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Mobile device

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A mobile device is a small computing device, typically small enough to be handheld and hence also commonly known as a handheld computer or simply handheld, having a display screen with a miniature keyboard either alphabetic, numeric or alphanumeric and, in some models, a touchscreen which enables the user to use a "virtual keyboard" that is displayed on screen, along with other icons and "buttons" that can be pressed Mobile devices typically weighing less than 2 pounds 091 kg A handheld computing device has an operating system OS, and can run mobile apps In the 2010s, most handheld devices are also equipped with Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, near field communication NFC capabilities and Global Positioning System GPS capabilities They can usually be connected to the Internet and other devices, such as an automobile or a microphone headset or they can be used to provide location-based services Also, these devices can usually be used to take digital snapshots and play digital video or audio Some mobile devices have cellphone capabilities, enabling the user to make phone calls and send text messages Stable battery power is typically provided by a lithium battery There are a range of mobile devices designed for different users and target markets; as such, not all mobile devices have the same capabilities

Early pocket-sized devices were joined in the late 2000s by larger but otherwise similar tablet computers Input and output of modern mobile devices are often combined into a touch-screen interface Smartphones and PDAs are popular among those who wish to use some of the powers of a conventional computer in environments where carrying one would be impractical Enterprise digital assistants can further extend the available functionality for the business user by offering integrated data capture devices like barcode, RFID and smart card readers Manufacturers that produce these types of devices include Samsung, Sony, HTC, LG, Motorola Mobility and Apple Increasingly, 2010-era mobile devices also contain sensors like accelerometers, compasses, magnetometers, or gyroscopes, allowing detection of orientation and motion Mobile devices may provide biometric user authentication, such as using the built-in camera for face recognition or using a fingerprint sensor for fingerprint recognition

Contents

  • 1 Characteristics
  • 2 Types
  • 3 Uses
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
  • 6 Sources
  • 7 External links

Characteristics

Device mobility can be viewed in the context of several dimensions:

  • Physical dimensions and weight
  • Whether or not the device is mobile or some kind of host to which it is attached to is mobile
  • What kind of host devices can be bound to
  • How devices are attached to a host
  • When the mobility occurs

Strictly speaking, many so-called mobile devices are not mobile It is the host that is mobile, ie, a mobile human host carries a non-mobile smart phone device An example of a true mobile computing device, where the device itself is mobile, is a robot Another example is an autonomous vehicle There are three basic ways mobile devices can be physically bound to mobile hosts: accompanied, surface-mounted or embedded into the fabric of a host, eg, an embedded controller embedded in a host device Accompanied refers to an object being loosely bound and accompanying a mobile host, eg, a mobile phone can be carried in a bag or pocket but can easily be misplaced Hence, mobile hosts with embedded devices such as an autonomous vehicle can appear larger than pocket-sized

As stated earlier, the most common size of mobile computing device is pocket-sized that can be hand-held, but other sizes for mobile devices exist too Mark Weiser, known as the father of ubiquitous computing, computing everywhere, referred to device sizes that are tab-sized, pad and board sized, where tabs are defined as accompanied or wearable centimetre-sized devices, eg smartphones and smart cards, and pads are defined as hand-held decimetre-sized devices, eg, laptops and tablet computers If one changes the form of the mobile devices in terms of being non-planar, one can also have skin devices and tiny dust-sized devices Dust refers to miniaturised devices without direct HCI interfaces, eg, micro electro-mechanical systems MEMS, ranging from nanometres through micrometers to millimetres See also Smart dust Skin: fabrics based upon light emitting and conductive polymers and organic computer devices These can be formed into more flexible non-planar display surfaces and products such as clothes and curtains, see OLED display See also smart device

Although mobility is often regarded as synonymous with having wireless connectivity, these terms are different Not all network access by mobile users, applications and devices need be via wireless networks and vice versa Wireless access devices can be static and mobile users can move in between wired and wireless hotspots such as in Internet cafés Some mobile devices can be used as mobile Internet devices to access the Internet while moving but they do not need to do this and many phone functions or applications are still operational even while disconnected to the Internet What makes the mobile device unique compared to other technologies is the inherent flexibility in the hardware and also the software Flexible applications include video chat, Web browsing, payment systems, NFC, audio recording etc As mobile devices become ubiquitous there, will be a proliferation of services which include the use of the cloud Although a common form of mobile device, a smartphone, has a display, another perhaps even more common form of smart computing device, the smart card, eg, used as a bank card or travel card, does not have a display This mobile device often has a CPU and memory but needs to connect, or be inserted into a reader in order to display its internal data or state

Types

Mobile devices have been designed for many applications They include:

  • Mobile computers
    • Mobile Internet devices
    • tablet computers
    • Wearable computers
      • Calculator watches
      • Smartwatches
      • Head-mounted displays
    • Personal digital assistants
    • Enterprise digital assistants
    • Calculators
    • Handheld game consoles
    • Portable media players
    • Ultra-mobile PCs
    • Digital media player
  • Digital still cameras DSC
  • Digital video cameras DVC or digital camcorders
  • Mobile phones
    • Smartphone
    • Feature phones
  • Pagers
  • Personal navigation devices PND
  • Smart cards
  • Project Ara

Uses

Handheld devices have become ruggedized for use in mobile field management Uses include digitizing notes, sending and receiving invoices, asset management, recording signatures, managing parts, and scanning barcodes In 2009, developments in mobile collaboration systems enabled the use of handheld devices that combine video, audio and on-screen drawing capabilities to enable multi-party conferencing in real-time, independent of location Handheld computers are available in a variety of form factors, including smartphones on the low end, handheld PDAs, Ultra-Mobile PCs and Tablet PCs Palm OS, WebOS Users can watch television through Internet by IPTV on some mobile devices Mobile television receivers have existed since the 1960s, and in the 21st century mobile phone providers began making television available on cellular phones

In the 2010s, mobile devices can create, sync, and share everything we want despite of distance or specifications of mobile devices In the medical field, mobile devices are quickly becoming essential tools for accessing clinical information such as drugs, treatment, even medical calculation Due to the popularity of Candy Crush and other mobile device games, online casinos are also offering casino games on mobile devices The casino games are available on iOS, Android, Windows Phone and Windows Available games are roulette, blackjack and several different types of slots Most casinos have a play for free option In the military, mobile devices have created new opportunities for the armed forces to deliver training and educational materials to soldiers, regardless of where they are stationed

See also

  • Converged device
  • HTML5 in mobile devices
  • List of emerging technologies
  • Mobile interaction
  • Near field communication NFC
  • Portable communications device
  • Smart device

References

  1. ^ a b c d Poslad, Stefan 2009 Ubiquitous Computing Smart Devices, Smart Environments and Smart Interaction Wiley ISBN 978-0-470-03560-3 
  2. ^ Weiser, Mark 1991 "The Computer for the Twenty-First Century" Scientific American 265 3: 94–104 doi:101038/scientificamerican0991-94 
  3. ^ Beddall-Hill, Nicola; Jabbar, Abdul & Al Shehri, Saleh 2011 "Social Mobile Devices as Tools for Qualitative Research in Education: iPhones and iPads in Ethnography, Interviewing, and Design-Based Research" Journal of the Research Center for Educational Technology 7 1: 67–90 ISSN 1948-075X 
  4. ^ Robbins, Renee May 28, 2009 "Mobile video system visually connects global plant floor engineers" Control Engineering 
  5. ^ Mellow, P 2005The media generation: Maximise learning by getting mobile In Ascilite, 470-476
  6. ^ Lotz, Amanda D 2007 "The Television Will Be Revolutionized" New York, NY: New York University Press p 65-66
  7. ^ Boruff & Storie, Jill & Dale January 2014 "Mobile devices in medicine: a survey of how medical students, residents, and faculty use smartphones and other mobile devices to find information" J Med Lib Assoc 
  8. ^ Terry Anderson 29 October 2014 "Mobile Devices for Online Casino" 
  9. ^ Casey, Mike June 26, 2014 "Army seeks to increase use of mobile devices" ftleavenworthLampcom 

Sources

  • "Mobile Devices" Library Technology Reports 44 5: 10–15 2008 
  • Hanson, C W 2011 "Chapter 2: Mobile Devices in 2011" Library Technology Reports 47 2: 11–23 

External links

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