, a cross-platform Model View ViewModel framework utilizing XamariniOS and XamarinAndroid for developing mobile apps
  • MonoDevelop an open source and cross-platform Integrated Development Environment that supports building applications for ASPNET, Gtk#, Meego, MonoTouch and Silverlight/Moonlight
  • Moonlight, an implementation of Silverlight that uses Mono
  • OpenTK, a managed binding for OpenGL, OpenCL and OpenAL
  • QtSharp, C# bindings for the Qt framework
  • Resco MobileBusiness, a cross-platform developer solution for mobile clients
  • Resco MobileCRM, a cross-platform developer solution for mobile clients synchronized with Microsoft Dynamics CRM
  • ServiceStack a high-performance Open source NET REST web services framework that simplifies the development of XML, JSON and SOAP web services
  • SparkleShare an open-source client software that provides cloud storage and file synchronization services
  • Tao, a collection of graphics and gaming bindings OpenGL, SDL, GLUT, Cg
  • Xwt, a GUI toolkit that maps API calls to native platform calls of the underlying platform, exposing one unified API across different platforms and making possible for the graphical user interfaces to have native look and feel on different platforms


  • Cocoa# – wrappers around the native macOS toolkit Cocoa deprecated
  • Monobjc – a set of bindings for macOS programming
  • MonoMac – newer bindings for macOS programming, based on the MonoTouch API design

Mobile platforms:

  • MonoDroid Mono for the Android operating system With bindings for the Android APIs
  • MonoTouch Mono for the iPhone, iPad and iPod Touches With bindings to the iOS APIs


  • MonoTools for Visual Studio A Visual Studio plugin that allows Windows developers to target Linux and macOS right from Visual Studio and integrates with SUSE Studio

Other implementationsedit

Microsoft has a version of NET 20 now available only for Windows XP, called the Shared Source CLI Rotor Microsoft's shared source license may be insufficient for the needs of the community it explicitly forbids commercial use

Free Software Foundation's decommissioned PortableNET project60


Main article: MonoDevelop

MonoDevelop is a free GNOME integrated development environment primarily designed for C# and other NET languages such as Nemerle, Boo, and Java via IKVMNET, although it also supports languages such as C, C++, Python, and Vala MonoDevelop was originally a port of SharpDevelop to Gtk#, but it has since evolved to meet the needs of Mono developers The IDE includes class management, built-in help, code completion, Stetic a GUI designer, project support, and an integrated debugger

The MonoDoc browser provides access to API documentation and code samples The documentation browser uses wiki-style content management, allowing developers to edit and improve the documentation

XamariniOS and XamarinAndroidedit

XamariniOS and XamarinAndroid, both developed by Xamarin, are implementations of Mono for iPhone and Android-based smartphones Previously available only for commercial licensing,61 after Microsoft's acquisition of Xamarin in 2016, the Mono runtime itself was relicensed under MIT license62 and both XamariniOS and XamarinAndroid are being made free and open source63


Release History
Date Version Notes
2009-09-14 MonoTouch 1064 Initial release
2010-04-05 MonoTouch 2065 iPad support
2010-04-16 MonoTouch 3066 iPhone 4 support
2011-04-06 MonoTouch 4067 iOS 4 support
2011-10-12 MonoTouch 5068 iOS 5 support
2012-09-19 MonoTouch 6069 iOS 6 support
2013-02-20 XamariniOS 6270 Visual Studio support
2013-07-24 XamariniOS 6471 NET 45 async/await support

XamariniOS previously named MonoTouch is a proprietary library that allows developers to create C# and NET based applications that run on the iPhone, iPod and iPad devices It is based on the Mono framework and developed in conjunction with Novell Unlike Mono applications, XamariniOS "Apps" are compiled down to machine code targeted specifically at the Apple iPhone and iPad72 This is necessary because the iOS kernel prevents just-in-time compilers from executing on the device

The XamariniOS stack is made up of:

  • Compilers
    • C# from the Mono Project
    • Third-party compilers like RemObject's Oxygene can target XamariniOS also
  • Core NET libraries
  • Development SDK:
    • Linker – used to bundle only the code used in the final application
    • mtouch – the Native compiler and tool used to deploy to the target device
    • Interface Builder integration tools
  • Libraries that bind the native CocoaTouch APIs
  • Xamarin Studio IDE

Xamarin Studio is used as the primary IDE, however additional links to Xcode and the iOS simulator have been written

From April to early September 2010, the future of MonoTouch was put in doubt as Apple introduced new terms for iPhone developers that apparently prohibits them from developing in languages other than C, C++ and Objective-C, and the use of a middle layer between the iOS platform and iPhone applications This made the future of MonoTouch, and other technologies such as Unity, uncertain73 Then, in September 2010, Apple rescinded this restriction, stating that they were relaxing the language restrictions that they had put in place earlier that year7475


XamarinAndroid formerly known as Mono for Android, initially developed by Novell and continued by Xamarin, is a proprietary76 implementation of Mono for Android-based smart-phones777879 It was first released on April 6, 201180 Mono for Android was developed to allow developers to more easily write cross-platform applications that will run on all mobile platforms81 In an interview with H-Online, Miguel de Icaza stated, "Our vision is to allow developers to reuse their engine and business logic code across all mobile platforms and swapping out the user interface code for a platform-specific API"82

In August 2010, a Microsoft spokesman, Tom Hanrahan of Microsoft's Open Source Technology Centre, stated, in reference to the lawsuit filed by Oracle against Google over Android's use of Java, that "The type of action Oracle is taking against Google over Java is not going to happen If a NET port to Android was through Mono it would fall under the Microsoft Community Promise Agreement"8384

The XamarinAndroid stack consists of the following components:

  • Mono runtime
  • An Android UI designer85
  • Libraries:
    • Core NET class libraries
    • Libraries that bind the native Android/Java APIs
  • SDK tools to package, deploy and debug
  • Xamarin Studio and Visual Studio 2010 integration to design the UI, remotely debug, and deploy


Mono is dual licensed by Xamarin, similar to other products such as Qt and the Mozilla Application Suite Mono's C# compiler and tools are released under the GNU General Public License GPLv2 only starting with version 20 of Mono, the Mono C# compiler source code will also be available under the MIT X11 License,86 the runtime libraries under the GNU Lesser General Public License LGPLv2 only and the class libraries under the MIT License These are all free software and open-source licenses and hence Mono is free and open-source software

The license of the C# compiler was changed from the GPL to the MIT X11 license87 to allow the compiler code to be reused in a few instances where the GPL would have prevented such:

  • Mono's Compiler as a Service
    • The Mono interactive Shell
    • The Mono embeddable C# compiler
  • Mono's implementation of the C# 40 dynamic binder
  • MonoDevelop's built-in parser and AST graph

On March 18, 2016 Microsoft's acquisition of Xamarin was officially closed88 On March 31, 2016 Microsoft announced at Microsoft Build that they'll completely re-license Mono under the MIT License even in scenarios where previously a commercial license was necessary,89 and Microsoft stated that they won't assert any "applicable patents" against parties that are "using, selling, offering for sale, importing, or distributing Mono"90 91 It was also announced that Xamarin had contributed the Mono Project to the NET Foundation90

Mono and Microsoft's patentsedit

For more details on this topic, see Software patents and free software and Novell § Agreement with Microsoft

Mono's implementation of those components of the NET stack not submitted to the ECMA for standardization has been the source of patent violation concerns for much of the life of the project92 In particular, discussion has taken place about whether Microsoft could destroy the Mono project through patent suits93 This discussion is now moot after Microsoft acquired Xamarin,94 the primary maintainers of Mono In June 2009 the Ubuntu Technical Board stated that it saw "no reason to exclude Mono or applications based upon it from the archive, or from the default installation set"95

The base technologies submitted to the ECMA, and therefore also the Unix/GNOME-specific parts, are claimed to be safe due to Microsoft's explicitly placing both ECMA 334 C# and ECMA 335 CLI standards under the Microsoft Community Promise The concerns primarily relate to technologies developed by Microsoft on top of the NET Framework, such as ASPNET, ADONET and Windows Forms see non-standardized namespaces, ie parts composing Mono's Windows compatibility stack These technologies are todaywhen not fully implemented in Mono and not required for developing Mono-applications, they are simply there for developers and users who need full compatibility with the Windows system

Should patent issues ever arise, the Mono project's stated strategy for dealing with them is as follows:96

  • Work around the patent by using a different implementation technique that retains the API, but changes the mechanism; if that is not possible, they would
  • Remove the pieces of code that were covered by those patents, and also
  • Find prior art that would render the patent useless

In addition, Mono is also included in the list of software that the Open Invention Network has sworn to protect97

On July 6, 2009, Microsoft announced that it was placing their ECMA 334 and ECMA 335 specifications under their Community Promise pledging that they would not assert their patents against anyone implementing, distributing, or using alternative implementations of NET98 However, their position regarding the non-ECMA components like ASPNET, ADONET, and Windows Forms which are the bone of contention remains unclarified

The Free Software Foundation's Richard Stallman has stated in 2009-06-25 that "we should discourage people from writing programs in C# Therefore, we should not include C# implementations in the default installation of GNU/Linux distributions or in their principal ways of installing GNOME"99 In 2009-07-16, Brett Smith also from the FSF stated that "Microsoft's patents are much more dangerous: it's the only major software company that has declared itself the enemy of GNU/Linux and stated its intention to attack our community with patents", "C# represents a unique threat to us" and "The Community Promise does nothing to change any of this"100

Fedora Project Leader, Paul Frields, has stated "We do have some serious concerns about Mono and we'll continue to look at it with our legal counsel to see what if any steps are needed on our part", yet "We haven't come to a legal conclusion that is pat enough for us to make the decision to take mono out"101

In November 2011 at a Ubuntu Developer Summit, developers voted to have the Mono-based Banshee media player removed from Ubuntu's default installation beginning on Ubuntu 1204; although reported reasonings included performance issues on ARM architecture, blocking issues on its GTK+ 3 version, and it being, in their opinion, "not well maintained", speculation also surfaced that the decision was also influenced by a desire to remove Mono from the base distribution, as the remaining programs dependent on Mono, gbrainy and Tomboy, were also to be removed Mono developer Joseph Michael Shields defended the performance of Banshee on ARM, and also the claims that Banshee was not well-maintained as being a "directed personal insult" to one of its major contributors102

On March 31, 2016 Microsoft announced at Microsoft Build following the previous acquisition of Xamarin88 that they will completely re-license Mono under the MIT license89 Microsoft issued the Patent Promise for Mono stating that they won't assert any "applicable patents" against parties that are "using, selling, offering for sale, importing, or distributing Mono"9091 It was also announced that Xamarin had contributed the Mono Project to the NET Foundation90 These developments cancel many of the previous patent violation concerns related to the Mono project They seem to be a logical continuation of the Microsoft's shift towards more supportive attitude to open software, which has begun by open sourcing the NET Compiler Platform "Roslyn" and the ASPNET on April 2014, and later the NET Core open sourced on November 2014103 and other software

Software developed with Monoedit

Banshee media player GNOME Do

Many programs covering a range of applications have been developed using the Mono application programming interface API and C# Some programs written for the Linux Desktop include Banshee, Beagle, Docky, F-Spot, Gbrainy, GNOME Do, MonoTorrent, Pinta, and Tomboy

A number of video games, such as The Sims 3 and Second Life's for their scripting languages, OpenSimulator virtual world server, or games built with the Unity or MonoGame game engines, also make use of Mono104

See alsoedit

  • Free software portal
  • Common Language Runtime
  • NET Framework
  • NET standard libraries
    • Base Class Library BCL
  • List of NET libraries and frameworks
  • NET Core, an open source framework similar to NET
  • Comparison of application virtual machines
  • DotGNU – A free software umbrella project which includes PortableNET
  • MonoDevelop – An open source IDE targeting both Mono and Microsoft NET framework platforms
  • Moonlight runtime, an open source implementation of Microsoft's Silverlight developed by the Mono Project
  • Shared Source Common Language Infrastructure – Microsoft's shared source implementation of NET, formerly codenamed Rotor
  • mod_mono – A module for the Apache HTTP Server that allows for hosting of ASPNET pages and other assemblies on multiple platforms by use of Mono



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  26. ^ "Release Notes Mono 38" Mono-projectcom Retrieved 2015-04-04 
  27. ^ "Release Notes Mono 310" Mono-projectcom Retrieved 2015-04-04 
  28. ^ "Release Notes Mono 312" Mono-projectcom Retrieved 2015-04-04 
  29. ^ "Release Notes Mono 40" Mono-projectcom Retrieved 2015-05-03 
  30. ^ Bonisteel, Steven June 23, 2000 "Microsoft sees nothing but NET ahead" ZDNet 
  31. ^ "ECMA-335-Part-I-IV - ECMA-335, 1st edition, December 2001" PDF 
  32. ^ Wilcox, Joe; Shankland, Stephen June 28, 2001 "Microsoft edges into sharing code" ZDNet 
  33. ^ "Mono-list Mono early history" 2003-10-13 Archived from the original on 2014-01-27 
  34. ^ "OSS NET implementation Mono 10 released - Ars Technica" ArsTechnica Retrieved 2009-10-23 
  35. ^ "Supported Platforms" Mono website 
  36. ^ Koep, Paul 2011-05-02 "Employees say hundreds laid off at Novell's Provo office" KSL-TV Retrieved 2011-05-07 
  37. ^ J Vaughan-Nichols, Steven 2011-05-04 "Is Mono dead Is Novell dying" ZDNet Retrieved 2011-05-07 
  38. ^ Clarke, Gavin 2011-05-03 "NET Android and iOS clones stripped by Attachmate" The Register Retrieved 2011-05-07 
  39. ^ "Announcing Xamarin - Miguel de Icaza" Tiraniaorg 2011-05-16 Retrieved 2013-07-17 
  40. ^ "The Death and Rebirth of Mono" infoqcom 2011-05-17 Retrieved 2011-05-29 Even if they aren't supporting it, they do own a product that is in direct competition with Xamarin's future offerings Without some sort of legal arrangement between Attachmate and Xamarin, the latter would face the daunting prospect of proving that their new development doesn't use any the technology that the old one did Considering that this is really just a wrapper around the native API, it would be hard to prove you had a clean-room implementation even for a team that wasn't intimately familiar with Attachmate's code 
  41. ^ "SUSE and Xamarin Partner to Accelerate Innovation and Support Mono Customers and Community" Novell 2011-07-18 Retrieved 2011-07-18 The agreement grants Xamarin a broad, perpetual license to all intellectual property covering Mono, MonoTouch, Mono for Android and Mono Tools for Visual Studio Xamarin will also provide technical support to SUSE customers using Mono-based products, and assume stewardship of the Mono open source community project 
  42. ^ de Icaza, Miguel 2011-07-18 "Novell/Xamarin Partnership around Mono" Retrieved 2011-07-18 
  43. ^ a b de Icaza, Miguel 2011-03-07 "GDC 2011" Retrieved 2011-03-11 We have no plans on building WPF We just do not have the man power to build an implementation in any reasonable time-frameFor tools that are mostly OpenGL/DirectX based, use WindowsForms, keeping in mind that some bug fixing or work around on their part might be needed as our WindowsForms is not actively developed 
  44. ^ "Mono compatibility list" 
  45. ^ "Mono Project Roadmap - Mono" Mono-projectcom Retrieved 2013-07-17 
  46. ^ "MoonlightRoadmap" Mono Team Retrieved 2008-11-08 
  47. ^ "Releasing Moonlight 2, Roadmap to Moonlight 3 and 4 — Miguel de Icaza" Tiraniaorg 2009-12-17 Retrieved 2013-07-17 
  48. ^ "Moonlight 30 Preview 1 — Miguel de Icaza" Tiraniaorg 2010-02-03 Retrieved 2013-07-17 
  49. ^ "Xamarin abandons its Silverlight for Linux technology" 
  50. ^ a b "Ecma-335" 
  51. ^ "Technetcom" 
  52. ^ "Database Access - Mono" 
  53. ^ a b c "Compacting GC" mono-projectcom Retrieved 2008-12-16 
  54. ^ Boehm, Hans-J "Advantages and Disadvantages of Conservative Garbage Collection" Xerox PARC Retrieved 2008-12-16 
  55. ^ "NET Framework Architecture" official Mono documentation 
  56. ^ de Icaza, Miguel "Static Compilation in Mono" 
  57. ^ "Continuations - Mono" 
  58. ^ de Icaza, Miguel "Monovation: Assembly Injection into Live Processes" 
  59. ^ "Supported Platforms - Mono" 
  60. ^ "DotGNU Project" Retrieved 2 June 2014 
  61. ^ "FAQ" osxamarincom 2011-08-01 MonoTouch is a commercial product based on the open source Mono project and is licensed on a per-developer basis 
  62. ^ "Mono relicensed MIT" wwwmono-projectcom 2016-03-31 
  63. ^ "Xamarin for Everyone" blogxamarincom 2016-03-31 we are announcing today our commitment to open source the Xamarin SDKs for Android, iOS, and Mac under the MIT license in the coming months 
  64. ^ de Icaza, Miguel "MonoTouch 10 goes live" 
  65. ^ "MonoTouch 200" Xamarin 
  66. ^ "MonoTouch 300" Xamarin 
  67. ^ "MonoTouch 400" Xamarin 
  68. ^ "MonoTouch 50" Xamarin 
  69. ^ "MonoTouch 60" Xamarin 
  70. ^ "XamariniOS 62" Xamarin 
  71. ^ "XamariniOS 64" Xamarin 
  72. ^ "MonoTouch and iPhone 4" Applications built with MonoTouch are native applications indistinguishable from other native applications 
  73. ^ "Apple takes aim at Adobe… or Android" 
  74. ^ "Statement by Apple on App Store Review Guidelines" Based on their input, today we are making some important changes to our iOS Developer Program license in sections 331, 332 and 339 to relax some restrictions we put in place earlier this year In particular, we are relaxing all restrictions on the development tools used to create iOS apps, as long as the resulting apps do not download any code This should give developers the flexibility they want, while preserving the security we need 
  75. ^ "Great News for MonoTouch Users" With these new terms, the ambiguity is gone and C# lovers and enthusiasts can go back to using MonoTouch Developers that like garbage collection and their strongly typed languages can resume their work 
  76. ^ "How is Mono for Android licensed" Mono for Android FAQ 2011-08-28 Retrieved 2012-03-29 
  77. ^ "Novell's Mono project bringing Net development to Android" NtworkWorld 
  78. ^ "Novell's Mono project bringing Net development to Android" InfoWorld 
  79. ^ "MonoDroid: NET Support Coming to Android" TechieBuzz 
  80. ^ "Mono for Android brings C# to Android" Heise Online 2011-04-07 Retrieved 2011-04-07 
  81. ^ "Novell Mono/C# is developing MonoDroid" Android Community This will make it easier for developers to make cross platform apps as well as bring some of the existing apps that are made using MonoTouch to Android 
  82. ^ "Mono for Android" H-Online Our vision is to allow developers to reuse their engine and business logic code across all mobile platforms and swapping out the user interface code for a platform-specific API 
  83. ^ "Microsoft won't stop Mono NET on Android" TechWorld The type of action Oracle is taking against Google over Java is not going to happen If a NET port to Android was through Mono it would fall under the Microsoft Community Promise Agreement 
  84. ^ "Microsoft says NET on Android is safe, no litigation like Oracle" Developer Fusion 
  85. ^ "Xamarin Designer for Android" Visual Studio Magazine On May 14, Xamarin announced Mono for Android 42 
  86. ^ "Mono C# Compiler Under MIT X11 License" Novell Inc 2008-04-08 
  87. ^ de Icaza, Miguel "Mono C# compiler now also MIT X11 licensed" 
  88. ^ a b "Xamarin for Everyone" Xamarin Blog Xamarin 31 March 2016 Archived from the original on 2016-04-12 Retrieved 2016-04-12 
  89. ^ a b Anderson, Tim 31 March 2016 "Microsoft to make Xamarin tools and code free and open source" The Register 
  90. ^ a b c d Ferraira, Bruno 31 March 2016 "Xamarin now comes free with Visual Studio" The Tech Report 
  91. ^ a b "Microsoft Patent Promise for Mono" Mono on GitHub Mono Project 2016-03-28 Archived from the original on 2016-04-12 Retrieved 2016-04-12 
  92. ^ Babcock, Charles August 7, 2001 "Will open source get snagged in Net" ZDNet Asia 
  93. ^ Smith, Brett July 16, 2009 "Microsoft's Empty Promise" fsforg 
  94. ^ https://blogxamarincom/a-xamarin-microsoft-future/
  95. ^ "Mono Position Statement" Canonical Ltd It is common practice in the software industry to register patents as protection against litigation, rather than as an intent to litigate Thus mere existence of a patent, without a claim of infringement, is not sufficient reason to warrant exclusion from the Ubuntu Project 
  96. ^ "Mono FAQ: Licensing | Patents" 
  97. ^ "How Mono got into Fedora" Linux Weekly News The list of "certain Linux-related applications" is said to exist, though it has not, yet, been posted publicly But Mono is apparently on that list So anybody who files patent infringement suits against Mono users, and who is, in turn, making use of technology covered by OIN's patents is setting himself up for a countersuit Depending on the value of the patents held by OIN, that threat could raise the risk of attacking Mono considerably 
  98. ^ "The ECMA C# and CLI Standards" Port 25 2009-07-06 Under the Community Promise, Microsoft provides assurance that it will not assert its Necessary Claims against anyone who makes, uses, sells, offers for sale, imports, or distributes any Covered Implementation under any type of development or distribution model, including open-source licensing models such as the LGPL or GPL 
  99. ^ "Why free software shouldn't depend on Mono or C#" 
  100. ^ "Microsoft's Empty Promise" 
  101. ^ "Fedora is concerned about Mono" internetnewscom 2009-06-12 Retrieved 2010-07-04 We haven't come to a legal conclusion that is pat enough for us to make the decision to take mono out 
  102. ^ "'Bansheegeddon' may see Banshee, Mono dropped from Ubuntu default" ITWorld Retrieved 31 August 2015 
  103. ^ Landwerth, Immo 12 November 2014 "NET Core is Open Source" NET Framework Blog Microsoft Retrieved 30 December 2014 
  104. ^ "Companies using Mono" Mono-project Mono-project Retrieved 30 August 2015 


  • This article incorporates text from Mono's homepage, which was then under the GNU Free Documentation License
  • de Icaza, Miguel October 13, 2003 "Mono-list Mono early history" mailing list Retrieved December 6, 2005 
  • Dumbill, Edd March 11, 2004 "Will Mono Become the Preferred Platform for Linux Development" ONLamp Retrieved October 14, 2006 
  • Loli-Queru, Eugenia February 22, 2005 "Mono Applications Aplenty!" OSNews Retrieved December 6, 2005 
  • Kerner, Sean Michael November 18, 2005 "Mono Project Goes Virtual" Internet News Retrieved October 14, 2006 
  • Kerner, Sean Michael November 9, 2006 "Months Late, Novell Ships Mono 12" internetnewscom 
  • Northcutt, Corey October 12, 2006 "In the World of mod_mono" Ubiquity Archived from the original on February 23, 2007 Retrieved October 14, 2006 
  • Campbell, Sean October 8, 2008 "Interview with Joseph Hill - Product Manager - Mono - Novell" HSIB Retrieved October 8, 2008 
  • Smith, Tim September 9, 2010 "A Brief Introduction to the Java and NET Patent Issues" InfoQ Retrieved September 13, 2010 

External linksedit

  • Official website
  • MonoTouch Main Page for the port to Apple Inc's hand-held products

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