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A mattress is a large pad for supporting the reclining body, used as a bed or as part of a bed Mattresses may consist of a quilted or similarly fastened case, usually of heavy cloth, that contains hair, straw, cotton, foam rubber, etc, or a framework of metal springs1 Mattresses may also be filled with air1 or water

Mattresses are usually placed on top of a bed base which may be solid, as in the case of a platform bed, or elastic, eg with an upholstered wood and wire box spring or a slatted foundation Popular in Europe, a divan2 incorporates both mattress and foundation in a single upholstered, footed unit Divans have at least one innerspring layer as well as cushioning materials They may be supplied with a secondary mattress and/or a removable "topper" Mattresses may also be filled with air or water, or a variety of natural fibers, such as in futons Kapok is a common mattress material in Southeast Asia, and coir in South Asia


  • 1 History
  • 2 Construction
  • 3 Types
    • 31 Innerspring
      • 311 Core
      • 312 Upholstery layers
      • 313 Foundation
      • 314 Fabric cover
    • 32 Foam mattress
      • 321 Latex foam
      • 322 Memory foam
      • 323 High density foam
    • 33 Bladder mattresses
      • 331 Air mattress
      • 332 Waterbeds
  • 4 Quality
    • 41 Ergonomics
  • 5 Lifespan
  • 6 Maintenance and care
  • 7 Industry
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References


See also: Bed § History Photo on a 1940 USDA circular promoting home production of cotton mattresses

The word mattress derives from the Arabic matrah, which means "something thrown down" or "place where something is thrown down" and hence "mat, cushion" During the Crusades Europeans adopted the Arabic method of sleeping on cushions on the floor, and the word materas eventually descended into Middle English through the Romance languages3 The oldest known mattress dates to around 77,000 years ago4

Early mattresses contained a variety of natural materials including straw, feathers or horse hair In the first half of the 20th century, a typical mattress sold in North America had an innerspring core and cotton batting or fiberfill Modern mattresses usually contain either an inner spring core or materials such as latex, viscoelastic or other flexible polyurethane foams Other fill components include insulator pads over the coils that prevent the bed's upholstery layers from cupping down into the innerspring, as well as polyester fiberfill in the bed's top upholstery layers In 1899 James Marshall introduced the first individually wrapped pocketed spring coil mattress now commonly known as Marshall coils

In North America the typical mattress sold today is an innerspring; however there is increasing interest in all-foam beds and so-called hybrid beds, which include both an innerspring and high-end foams such as visco-elastic or latex in the comfort layers In Europe, polyurethane foam cores and latex cores have long been popular and make up a much larger proportion of the mattresses sold5


A conventional mattress consists of two primary sections – a core or "support layer" and the upholstery or "comfort layer" – wrapped in a thick fabric called the ticking

Upholstery layers cover the mattress and provide cushioning and comfort The upholstery layer consists of three parts: the insulator, the middle upholstery, and the quilt

Mattresses are typically made to conform to bed sizing standards that vary by market



Innerspring mattresses commonly consist of just the spring core, and the top and bottom upholstery layers6


Main article: Mattress coil

The core of the mattress supports the sleeper’s body Modern spring mattress cores, often called "innersprings," are made up of steel coil springs, or "coils"

The gauge of the coils is another factor which determines firmness and support Coils are measured in quarter increments The lower the number, the thicker the spring In general, higher-quality mattress coils have a 14-gauge 163 mm diameter Coils of 14 to 155-gauge 163 to 137 mm give more easily under pressure, while a 125-gauge 194 mm coil, the thickest typically available, feels quite firm

Connections between the coils help the mattress retain its shape Most coils are connected by interconnecting wires; encased coils are not connected, but the fabric encasement helps preserve the mattress shape

There are four types of mattress coils:

  • Bonnell coils are the oldest and most common First adapted from buggy seat springs of the 19th century, they are still prevalent in mid-priced mattresses Bonnell springs are a knotted, round-top, hourglass-shaped steel wire coil When laced together with cross wire helicals, these coils form the simplest innerspring unit, also referred to as a Bonnell unit
  • Offset coils are an hourglass type coil on which portions of the top and bottom convolutions have been flattened In assembling the innerspring unit, these flat segments of wire are hinged together with helical wires The hinging effect of the unit is designed to conform to body shape LFK coils are an unknotted offset coil with a cylindrical or columnar shape
  • Continuous coils the Leggett & Platt brand name is "Mira-coil" is an innerspring configuration in which the rows of coils are formed from a single piece of wire They work in a hinging effect similar to that of offset coils
  • Marshall coils, also known as wrapped or encased coils or pocket springs, are thin-gauge, barrel-shaped, knotless coils individually encased in fabric pockets—normally a fabric from man-made, nonwoven fiber Some manufacturers precompress these coils, which makes the mattress firmer and allows for motion separation between the sides of the bed As the springs are not wired together, they work more or less independently: the weight on one spring does not affect its neighbours More than half the consumers who participated in a survey had chosen to buy pocket spring mattresses7

Upholstery layersedit

Upholstery layers cover the mattress and provide cushioning and comfort Some manufacturers call the mattress core the "support layer" and the upholstery layer the "comfort layer" The upholstery layer consists of three parts: the insulator, the middle upholstery, and the quilt

The insulator separates the mattress core from the middle upholstery It is usually made of fibre or mesh and is intended to keep the middle upholstery in place

The middle upholstery comprises all the material between the insulator and the quilt It is usually made from materials which are intended to provide comfort to the sleeper, including flexible polyurethane foam which includes convoluted "egg-crate" foam, visco-elastic foam, latex foam, felt, polyester fiber, cotton fiber, wool fiber and nonwoven fiber pads In Europe and North America, mattress makers have begun incorporating gel-infused foams, soft-solid gels layered over foam, and poured gels in the top comfort layer of the bed8

The quilt is the top layer of the mattress Made of light foam or fibres stitched to the underside of the ticking, it provides a soft surface texture to the mattress and can be found in varying degrees of firmness


There are three main types of foundation or bed base:

  • A traditional box spring consists of a rigid frame containing extra heavy duty springs This foundation is often paired with an innerspring mattress, as it extends the life of the spring unit at the mattress's core
  • An all-wood foundation usually has seven or eight support slats disposed below paperboard or beaverboard This foundation, variously called a "no-flex", "low-flex" or zero-deflection unit, as well as an "ortho box", provides support similar to a platform foundation All-wood foundations have become increasingly prevalent as US mattress makers shifted to super-thick, one-sided mattresses9
  • A grid-top foundation is a combination of steel and wood

Typically the measurements of a foundation will be about 1-2" shorter than the measurement of a mattress

Fabric coveredit

Ticking is the protective fabric cover used to encase mattresses and foundations It is usually designed to coordinate with the foundation border fabric and comes in a wide variety of colors and styles Mattress fabrics can be knits, damask or printed wovens, or inexpensive nonwovens During the past decade, along with the rise in popularity of all-foam beds, stretchy knit ticking on the bed's top panel has become a standard look on both innerspring and foam beds Most ticking is made with polyester yarns More expensive mattress fabrics may contain a combination of polyester with rayon, cotton, silk, wool or other natural yarns10

Until the early 2000s, beds were normally upholstered with a single fabric This was usually a damask ticking or, for inexpensive bedsets, a nonwoven fabric covering all surfaces of the mattress and foundation Today's bedsets are covered with up to six different fabrics: A better quality circular knit or woven damask on the top panel—the bed's sleeping surface; a matching or contrasting usually woven fabric on the border of the mattress; a matching or contrasting usually woven fabric on the foundation side panels; a 'non-skid' woven or non-woven fabric on the surface of the foundation and reverse side of the mattress; and a nonwoven dust cover on the under side of the foundation Some North American mattress producers are beginning to use furniture upholstery fabrics on the bed's borders giving beds a more European, home furnishings look11

Foam mattressedit

All-foam mattresses use different weights and densities of petrochemical-based flexible polyurethane foams12 and visco-elastic foams or memory foam, and latex rubber foams A number of mattress manufacturers have incorporated polyurethane and visco-elastic foams with a portion of plant-based content13 All-foam mattresses are often paired with platform bases

Latex foamedit

Latex foam in mattresses is generally a blend of the latex of the Hevea brasiliensis tree and synthetic latex, which is derived from petrochemicals and other substances and fillers There are, however, natural latex mattresses that leave out polyurethane-based chemicals Latex foam is produced using either the Talalay or the Dunlop process14 Each provides a different feel Dunlop is generally a firmer foam, Talalay is softer While the Dunlop process produces a denser foam, the Talalay process produces a lighter one that has more air in it If you were to weigh each as latex cores, the Dunlop foam would be heavier because it has more latex in itcitation needed Talalay is more expensive as its production is more resource intensive Natural latex foam has a higher latex content than synthetic latex, however, "100% natural latex foam" is misleading15

Memory foamedit

See also: Memory foam § Properties of mattresses only

Memory foam mattresses use conforming visco-elastic foam over firmer polyurethane base foam Some innerspring mattresses have memory foam in their upholstery layer Different feels and comfort levels are achieved by varying the thickness, weight and formulation of the visco-elastic foams and the base foams Latex and memory foam mattresses each provide a unique feel This type of mattress is good at relieving pressure on painful joints Many memory foam mattresses are more expensive than standard spring mattresses

Memory foam is affected by temperature In a cool bedroom, a memory foam mattress will feel firmer than it does in a warm bedroom Memory softens and conforms to the sleeper in response to body temperature and body weight Traditional memory foam molds to the body creating a depression the sleeper must roll out of when changing sleep positions Mattress manufacturers have responded to this issue by using "faster response" memory foams They spring back more quickly when the sleeper moves Foam mattresses are also known to generally "sleep warmer" than innerspring mattresses Mattress makers have addressed the issue with "open-cell" memory foams, pinhole cored memory foam, gel-infused memory foams, channel-cut foam cores, reticulated foam support layers and other technologies to improve air circulation through all-foam beds16

High density foamedit

Similar to memory foam mattresses, a high density foam mattress uses a more compact foam typically made from polyurethane This kind of foam is made largely from open cells that are packed together tightly17 High density foam mattresses offer comfort and longevity because they are more dense than a traditional foam mattress High density foam mattresses that have an innerspring system last even longer and eliminate mattress sagging18

Bladder mattressesedit

Mattresses can also be made from bladders of some fluid, notably water or air These date to antiquity – goatskin bladders filled with water were used in Persia at least as early as 3600 BCE – and gained increased popularity in the 20th century with improved manufacturing

Air mattressedit

Main article: Air mattress

Air mattresses use one or more air chambers instead of springs to provide support Quality and price can range from inexpensive ones used occasionally for camping, to high-end luxury beds Air mattresses designed for typical bedroom use cost about the same as inner-spring mattresses with comparable features Air bladder construction varies from a simple polyethylene bag to internally baffled, multiple chambers of latex vulcanized rubber or vinyl with bonded cotton exteriors19 Mattresses may have a layer of foam above the air chambers for added cushioning, and may be enclosed in a cover Some such beds are termed soft-sided air beds

Permanent use adjustable-firmness "airbeds" became popular particularly after market leader Select Comfort began a major marketing campaign around 200119 The original airbed was manufactured by Comfortaire in 1981, which was later purchased by Select Comfort There are several other manufacturers Some allow independent adjustment of each side of the bed They are made in a variety of models from basic, no-frills ones that measure about 7" in height, to high-profile, 15" tall hybrids that contain several types of foam, pillow tops, and digital pumps with memory for individual pressure settings Studies suggest that adjustable-firmness beds are better for back pain20

Adjustable-firmness mattresses for medical use have special control mechanisms In the 1990s self-adjusting air beds that automatically change their pressure periodically, or inflate and deflate several air chambers alternately, were introduced The intention of these periodic changes is to reduce problems with decubitus ulcers bed sores, though as of 2008update the effectiveness of these techniques was still being researched21

Air mattresses for camping are available which are filled with foam which itself provides little support, but expands when the air valve is opened allowing air to enter, so the mattress nearly inflates by itself This is especially useful for campers who carry their equipment as, unlike with normal air mattresses, no pump is needed for inflating Available brands include Aerobed, Coleman, Therm-a-Rest and others

The US Consumer Product Safety Commission advises consumers not to let infants sleep on air mattresses This is motivated by reports of deaths, mostly infants younger than 8 months of age, who were placed to sleep on air mattresses, and either suffocated in a face down position on an air mattress or died due to suffocation after falling into gaps between the mattress and bed frame, or the mattress and adjacent furniture or wall22


Main article: Waterbed

A waterbed is a mattress with water in its interior instead of metal coils or air Waterbeds can be lined with different layers of fiber to achieve the level of firmness the user desires Waterbeds are well known for providing support to the spine and other body parts, similar to the other mattress types There are several options of support which range up to 100% waveless, where the user does not notice he/she is lying upon a waterbed


Many parameters determine mattress quality Laboratory test methods have been established for some of these parameters, such as pressure distribution, skin microclimate, hygiene, edge support, and long-term stability Some of these have been developed by Duncan Bain, working on behalf of the UK's Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency23

Other parameters, such as firmness, are more specific to the sleeper In general, firm mattresses are recommended for stomach and some back sleepers, soft mattresses are recommended for side sleepers, and medium mattresses are recommended for the majority of back sleepers24 Double mattresses are available with a softer and a firmer part, or with adjustable firmness levels, to accommodate sleepers with different preferences who share a bed


In 2003, a randomized-controlled trial found that medium-firm mattresses assessed using the Hs scale from the European Committee for Standardisation were associated with less pain;25 this study has been cited by clinical practice guidelines on lower back pain26 In 2015, a systematic review of studies concluded that medium-firm, custom-inflated mattresses were best for pain and neutral spinal alignment20


Mattresses deteriorate over time, and the lifespan of a mattress depends on a variety of factors, notably materials, manufacturing quality, care, and the vigorousness of use A poor quality foam comfort layer can deteriorate noticeably in 1 year, while a quality latex core can last 20 years or more; innerspring cores typically last around 10 years The comfort layer is almost invariably the first area to fail, which is why mattresses are often double-sided, to extend the lifespan A separate topper may be used instead of or in addition to a comfort layer, which reduces wear and is replaceable without replacing the entire mattress

In the United States, mattress warranties are typically for 10 years or 20 years, sometimes 25 years, though this specifically addresses manufacturing defects and faster-than-normal deterioration, not expected deterioration with time In the United States, as of 2008update there is a general expectation that mattresses should last about 10 years, and this is the average number of years Americans keep mattresses, though this varies by age group27 This expectation is based on a number of factors, including: sales pitches; the expectation that mattresses will last the length of their warranty, hence 10 years or 20 years, accordingly; and comparison with other household items27

Mattress replacement cycle is a key driver of income and profits for the mattress industry – a 5-year replacement cycle yields double the sales of a 10-year replacement cycle, for instance – so the mattress industry has a financial incentive to shorten the replacement cycle Notably, the International Sleep Products Association ISPA established the Better Sleep Council BSC in 1979 with the stated goal to "shorten the mattress replacement cycle", in addition to encouraging people to "invest in better bedding"28

In terms of scientific studies, an industry-funded 2006 study by researchers at Oklahoma State University funded by the BSC29 of 59 people with poor sleep who received free new replacement mattresses for their existing mattresses 5 years or older average age 95 years found improved sleep, particularly when the existing mattresses were cheap30 A follow-up paper by some of the same authors with additional statistical analysis reinforced these conclusions31 The BSC has subsequently cited this study in the ISPA-published news magazine for mattress manufacturers, BedTimes, to advocate a more frequent replacement cycle, specifically to "consider replacing a mattress every five to seven years"; the recommendation is based largely on this study2732

Maintenance and careedit

The main wear problems that can occur with a mattress are sagging, mildew, and staining These are prevented by proper support, rotation and flipping, keeping it dry, and using a mattress pad or protector Some symptoms of a broken or worn-out mattress include springs which can be felt poking through the upholstery layer, visible permanent sagging or deformity, lumpiness, and excessive squeaking

Mattresses require a solid foundation which does not itself sag – a sagging foundation, such as by weak slats on a wide bed, will in turn cause the mattress to sag Consistently sleeping in the same place and body position causes excessive wear, and thus rotating or flipping mattresses is used to reduce this: double-sided mattresses can be alternately flipped width-wise about the long axis and length-wise about the shorter axis, or alternately flipped and rotated; while single-sided mattresses are only rotated, which is simpler but less effective Flipping/rotation schedules vary between materials and manufacturers, but typically recommended is monthly for the first six months, and every two or three months thereafter Foundations should also be rotated, if possible, though less frequently – rotating box springs twice a year is recommended While sagging is undesirable, some level of indentation about 8 cm or 15 inches is natural if natural materials are used in a comfort layer

Excessive wear on mattresses, such as folding and bending, placing heavy objects in one spot, or excess force on the handles, will also cause more rapid deterioration Care should particularly be taken during transport or storage

Mattresses require ventilation to remain dry and prevent mildew, and thus should not be placed directly on the floor or on a solid surface – slats or a box spring provide space for airflow, while solid wood or plywood as in cheap bunkie boards does not Additional ventilation is recommended for natural materials, in which case leaving the mattress "naked" after stripping sheets for example while laundering is recommended If a mattress is allowed to become damp, for example by wet cleaning, mildew may develop inside the upholstery; cleaning with a vacuum cleaner or mild surface cleanser and a slightly damp cloth avoids this

Mattresses absorb fluids and stains readily, notably from nightly sweating which results in a yellow stain, seminal or Cowper stains which are darker,33 menstrual fluids which are dark red,34 and other bodily fluids in addition to accidental spills These visibly stain the ticking, and seep through into lower layers In addition to being unhygienic, hard to launder, and unsightly, such stains typically void a warranty Thus a mattress protector is suggested to protect the mattress; this can be removed and cleaned separately, and replaced if damaged


Companies often specialize in a particular type of mattress, such as innerspring, latex, and airbed, although as latex and airbeds have become more popular, they have become more common

Mattresses which are mostly the same are often sold under different brand names;35 two of the largest brands, Serta and Simmons, became owned by the same company after a private equity buyout36 Simmons, founded in the late 1800s, was bought and sold multiple times and faced bankruptcy after a major decline in the bedding industry in the 2000s36 The International Sleep Products Association was founded in 1915 and releases a report on US mattress sales Another association, Specialty Sleep Association, represents companies such as Innomax and Boyd Specialty focused on latex, waterbeds, and airbeds However, Select Comfort, which produces airbeds a specialty bed, is a member of the ISPA37

In 2012, Sealy Corporation, founded in 1881, was purchased by Tempur-Pedic, which had introduced an all foam TEMPUR-Material brand into the United States in 199238

Another large company, Spring Air, went bankrupt in 2009 and was purchased by one of its former executives

Comfortaire, founded in 1981, was the first to specialize in airbeds39 It was later bought by Select Comfort

In Spain Pikolin, founded in 1948, is one of the largest manufacturers of mattresses

Adjustable beds have become a trend and are more compatible with certain types of mattresses such as latex or memory foam These are particularly popular in Europe, and for one business accounted for 25% of beds in Sweden in 2010 and 70% of beds in the Netherlands40

See alsoedit

  • Bed frame
  • Duvet
  • International Sleep Products Association
  • Law label – The "Under Penalty of Law" label
  • Matratzenlager – mattress room in mountain huts
  • Orthopedic mattress
  • Sleeping pad – for camping


  1. ^ a b "Mattress" Dictionarycom Retrieved 2012-05-26 
  2. ^ "Divan" Dictionarycom Retrieved 2012-05-26 
  3. ^ "Mattress: Word History" The American Heritage Dictionary
  4. ^ Wayman, Erin 14 December 2011 "The World's Oldest Mattress" Smithsonian Retrieved 6 March 2017 
  5. ^ Nelles, Barbara "The Inside Story" BedTimes Magazine July 2009 Retrieved 2011-9-1
  6. ^ Haex, Bart 2005 Back and Bed: Ergonomic Aspects of Sleeping CRC Press p 57 ISBN 0-415-33297-4 
  7. ^ Which, published by Consumers Association: Mattresses: Choosing the best type of mattress
  8. ^ James, Gary "Gel foams meet fast-growing demand" BedTimes Magazine October 2012 Retrieved 2012-9-26
  9. ^ Nelles, Barbara February 2012 "New features rev up steel frames & support systems" BedTimes Magazine Retrieved 11 February 2014 
  10. ^ Nelles, Barbara "Dress up: Mattress fabrics take on many roles" BedTimes Magazine, November 2009 Retrieved 2011-8-21
  11. ^ Nelles, Barbara "Judging a bed by its cover" BedTimes Magazine October 2011 Retrieved 2012-1-2
  12. ^ "Flexible Polyurethane Foams FPFs Used in Upholstered Furniture and Bedding" American Chemistry Council: Center for the Polyurethanes Industry 2008 Retrieved Aug 15, 2011
  13. ^ "Product Watch: Green foams grabbing the spotlight" BedTimes Magazine Feb 2010 Retrieved Aug 15, 2011
  14. ^ "The future of foam: An ever-widening sphere of influence BedTimes" Magazine February 2003 Retrieved Aug 15, 2011
  15. ^ "About Natural Latex" Savvy Rest Retrieved Aug 21, 2015
  16. ^ Nelles, Barbara "Trends in Springs and Foam" BedTimes Magazine, Aug 2011 Retrieved 2013-8-13
  17. ^ "What is High Density Foam" Wise Geek 
  18. ^ "Why High Density Foam is Important" Aviya Mattress Retrieved 30 September 2016 
  19. ^ a b Nelles, Barbara "What's in the air | BedTimes" bedtimesmagazinecom Retrieved 2016-03-08 
  20. ^ a b Radwan, Ahmed; Fess, Philip; James, Darcy; Murphy, John; Myers, Joseph; Rooney, Michelle; Taylor, Jason; Torii, Alissa "Effect of different mattress designs on promoting sleep quality, pain reduction, and spinal alignment in adults with or without back pain; systematic review of controlled trials" Sleep Health 1 4: 257–267 doi:101016/jsleh201508001 
  21. ^ Alternating pressure air mattresses as prevention for pressure ulcers: A literature review International Journal of Nursing Studies, Volume 45, Issue 5, Pages 784-801 May 2008
  22. ^ Air Mattresses are Not for Infants Bethesda, MD: US Consumer Product Safety Commission, 2012
  23. ^ Bain, Duncan "Pressure Reducing Mattresses" MHRA April 2004
  24. ^ Simon, Tim 10 January 2015 "What type of Sleeper are you and how does this relate to your mattress choice" Regal Sleep Solutions Retrieved 11 February 2015 
  25. ^ "Effect of firmness of mattress on chronic non-specific low-back pain: randomised, double-blind, controlled, multicentre trial - The Lancet" wwwthelancetcom Retrieved 2016-03-07 
  26. ^ Chou, Roger; Qaseem, Amir; Snow, Vincenza; Casey, Donald; Cross, J Thomas; Shekelle, Paul; Owens, Douglas K; Clinical Efficacy Assessment Subcommittee of the American College of Physicians; American College of Physicians 2007-10-02 "Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society" Annals of Internal Medicine 147 7: 478–491 doi:107326/0003-4819-147-7-200710020-00006 ISSN 1539-3704 PMID 17909209 
  27. ^ a b c "Oklahoma State University research shows importance of new mattress" BedTimes April 2008 
  28. ^ "BSC builds on a quarter century of PR to move industry forward" BedTimes Magazine September 2004 Retrieved 2012-9-30
  29. ^ Jacobson, BH; Boolani, A; Smith, DB 2009 "Changes in back pain, sleep quality, and perceived stress after introduction of new bedding systems" J Chiropr Med 8: 1–8 doi:101016/jjcm200809002 PMC 2697581 PMID 19646380 
  30. ^ Jacobson, Bert H; Boolani, Ali; Smith, Doug B Mar 2009 "Changes in back pain, sleep quality, and perceived stress after introduction of new bedding systems" J Chiropr Med 8 1: 1–8 doi:101016/jjcm200809002 PMC 2697581 PMID 19646380 
  31. ^ Jacobson, Bert H; Wallace, T J; Smith, Doug B; Kolb, T 2008 "Grouped comparisons of sleep quality for new and personal bedding systems" Applied Ergonomics 39 2: 247–54 doi:101016/japergo200704002 PMID 17597575 
  32. ^ Nancy Butler April 2008 "Better Sleep Council consumer research findings on mattresses and sleep" BedTimes 
  33. ^ Silenieks, Edmund; Kobus, Hilton J; Scharnberg, Jordana 2002 "Improving the effectiveness of fluorescence for the detection of semen stains on fabrics" Journal of Forensic Science 47 4: 1–5 
  34. ^ Richman, Gina S, et al "Simulation procedures for teaching independent menstrual care to mentally retarded persons" Applied research in mental retardation 71 1986: 21-35
  35. ^ Segal, David 2010-10-09 "Mattress Complaints: It's Going to Be a Bumpy Night" The New York Times ISSN 0362-4331 Retrieved 2016-03-07 
  36. ^ a b Creswell, Julie 2009-10-04 "At Simmons, Bought, Drained and Sold, Then Sent to Bankruptcy" The New York Times ISSN 0362-4331 Retrieved 2016-03-07 
  37. ^ "Conversation with ISPA Chair Kathy Roedel | BedTimes" bedtimesmagazinecom Retrieved 2016-03-07 
  38. ^ Banerjee, Devin; Callan, James; Helyar, John "Tempur-Pedic Agrees to Acquire Sealy for $220 a Share" Bloombergcom Retrieved 2016-03-07 
  39. ^ "Specialty Sleep mattresses go mainstream | BedTimes" bedtimesmagazinecom Retrieved 2016-03-07 
  40. ^ Wadler, Joyce 2010-02-10 "New Beds Are Much More Than Places to Rest" The New York Times ISSN 0362-4331 Retrieved 2016-03-07 

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