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Mining in Malaysia

tin mining in malaysia, iron ore mining in malaysia
Mining is one of the main industries in Malaysia Malaysia produces aggregate, bauxite, clay, coal, copper, feldspar, gold, gravel, ilmenite, iron ore, kaolin, limestone, mica, monazite, sand, silica sand, struverite and tin

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Government
  • 3 Economy
  • 4 Types of mining
    • 41 Aggregate
    • 42 Bauxite
    • 43 Clay
    • 44 Coal
    • 45 Feldspar
    • 46 Gold
    • 47 Iron ore
    • 48 Kaolin
    • 49 Limestone
    • 410 Mica
    • 411 Sand and gravel
    • 412 Tin
  • 5 Environmental restoration
  • 6 Tourism
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References

History

Tin mining in Perak around 1910

Tin mining is one of the earliest type of mining operated in Malaysia, starting in the 1820s in Perak and in 1824 in Selangor The development of mining industries in Malaysia attracted many Chinese immigrants who came to the state in 18th and 19th centuries to work and develop the mine fields

Government

Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

Mining-related activities in Malaysia is regulated by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment The current Natural Resources and Environment Minister is Wan Junaidi Tuanku Jaafar

Economy

Expansion of the tin mining began in the 1870s As of 2003, mineral industry contributes to 7% of the GDP of Malaysia Total export value were MYR143 million mineral, MYR25 million metallic mineral ores and concentrate, MYR935 million non-metallic minerals There are 70 mines operating around the country employing 3,249 workers

Types of mining

Aggregate

Aggregate is produced in Malaysia from quarry and river bed which are mostly found in Johor, Perak, Sabah, Sarawak and Selangor In 2012, the annual production of aggregate was 122,00,000 tons

Bauxite

Bauxite is produced in Johor and Pahang In 2012, the annual production of bauxite was 117,232 tons In 2016, the Malaysian government bans bauxite mining activities until end of the year due to environmental damage and water contamination in Kuantan

Clay

Clay deposits in Malaysia are mostly found in Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Penang, Perak, Sarawak, Selangor and Terengganu In 2012, the annual production of clay was 29,000,000 tons

Coal

Major coal reserves in Malaysia are mostly located in Sabah and Sarawak with smaller reserves in Perak, Perlis and Selangor The Labuan coal field produced coal starting 1848 until 1912 As of 1986, coal reserve in Malaysia was 965 million tons in which mostly are bituminous coal The total known coal area is 5,823 km2 In 2012, the annual production of coal was 29 million tons

Feldspar

Feldspar deposits in Malaysia are limited, but can be found in Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang and Perak In 2012, the annual production of feldspar was 350,000 tons

Gold

Major gold mines in Malaysia are in Pahang, namely Penjom, Raub and Selinsing, as well as some minor areas in Kelantan and Terengganu In 2011, the annual production of gold was 4,219 kg As of 2012, there are active 15 gold mines

Iron ore

Currently there are 98 iron ore mines in operation in Malaysia Most of them are small mines operating in Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Malacca, Pahang, Perak and Terengganu In 2012, the annual production of iron ore was 10,077,136 tons

Kaolin

Kaolin reserves in Malaysia is estimated to be around 112 million tons which are spread in Johor, Kelantan, Pahang, Perak, Sarawak and Selangor In 2012, the annual production of kaolin was 390,000 tons

Limestone

Limestone deposit in Malaysia is abundant, with reserve estimated to be 12 billion tons located throughout Kedah, Kelantan, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Sabah Sarawak and Selangor In 2012, the annual production of limestone was 36 million tons

Mica

The are two mica mines in Malaysia, which are located in Bidor, Perak In 2012, the annual production of mica was 4,000 tons

Sand and gravel

Sand and gravel are found in Johor, Kedah, Perak, Sarawak and Selangor In 2012, the annual production of sand and gravel was 40 million tons

Tin

In 1979, Malaysia produced almost 63,000 tons of tin, accounting for 31% of world's output Tin deposit spreads across western Peninsular Malaysia, particularly the Kinta Valley in Perak In 1883, Malaysia was the largest tin producer in the world In 1885, 128 km of railway was constructed connecting Taiping to Port Weld in Perak The first trunk road in Peninsular Malaysia was constructed passing through major mining towns in Perak, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan in which it was mostly used to transport tin from mines to ports In the 1920s, dredging machines were introduced to boost the production of tin Starting from the 1980s, tin mining in Malaysia experienced sharp decline due to competition from Brazil and the falling of tin price In 1989, the Malaysian Tin Products Manufacturers' Association was established to promote and protect the downstream business of tin industry in the country

Environmental restoration

Former mine which has been converted into a lake garden in Perak

The Government of Malaysia had initiated research for the development of agriculture and aquaculture in former mining lands Some of the restored areas from mining activities have also been converted into public houses or tourist attractions, such as:

  • MINES Resort City
  • Sunway Lagoon
  • Taiping Lake Gardens
  • Titiwangsa Lake Gardens

Tourism

Petroleum Museum in Sarawak

Mining-related tourism in Malaysia are:

  • Chimney Museum
  • Geological Museum
  • Palong Tin Museum
  • Petroleum Museum
  • Tanjung Tualang Tin Dredge No 5

See also

  • Economy of Malaysia

References

  1. ^ a b "Mining in Malaysia - Overview" MBendi 10 October 2016 Retrieved 1 November 2016 
  2. ^ a b "TED Case Studies: Tin Mining In Malaysia - Present And Future" American University Washington, DC Retrieved 1 November 2016 
  3. ^ "Overseas Chinese in Malaysia" Chinatownology Retrieved 1 November 2016 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Mineral Resources" Malaysian Minerals 2009 Retrieved 1 November 2016 
  5. ^ "Malaysia extends bauxite mining ban until year-end" Channel News Asia 7 September 2016 Retrieved 1 November 2016 
  6. ^ "Coal Mining in Malaysia - Overview" MBendi Retrieved 1 November 2016 
  7. ^ Chen, Shick Pei 11 January 1993 "Coal as an energy resource in Malaysia" PDF Geological Society of Malaysia Retrieved 1 November 2016 
  8. ^ "Gold Mining in Malaysia - Overview" MBendi Retrieved 1 November 2016 
  9. ^ Choong, En Han 16 March 2014 "At least 5 gold mines in Malaysia are under foreign listed companies" mediachecker Retrieved 1 November 2016 
  10. ^ "Gold Mining and Prospecting in Malaysia" Rare Gold Nuggets 14 September 2015 Retrieved 1 November 2016 
  11. ^ Newsbreak 8 November 2008 "Malaysia's ex-mines: Turning wastelands into wonders" Rappler Retrieved 27 February 2017 

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    29.10.2014


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