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Millau Viaduct

millau viaduct bridge, millau viaduct construction process
The Millau Viaduct French: le Viaduc de Millau, IPA: vjadyk də mijo is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the gorge valley of the River Tarn near Millau in southern France It is the tallest bridge in the world, with one mast's summit at 3430 metres 1,1253 ft above the base of the structure In a Franco-British partnership,234 it was designed by the English architect Sir Norman Foster and French structural engineer Dr Michel Virlogeux, and as of May 2017update it is the twenty-second highest bridge deck in the world, being 270 metres 890 ft1 between the road deck and the ground below5

The Millau Viaduct is part of the A754-A71 autoroute axis from Paris to Béziers and Montpellier The cost of construction was approximately € 394 million2 It was built over three years, formally inaugurated on 14 December 2004,12 and opened to traffic two days later on 16 December6 The bridge has been consistently ranked as one of the great engineering achievements of all time, and received the 2006 Outstanding Structure Award from the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering7891011

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 Possible routes
    • 12 Choosing the definitive route
    • 13 Choice of technical design
    • 14 Contractors
    • 15 Costs and resources
    • 16 Opposition
  • 2 Construction
    • 21 Timeline
    • 22 Construction records
  • 3 Location
  • 4 Structure
    • 41 Pylons and abutments
    • 42 Road deck
    • 43 Masts
    • 44 Cable stays
    • 45 Road surface
    • 46 Electrical installations
    • 47 Toll plaza
    • 48 Rest area of Brocuéjouls
    • 49 Statistics
  • 5 Impact and events
    • 51 Pedestrian sporting events
    • 52 Events and popular culture
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

Historyedit

In the 1980s, high levels of road traffic near Millau in the Tarn valley were causing congestion, especially in the summer due to holiday traffic on the route from Paris to Spain A method of bypassing Millau had long been considered, not only to ease the flow and reduce journey times for long distance traffic, but also to improve the quality of access to Millau for its local businesses and residents One of the solutions considered was the construction of a road bridge to span the river and gorge valley12 The first plans for a bridge were discussed in 1987 by CETE, and by October 1991 the decision was made to build a high crossing of the River Tarn by a structure of around 2,500 metres 8,200 ft in length During 1993–1994, the government consulted with seven architects and eight structural engineers During 1995–1996, a second definition study was made by five associated architect groups and structural engineers In January 1995, the government issued a declaration of public interest to solicit design approaches for a competition13

In July 1996 the jury decided in favour of a cable-stayed design with multiple spans, as proposed by the Sogelerg consortium led by Michel Virlogeux and Norman Foster The decision to proceed by grant of contract was made in May 1998; then in June 2000, the contest for the construction contract was launched, open to four consortia In March 2001, Eiffage established the subsidiary Compagnie Eiffage du Viaduc de Millau CEVM, and was declared winner of the contest and awarded the prime contract in August141

Possible routesedit

The four proposed routes for the new A75 autoroute around Millau

In initial studies, four potential options were examined:citation needed

  1. Great Eastern grand Est  yellow route  — passing east of Millau and crossing the valleys of the Tarn and Dourbie on two very high and long bridges spans of 800 and 1,000 metres or 2,600 and 3,300 feet whose construction was acknowledged to be problematiccitation needed This option would have allowed access to Millau only from the Larzac plateau, using the long and tortuous descent from La Cavalerie Although this option was shorter and better suited to through traffic, it did not satisfactorily serve the needs of Millau and its area
  2. Great Western grand Ouest  black route  — longer than the eastern option by 12 kilometres 75 mi, following the Cernon valley Technically easier requiring four viaducts, this solution was judged to have negative impacts on the environment, in particular on the picturesque villages of Peyre and Saint-Georges-de-Luzençoncitation needed It was more expensive than the preceding option, and served the region badly
  3. Near RN9 proche de la RN9  red route  — would have served the town of Millau well, but presented technical difficulties,clarification needed and would have had a strong impact on existing or planned structurescitation needed
  4. Intermediate médiane, west of Millau  blue route  — was supported by local opinion, but presented geological difficulties, notably on the question of crossing the valley of the River Tarn Expert investigation concluded that these obstacles were not insurmountablecitation needed

The fourth option was selected by ministerial decree on 28 June 198915 It encompassed two possibilities:

  1. the high solution, envisaging a 2,500-metre-long 8,200 ft viaduct more than 200 metres 660 ft above the river;
  2. the low solution, descending into the valley and crossing the river on a 200-metre-long 660 ft bridge, then a viaduct of 2,300 metres 7,500 ft, extended by a tunnel on the Larzac side

After long construction studies by the Ministry of Public Works, the low solution was abandoned because it would have intersected the water table, had a negative impact on the town, cost more, and lengthened the driving distance The choice of the 'high' solution was decided by ministerial decree on 29 October 199115

After the choice of the high viaduct, five teams of architects and researchers worked on a technical solution The concept and design for the bridge was devised by French designer and structural engineer Dr Michel Virlogeux He worked with the Dutch engineering firm ARCADIS, responsible for the structural engineering of the bridge16

Choosing the definitive routeedit

Satellite image of the proposed route before construction of the bridge

The 'high solution' required the construction of a 2,500-metre-long 8,200 ft viaduct From 1991 to 1993, the structures division of Sétra, directed by Michel Virlogeux, carried out preliminary studies, and examined the feasibility of a single structure spanning the valley Taking into account technical, architectural, and financial issues, the Administration of Roads opened the question for competition among structural engineers and architects to widen the search for realistic designs By July 1993, seventeen structural engineers and thirty-eight architects applied as candidates for the preliminary studies With the assistance of a multidisciplinary commission, the Administration of Roads selected eight structural engineers for a technical study, and seven architects for the architectural study

Choice of technical designedit

Simultaneously, a school of international experts representing a wide spectrum of expertise technical, architectural, and landscape, chaired by Jean-François Coste, was established to clarify the choices that had to be madecitation needed In February 1995, on the basis of proposals of the architects and structural engineers, and with support of the school of experts, five general designs were identifiedcitation needed

The competition was relaunched: five combinations of architects and structural engineers, drawn from the best candidates of the first phase, were formed; each was to conduct in-depth studies of one of the general designs On 15 July 1996, Bernard Pons, minister of Public Works, announced the decision of the jury, which was constituted of elected artists and experts, and chaired by Christian Leyrit, the director of highways The solution of a multiple-span viaduct cable-stayed bridge, presented by the structural engineering group Sogelerg, Europe Etudes Gecti and Serf, and the architects Foster + Partners was declared the bestcitation needed

Detailed studies were carried out by the successful consortium, steered by the highways authority until mid-1998 After undergoing wind tunnel tests, the shape of the road deck was altered, and detailed corrections were made to the design of the pylons When the details were eventually finalised, the whole design was approved in late 1998citation needed

Contractorsedit

The P2 pier of the Viaduct is the tallest structure in France, 23 m taller than the Eiffel Tower

Once the Ministry of Public Works had taken the decision to offer the construction and operation of the viaduct as a grant of contract, an international call for tenders was issued in 1999 Five consortia tendered:citation needed

  1. Compagnie Eiffage du Viaduc de Millau CEVM, a new subsidiary created by Eiffage;
  2. PAECH Construction Enterprise, Poland;
  3. a consortium led by the Spanish company Dragados, with Skanska, Sweden, and Bec, France;
  4. Société du Viaduc de Millau, including the French companies ASF, Egis Projects, GTM Construction, Bouygues Travaux Publics, SGE, CDC Projets, Tofinso, and the Italian company Autostrade;
  5. a consortium led by Générale Routière, with Via GTI France and Cintra, Nesco, Acciona, and Ferrovial Agroman Spain

Piers were built with Lafarge high performance cement The pylons of the Millau Viaduct, which are the tallest elements the tallest pylon – 24496 metres 8037 ft were produced and mounted by PAECH Construction Enterprise from Polandcitation needed

The Compagnie Eiffage du Viaduc de Millau, working with the architect Sir Norman Foster, was successful in obtaining the tender1 Because the government had already taken the design work to an advanced stage, the technical uncertainties were considerably reduced A further advantage of this process was to make negotiating the contract easier, reducing public expense, and speeding up construction, while minimising such design work as remained for the contractorcitation needed

All the member companies of the Eiffage group had some role in the construction work The construction consortium was made up of the Eiffage TP company for the concrete part, the Eiffel company for the steel roadway Gustave Eiffel built the Garabit viaduct in 1884, a railway bridge in the neighbouring Cantal département, and the Enerpac company17 for the roadway's hydraulic supports The engineering group Setec has authority in the project, with SNCF engineering having partial controlclarification needed Appia was responsible for the job of the bituminous road surface on the bridge deck, and Forclum fr for electrical installations Management was handled by Eiffage Concessionscitation needed

The only other business that had a notable role on the building site was Freyssinet, a subsidiary of the Vinci Group specialising in prestressing It installed the cable stays and put them under tension, while the prestress division of Eiffage was responsible for prestressing the pillar headscitation needed

The steel road deck, and the hydraulic action of the road deck were designed by the Walloon engineering firm Greisch from Liège, Belgium,18 also an information and communication technologies ICT company of the Walloon Region19 They carried out the general calculations and the resistance calculations for winds of up to 225 kilometres per hour 140 mph They also applied the launching technology20

The sliding shutter technology for the bridge piers came from PERIcitation needed

Costs and resourcesedit

The bridge's construction cost up to €394 million,2 with a toll plaza 6 kilometres 37 mi north of the viaduct, costing an additional €20 million The builders, Eiffage, financed the construction in return for a concession to collect the tolls for 75 years,23 until 2080 However, if the concession yields high revenues, the French government can assume control of the bridge as early as 2044citation needed

The project required about 127,000 cubic metres 166,000 cu yd of concrete, 19,000 tonnes 21,000 short tons of steel for the reinforced concrete, and 5,000 tonnes 5,500 short tons of pre-stressed steel for the cables and shrouds The builder claims that the lifetime of the bridge will be at least 120 yearscitation needed

Oppositionedit

Numerous organisations opposed the project, including the World Wildlife Fund WWF, France Nature Environnement, the national federation of motorway users, and Environmental Action Opponents advanced several arguments:citation needed

  • The westernmost route would be better, longer by 3 kilometres 19 mi, but a third of the cost with its three more conventional structures
  • The objective of the viaduct would not be achieved; because of the toll, the viaduct would be little used, and the project would not solve Millau's congestion problems
  • The project would never break even; toll income would never amortise the initial investment, and the contractor would have to be supported by subsidies
  • The technical difficulties were too great, and the bridge would be dangerous and unsustainable; the pylons, sitting on the shale of the Tarn Valley, would not support the structure adequately
  • The viaduct represented a detour, reducing the number of visitors passing through Millau and slowing its economy

Constructionedit

The viaduct under construction, seen from the south in early 2004

Two weeks after the laying of the first stone on December 14, 2001, the workers started digging the deep shafts There were four shafts per pylon; 15 metres 49 ft deep and 5 metres 16 ft in diameter, assuring the stability of the pylons At the bottom of each pylon, a tread of 3–5 metres 10–16 ft in thickness was installed to reinforce the effect of the deep shafts The 2,000 cubic metres 2,600 cu yd of concrete necessary for the treads was poured at the same timecitation needed

In March 2002, the pylons emerged from the ground The speed of construction then rapidly increased Every three days, each pylon increased in height by 4 metres 13 ft This performance was mainly due to sliding shuttering Thanks to a system of shoe anchorages and fixed rails in the heart of the pylons, a new layer of concrete could be poured every 20 minutescitation needed

The bridge road deck was constructed on land at the ends of the Viaduct, and rolled lengthwise from one pylon to the next, with eight temporary towers providing additional support The movement was accomplished by a computer-controlled system of pairs of wedges under the deck; the upper and lower wedges of each pair pointing in opposite directions These were hydraulically operated, and moved repeatedly in the following sequence: the lower wedge slides under the upper wedge, raising it to the roadway above, and then forcing the upper wedge still higher to lift the roadway Both wedges move forward together, advancing the roadway a short distance The lower wedge retracts from under the upper wedge, lowering the roadway and allowing the upper wedge to drop away from the roadway; the lower wedge then moves back all the way to its starting position There is now a linear distance between the two wedges equal to the distance forward the roadway has just moved The upper wedge moves backward, placing it further back along the roadway, adjacent to the front tip of the lower wedge and ready to repeat the cycle and advance the roadway by another increment It worked at 600 millimetres 24 in per cycle which was roughly four minutes longcitation needed

The mast pieces were driven over the new road deck lying down horizontally The pieces were joined to form the one complete mast, still lying horizontally The mast was then tilted upwards, as one piece, at one time in a tricky operation In this way, each mast was erected on top of the corresponding concrete pylon The stays connecting the masts and the deck were then installed, and the bridge was tensioned overall, and weight tested After this, the temporary pylons could be removedcitation needed

Timelineedit

  • 16 October 2001: work begins
  • 14 December 2001: laying of the first stone
  • January 2002: laying pier foundations
  • March 2002: start of work on the pier support C8
  • June 2002: support C8 completed, start of work on piers
  • July 2002: start of work on the foundations of temporary, height adjustable roadway supports
  • August 2002: start of work on pier support C0
  • September 2002: assembly of roadway begins
  • November 2002: first piers complete
  • 25–26 February 2003: laying of first pieces of roadway
  • November 2003: completion of the last piers piers P2 at 245 metres 804 ft and P3 at 221 metres 725 ft are the highest piers in the world
  • 28 May 2004: the pieces of roadway are several centimetres apart, their juncture to be accomplished within two weeks
  • 2nd half of 2004: installation of the pylons and shrouds, removal of the temporary roadway supports
  • 14 December 2004: official inauguration2
  • 16 December 2004: opening of the viaduct, ahead of schedule
  • 10 January 2005: initial planned opening date

Construction recordsedit

The construction Millau Viaduct broke several records:citation needed

  • The highest pylons in the world: pylons P2 and P3, 24496 metres 803 ft 8 in and 22105 metres 725 ft 3 in in height respectively, broke the French record previously held by the Tulle and Verrières viaducts 141 metres or 463 feet, and the world record previously held by the Kochertal Viaduct Germany, which is 181 metres 594 ft at its highest;
  • The highest bridge tower in the world: the mast atop pylon P2 peaks at 343 metres 1,125 ft;
  • The highest road bridge deck in Europe, 270 metres 890 ft above the Tarn River at its highest point; it is nearly twice as tall as the previous tallest vehicular bridges in Europe, the Europabrücke in Austria and the Italia Viaduct in Italy It is slightly higher than the New River Gorge Bridge in West Virginia in the United States, which is 267 metres 876 ft above the New River

Since opening in 2004, the deck height of Millau has been surpassed by several suspension bridges in China, including Sidu River Bridge, Baling River Bridge, and two spans Beipan River Guanxing Highway Bridge and Beipan River Hukun Expressway Bridge over the Beipan River In 2012, Mexico's Baluarte Bridge surpassed Millau as the world's highest cable-stayed bridge The Royal Gorge suspension bridge in the US state of Colorado is also higher, with a bridge deck approximately 291 metres 955 ft over the Arkansas Rivercitation needed

Locationedit

The Millau Viaduct, and the town of Millau on the right

The Millau Viaduct is located on the territory of the communes of Millau and Creissels, France, in the département of Aveyron Before the bridge was constructed, traffic had to descend into the River Tarn valley and pass along the route nationale N9 near the town of Millau, causing heavy congestion at the beginning and end of the July and August holiday season The bridge now traverses the Tarn valley above its lowest point, linking two limestone plateaus, the Causse du Larzac and the Causse Rouge fr, and is inside the perimeter of the Grands Causses regional natural parkcitation needed

The Millau Viaduct forms the last link of the preexisting A75 autoroute4 known as la Méridienne, from Clermont-Ferrand to Pézenas to be extended to Béziers by 2010 The A75, with the A10 and A71, provides a continuous high-speed route south from Paris through Clermont-Ferrand to the Languedoc region, and through to Spain, considerably reducing the cost and time of vehicle traffic travelling along this route Many tourists heading to southern France and Spain follow this route because it is direct and without tolls for the 340 kilometres 210 mi between Clermont-Ferrand and Pézenas, except for the bridge itselfcitation needed

The Eiffage group, which constructed the Viaduct,4 also operates it, under a government contract, which allows the company to collect tolls Peage for up to 75 years24 The toll bridge costs €750 for light automobiles €940 during the peak months of July and August21

Structureedit

Pylons and abutmentsedit

Each of the seven pylons4 is supported by four deep shafts, 15 metres 49 ft deep and 5 metres 16 ft in diametercitation needed

heights of the piers
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7
94501 m 310 ft 05 in 24496 m 803 ft 8 in 22105 m 725 ft 3 in 14421 m 473 ft 2 in 13642 m 447 ft 7 in 11194 m 367 ft 3 in 7756 m 254 ft 6 in
A pylon under construction

The abutments are concrete structures that provide anchorage for the road deck to the ground in the Causse du Larzac and the Causse Rouge

Road deckedit

The metallic road deck, which appears very light despite its total mass of around 36,000 tonnes 40,000 short tons, is 2,460 metres 8,070 ft long and 32 metres 105 ft 0 in wide It comprises eight spans The six central spans measure 342 metres 1,122 ft, and the two outer spans are 204 metres 669 ft These are composed of 173 central box beams, the spinal column of the construction, onto which the lateral floors and the lateral box beams were welded The central box beams have a 4 metres 13 ft 1 in cross-section, and a length of 15–22 metres 49–72 ft for a total weight of 90 metric tons 99 short tons The deck has an inverse airfoil shape, providing negative lift in strong wind conditionscitation needed

Mastsedit

The seven masts, each 87 metres 285 ft high, and weighing around 700 tonnes 690 long tons; 770 short tons, are set on top of the concrete pylons Between each of them, eleven stays metal cables are anchored, providing support for the road deckcitation needed

Cable staysedit

Each mast of the Viaduct is equipped with a monoaxial layer of eleven pairs of cable-stays; laid face to face Depending on their length, the cable stays were made of 55 to 91 high tensile steel cables, or strands, themselves formed of seven strands of steel a central strand with six intertwined strands Each strand has triple protection against corrosion galvanisation, a coating of petroleum wax, and an extruded polyethylene sheath The exterior envelope of the stays is itself coated along its entire length with a double helical weatherstrip The idea is to avoid running water which, in high winds, could cause vibrationdubious – discuss in the stays and compromise the stability of the viaductcitation needed

The stays were installed by the Freyssinet company

Road surfaceedit

To allow for deformations of the metal road deck under traffic, a special surface of modified bitumen was installed by research teams from Appia The surface is somewhat flexible to adapt to deformations in the steel deck without cracking, but it must nevertheless have sufficient strength to withstand motorway conditions fatigue, density, texture, adherence, anti-rutting etc The 'ideal formula' was found after two years of research22

Electrical installationsedit

The electrical installations of the viaduct are large in proportion to the size of the bridge There are 30 kilometres 19 mi of high-current cables, 20 kilometres 12 mi of fibre optics, 10 kilometres 62 mi of low-current cables, and 357 telephone sockets; allowing maintenance teams to communicate with each other and with the command post These are situated on the deck, on the pylons, and on the mastscitation needed

The pylons, road deck, masts, and cable stays are equipped with a multitude of sensors These are designed to detect the slightest movement in the Viaduct, and measure its resistance to wear-and-tear over time Anemometers, accelerometers, inclinometers, temperature sensors are all used for the instrumentation networkcitation needed

Twelve fibre optic extensometers were installed in the base of pylon P2 Being the tallest of all, it is therefore under the most intense stress These sensors detect movements on the order of a micrometre Other extensometers, electrical this time, are distributed on top of P2 and P7 This apparatus is capable of taking up to 100 readings per second In high winds, they continuously monitor the reactions of the Viaduct to extreme conditions Accelerometers placed strategically on the road deck monitor the oscillations that can affect the metal structure Displacements of the deck on the abutment level are measured to the nearest millimetre The cab stays are also instrumented, and their ageing meticulously analysed Additionally, two piezoelectric sensors gather traffic data: weight of vehicles, average speed, density of the flow of traffic, etc This system can distinguish between fourteen different types of vehiclecitation needed

The data is transmitted by an Ethernet network to a computer in the IT room at the management building situated near the toll plaza

Toll plazaedit

The only toll plaza Peage on the A75 autoroute; the bridge toll booths and the buildings for the commercial and technical management teams are situated 4 kilometres 25 mi north of the viaduct coordinates: 44°8′301″N 3°1′3194″E / 441341694°N 30255389°E / 441341694; 30255389 The toll plaza is protected by a canopy in the shape of a leaf, formed from tendrilled concrete, using the ceracem process Consisting of 53 elements voussoirs, the canopy is 100 metres 330 ft long and 28 metres 92 ft wide It weighs around 2,500 tonnes 2,500 long tons; 2,800 short tonscitation needed

The toll plaza can accommodate sixteen lanes of traffic, eight in each direction At times of low traffic volume, the central booth is capable of servicing vehicles in both directions A car park and viewing station, equipped with public toilets, is situated at each side of the toll plaza The total cost was €20 millioncitation needed

Rest area of Brocuéjoulsedit

View of the rest area with the 'Ferme de Brocuéjouls'
  • Media related to Aire du Viaduc de Millau at Wikimedia Commons

The rest area of Brocuéjouls, named Aire du Viaduc de Millau,23 is situated just in north of the viaduct coordinates: 44°5′4355″N 3°1′2352″E / 440954306°N 30232000°E / 440954306; 30232000, and is centred on an old farm building named 'Ferme de Brocuéjouls'24 It was inaugurated by the prefect of Aveyron, Chantal Jourdan, on 30 June 2006, after 7 months of works The farm and its surroundings can accommodate entertainment and tourism promotion activities25

The cost of this work amounted to € 58 million:

  • €48 million of state funds for the realisation of the area access roads, parking, rest area, toilets, etc25
  • €1 million for the restoration of the old farm building of Brocuéjouls all two tranches25

Statisticsedit

  • 2,460 metres 8,070 ft: total length of the roadway
  • 7: number of piers4
  • 77 metres 253 ft: height of Pier 7, the shortest
  • 343 metres 1,125 ft: height of Pier 2, the tallest 245 metres or 804 feet at the roadway's level2
  • 87 metres 285 ft: height of a mast
  • 154: number of shrouds
  • 270 metres 890 ft: average height of the roadway3
  • 420 metres 13 ft 9 in: thickness of the roadway
  • 3205 metres 105 ft 2 in: width of the roadway
  • 85,000 cubic metres 111,000 cu yd: total volume of concrete used
  • 290,000 tonnes 320,000 short tons: total weight of the bridge
  • 10,000–25,000 vehicles: estimated daily traffic
  • €780–980: typical automobile toll price increasing in summer,26 as of August 2016update
  • 20 kilometres 12 mi: horizontal radius of curvature of the road deck

Impact and eventsedit

Pedestrian sporting eventsedit

Unusually for a bridge closed to pedestrians, a run took place in 2004, and another on 13 May 2007:citation needed

  • December 2004 – 19,000 walkers and runners of the Three Bridge Walk had the privilege of crossing the bridge deck for the first time, but the walk was not authorised to go further than pylon P1; the bridge was still closed to traffic
  • 13 May 2007 – 10,496 runners took the departure of the race from Place de Mandarous, in the centre of Millau, to the southern end of the Viaduct After starting on the northern side, they crossed the viaduct, then retraced their steps Total distance: 237 kilometres 147 mi

Events and popular cultureedit

  • In 2004, a fire started on the slope of the Causse rouge because of a spark originating from a welder; some trees were destroyed in the firecitation needed
  • The speed limit on the bridge was reduced from 130 kilometres per hour 81 mph to 110 kilometres per hour 68 mph because tourists were slowing down to take photos Soon after the bridge opened to traffic, cars were stopping on the hard shoulder so that travelers could view the landscape and the bridgecitation needed
  • A postage stamp was designed by Sarah Lazarevic to commemorate the opening of the Viaduct
  • The Chinese transport minister at the time visited the bridge on the first anniversary of its opening The commission was impressed by the technical prowess of the bridge's immense construction, but also by the legal and financial assembly of the Viaduct However, according to the minister, he did not envisage building a counterpart in People's Republic of China
  • The cabinet of the governor of California Arnold Schwarzenegger, who envisaged the construction of a bridge in San Francisco Bay, asked the council of the town hall of Millau about the popularity of the construction of the viaduct27
  • This bridge was featured in a scene of the film Mr Bean's Holiday
  • The hosts of the British motoring show, Top Gear, featured the bridge during Series 7, when they took a Ford GT, Pagani Zonda, and Ferrari F430 Spyder on a road trip across France to see the newly completed bridge28
  • Richard Hammond, one of the above hosts on Top Gear, explored the engineering aspects in the construction of the Millau Viaduct in Series 2 of Richard Hammond's Engineering Connections

See alsoedit

  • France portal
  • Bridges portal
  • Roads portal
  • Infrastructure portal
  • Architecture portal
  • List of longest cable-stayed bridge spans
  • List of bridges by length
  • List of highest bridges in the world
  • List of tallest bridges in the world
  • Pont de Normandie
  • Baluarte Bridge
  • Royal Gorge Bridge, in Colorado, United States
Comparison of the side elevations of the Millau Viaduct and some notable bridges at the same scale click for interactive version

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Millau Viaduct, France at Structurae
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "France shows off tallest bridge" newsBBCcouk BBC News 14 December 2004 Retrieved 2 May 2017 
  3. ^ a b c d e "France 'completes' tallest bridge" newsBBCcouk BBC News 29 May 2004 Retrieved 2 May 2017 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Chris Bockman 4 November 2003 "France builds world's tallest bridge" newsBBCcouk Millau: BBC News Retrieved 2 May 2017 
  5. ^ Sakowski, Eric April 2017 "List of Highest International Bridges, Page 1" wwwHighestBridgescom HighestBridgescom wiki Retrieved 2 May 2017 unreliable source
  6. ^ "Millau Viaduct - construction" LeViaducdeMillaucom Retrieved 14 June 2013 
  7. ^ "From the Millau Viaduct to the Pyramids: ten of the greatest feats of engineering" Daily Mail 16 October 2010 Retrieved 7 March 2013 
  8. ^ "The 10 greatest engineering feats of the decade" ConstructionWeekOnlinecom 12 April 2010 Retrieved 7 March 2013 
  9. ^ "10 greatest modern day engineering marvels of the world" WonderfulEngineeringcom 8 May 2014 Retrieved 2 July 2016 
  10. ^ "Top 10 modern engineering marvels in the world" IveyEngineeringcom 10 November 2011 Retrieved 2 July 2016 
  11. ^ "Millau Viaduct, France" iabseorg 13 September 2006 Retrieved 27 December 2008 
  12. ^ "The Millau Bridge, page 2" newsBBCcouk BBC News 
  13. ^ "Décret du 10 janvier 1995" LegiFrancegouvfr in French déclarant d'utilité publique les travaux de construction des sections de l'autoroute A 75 comprises entre Engayresque et Lasparets mise aux normes autoroutières du PR 23,520 au PR 26,580, entre Lasparets et La Cavalerie Sud du PR 26,580 au PR 66,820 y compris les voies de raccordement à Saint-Germain RD 911, à la Côte rouge RD 999 et à La Cavalerie RN 9, de l'échangeur d'Engayresque, des aires de repos, de la section de route à créer pour assurer la continuité de l'itinéraire de substitution d'Engayresque à Lasparets ainsi que des mesures d'accompagnement sur cet itinéraire à Aguessac et à Millau, classant dans la catégorie des autoroutes l'ensemble de la voie comprise entre l'échangeur d'Engayresque et La Cavalerie Sud du PR 22,700 au PR 66,820 dans le département de l'Aveyron et portant mise en compatibilité des plans d'occupation des sols des communes d'Aguessac, Millau, Creissels et Saint-Georges-de-Luzençon 
  14. ^ "Décret 2001-923 du 8 octobre 2001 approuvant la convention de concession passée entre l'Etat et la Compagnie EIFFAGE du viaduc de Millau pour le financement, la conception, la construction, l'exploitation et l'entretien du viaduc de Millau et le cahier des charges annexé à cette convention" LegiFrancegouvfr in French Retrieved 15 November 2010 
  15. ^ a b Le viaduc de Millau : un ouvrage exceptionnel initié par le ministère de l’équipement, op cit, p4
  16. ^ "ARCADIS tekende voor hoogste brug ter wereld" ARCADISnl in Dutch ARCADIS NV 13 December 2004 Archived from the original on 19 November 2008 Retrieved 17 October 2015 
  17. ^ "Final hydraulic launch successfully closes last gap in the Millau Viaduct in the south of France" Enerpaccom Enerpac, Actuant Corporation 28 May 2004 Retrieved 20 April 2017 
  18. ^ "Cable-stayed bridges, by Greisch" Greischcom Greisch Retrieved 15 November 2010 dead link
  19. ^ Matagne Didier "Database of ICT companies in the Walloon Region" Vigieawtbe Archived from the original on 6 July 2011 Retrieved 15 November 2010 
  20. ^ "The art of cable-stayed bridges on the Meuse and all over Europe" RTBFbe in French RTBF This French-language video illustrates the launching technique dead link
  21. ^ "Toll rates on the Millau Viaduct" LeViaducdeMillaucom Retrieved 17 October 2015 
  22. ^ "A specific surfacing extensively tested!" PDF le Viaduc de Millau Compagnie Eiffage du Viaduc de Millau: 3 4 November 2004 Retrieved 17 October 2015 
  23. ^ in French Details of A75 on Saratlas website see "Position #82"
  24. ^ in French Brocuéjouls Farm on the Midi-Pyrénées heritages website
  25. ^ a b c in French Inauguration of the rest area of Millau Viaduct Aveyron government website
  26. ^ Official site - Toll charge
  27. ^ "l'École de Paris du management — Ecole de Paris" PDF ecoleorg Retrieved 15 November 2010 
  28. ^ "Top Gear TV > Supercars across France, part 4/4 series 7, episode 3" video TopGearcom BBC Worldwide Ltd 20 October 2008 Retrieved 2 May 2017 

External linksedit

  • Millau Viaduct official website in French
  • Millau Viaduct official website in English
  • Millau Viaduct on the Aveyron touristic website in French

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Millau Viaduct


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    29.10.2014


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