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Masatoshi Koshiba

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Masatoshi Koshiba 小柴 昌俊, Koshiba Masatoshi, born September 19, 1926 is a Japanese physicist He jointly won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2002

He is now Senior Counselor of International Center for Elementary Particle Physics ICEPP and Emeritus Professor of University of Tokyo

Contents

  • 1 Life
  • 2 Publications
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References
  • 5 External links

Lifeedit

with Jun'ichirō Koizumi and Kōichi Tanaka at the Prime Minister's Official Residence on October 11, 2002 with Jun'ichirō Koizumi at Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo on August 27, 2003

He graduated from the University of Tokyo in 1951 and received a PhD in physics at the University of Rochester, New York, in 1955 From July 1955 to February 1958 he was Research Associate, Department of Physics, University of Chicago; from March 1958 to October 1963, he was Associate Professor, Institute of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, although from November 1959 to August 1962 he was on leave from the above as Senior Research Associate with the honorary rank of Associate Professor and as the Acting Director, Laboratory of High Energy Physics and Cosmic Radiation, Department of Physics, University of Chicago At the University of Tokyo he became Associate Professor in March 1963 and then Professor in March 1970 in the Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, and Emeritus Professor there in 1987 From 1987 to 1997, Koshiba taught at Tokai University In 2002, he jointly won the Nobel Prize in Physics "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos" The other shares of that year's Prize were awarded to Raymond Davis Jr and Riccardo Giacconi of the USA1

Koshiba's award-winning work centred on neutrinos, subatomic particles that had long perplexed scientists Since the 1920s it had been suspected that the Sun shines because of nuclear fusion reactions that transform hydrogen into helium and release energy Later, theoretical calculations indicated that countless neutrinos must be released in these reactions and, consequently, that Earth must be exposed to a constant flood of solar neutrinos Because neutrinos interact weakly with matter, however, only one in a trillion is stopped on its way to Earth Neutrinos thus developed a reputation as being undetectable

In the 1980s, Koshiba, drawing on the work done by Raymond Davis Jr, constructed an underground neutrino detector in a zinc mine in Japan Called Kamiokande II, it was an enormous water tank surrounded by electronic detectors to sense flashes of light produced when neutrinos interacted with atomic nuclei in water molecules Koshiba was able to confirm Davis's results—that the Sun produces neutrinos and that fewer neutrinos were found than had been expected a deficit that became known as the solar neutrino problem In 1987 Kamiokande also detected neutrinos from a supernova explosion outside the Milky Way After building a larger, more sensitive detector named Super-Kamiokande, which became operational in 1996, Koshiba found strong evidence for what scientists had already suspected—that neutrinos, of which three types are known, change from one type into another in flight; this resolves the solar neutrino problem, since early experiments could only detect one type, not all three

In 2003, he was awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Physics

Koshiba is a member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

He is a foreign fellow of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences 2

In commemoration of the Nobel Prize-winning by Masatoshi Koshiba, Koshiba hall was established at the University of Tokyo3

Publicationsedit

  • Koshiba, M; Fukuda, Y; et al 1998 "Evidence for Oscillation of Atmospheric Neutrinos" Physical Review Letters 81 8: 1562 Bibcode:1998PhRvL811562F arXiv:hep-ex/9807003  doi:101103/PhysRevLett811562 
  • Koshiba, M; Fukuda, Y; et al 1999 "Constraints on Neutrino Oscillation Parameters from the Measurement of Day-Night Solar Neutrino Fluxes at Super-Kamiokande" Physical Review Letters 82 9: 1810 Bibcode:1999PhRvL821810F arXiv:hep-ex/9812009  doi:101103/PhysRevLett821810 

See alsoedit

  • Kamioka Observatory
  • Institute for Cosmic Ray Research
  • List of Japanese Nobel laureates
  • List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of Tokyo

Referencesedit

  1. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002
  2. ^ List of Fellows of Bangladesh Academy of Sciences Archived November 7, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ 寺崎昌男 2007 『東京大学の歴史 大学制度の先駆け』 講談社

External linksedit

  • Prof Koshiba has won the Nobel prize
  • Nobelprizeorg Birography
  • Photograph, Biography and Bibliographic Resources, from the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, United States Department of Energy
  • Freeview video 'An Interview with Masatoshi Koshiba' by the Vega Science Trust

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