Mediastinitis


Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mid-chest, or mediastinum It can be either acute or chronic

Acute mediastinitis is usually bacterial and due to rupture of organs in the mediastinum As the infection can progress rapidly, this is considered a serious condition Chronic sclerosing or fibrosing mediastinitis, while potentially serious, is caused by a long-standing inflammation of the mediastinum, leading to growth of acellular collagen and fibrous tissue within the chest and around the central vessels and airways It has a different cause, treatment, and prognosis than acute infectious mediastinitis

Contents

  • 1 Causes and treatment
    • 11 Acute
    • 12 Chronic
  • 2 External links

Causes and treatmentedit

Acuteedit

Before the development of modern cardiovascular surgery, cases of acute mediastinitis usually arose from either perforation of the esophagus or from contiguous spread of odontogenic or retropharyngeal infections However, in modern practice, most cases of acute mediastinitis result from complications of cardiovascular or endoscopic surgical procedures

Treatment usually involves aggressive intravenous antibiotic therapy and hydration If discrete fluid collections or grossly infected tissue have formed such as abscesses, they may have to be surgically drained or debrided

Chronicedit

Chronic mediastinitis is usually a radiologic diagnosis manifested by diffuse fibrosis of the soft tissues of the mediastinum This is sometimes the consequence of prior granulomatous disease, most commonly histoplasmosis Other identifiable causes include tuberculosis, IgG4-related disease and radiation therapy Fibrosing mediastinitis most frequently causes problems by constricting blood vessels or airways in the mediastinum This may result in such complications as superior vena cava syndrome or pulmonary edema from compression of pulmonary veins

Treatment for chronic fibrosing mediastinitis is somewhat controversial, and may include steroids or surgical decompression of affected vessels

External linksedit

  • Mediastinitis at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings MeSH
  • Derailed: Living with Fibrosing Mediastinitis Book
  • LivingwithFMorg
  • The FM Project
  • Fibrosing Mediastinitis
  • The FM Project
  • My FM Life - A Personal Journey
  • Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors


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