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Marsupial mole

marsupial mole, marsupial mole pictures
N typhlops
N caurinus

Fossil record

Notoryctids are represented by early Miocene fossils of Naraboryctes from site of Riversleigh in Queensland, Australia, which document the mosaic acquisition of dental and skeletal features of the living Notoryctes from a more terrestrial ancestor The notoryctid fossil record demonstrates that the primary cusp of the molars is the metacone, distinct from the paracone characteristic of zalambdodont tenrecs, golden moles, and Solenodon Regarding the number of teeth in each dental quadrant or dental formula Archer et al 2011 reported that "the dental formula for species of Notoryctes is controversial because of considerable polymorphism in tooth number, both between specimens and within the same specimen" Nonetheless, reflecting the consensus of older studies, Archer et al 2011 report the presence of four molars typical for marsupials in each quadrant both in living Notoryctes and the fossil notoryctid Naraboryctes

Evolutionary affinities

American paleontologist William King Gregory wrote in 1910 p 209 that "Notoryctes is a true marsupial" and this view has been repeatedly verified by phylogenetic analyses of comparative anatomy, mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, rare genomic events, and combined datasets of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA and morphology and DNA The largest phylogenetic datasets strongly support the placement of Notoryctes as the sister taxon to a dasyuromorph-peramelian clade, within the Australidelphian radiation


  1. ^ Groves, CP 2005 Wilson, DE; Reeder, DM, eds Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press p 22 ISBN 0-801-88221-4 OCLC 62265494 
  2. ^ Warburton N Functional morphology and evolution of marsupial moles Marsupialia: Notoryctemorphia 2003 PhD Dissertation, University of Western Australia
  3. ^ "Mole Patrol" The Marsupial Society 2004 Retrieved 2006-11-09 
  4. ^ Yalden DW The anatomy of mole locomotion Journal of Zoology 1966 May 1;1491:55-64
  5. ^ Rose KD, Emry RJ Extraordinary fossorial adaptations in the Oligocene palaeanodonts Epoicotherium and Xenocranium Mammalia Journal of Morphology 1983 Jan 1;1751:33-56
  6. ^ Asher RJ, Horovitz I, Martin T, Sanchez-Villagra MR Neither a rodent nor a platypus: a reexamination of Necrolestes patagonensis Ameghino American Museum Novitates 2007 Jan 15:1-40
  7. ^ Gordon, Greg 1984 Macdonald, D, ed The Encyclopedia of Mammals New York: Facts on File p 842 ISBN 0-87196-871-1 
  8. ^ a b Archer, M 2011-05-22 "Australia's first fossil marsupial mole Notoryctemorphia resolves controversies about their evolution and palaeoenvironmental origins" Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 278: 1498–1506 doi:101098/rspb20101943 PMC 3081751  Retrieved 2017-02-26 
  9. ^ Asher RJ, Sánchez-Villagra MR Locking yourself out: diversity among dentally zalambdodont therian mammals Journal of Mammalian Evolution 2005 Jun 1;121:265-82
  10. ^ Thomas O XI—Notoryctes in North-west Australia Journal of Natural History 1920 Jul 1;631:111-3
  11. ^ Horovitz I, Sánchez-Villagra MR A morphological analysis of marsupial mammal higher‐level phylogenetic relationships Cladistics 2003 Jun 1;193:181-212
  12. ^ Beck RM, Warburton NM, Archer MI, Hand SJ, Aplin KP Going underground: postcranial morphology of the early Miocene marsupial mole Naraboryctes philcreaseri and the evolution of fossoriality in notoryctemorphians Memoirs of Museum Victoria 2016;74:151-71
  13. ^ Springer MS, Westerman M, Kavanagh JR, Burk A, Woodburne MO, Kao DJ, Krajewski C The origin of the Australasian marsupial fauna and the phylogenetic affinities of the enigmatic monito del monte and marsupial mole Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 1998 Dec 22;2651413:2381-6
  14. ^ Burk A, Westerman M, Kao DJ, Kavanagh JR, Springer MS An analysis of marsupial interordinal relationships based on 12S rRNA, tRNA valine, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome b sequences Journal of Mammalian Evolution 1999 Dec 1;64:317-34
  15. ^ Kjer KM, Honeycutt RL Site specific rates of mitochondrial genomes and the phylogeny of eutheria BMC Evolutionary Biology 2007 Jan 25;71:8
  16. ^ Amrine-Madsen H, Scally M, Westerman M, Stanhope MJ, Krajewski C, Springer MS Nuclear gene sequences provide evidence for the monophyly of australidelphian marsupials Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 2003 Aug 31;282:186-96
  17. ^ Meredith RW, Janečka JE, Gatesy J, Ryder OA, Fisher CA, Teeling EC, Goodbla A, Eizirik E, Simão TL, Stadler T, Rabosky DL Impacts of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification Science 2011 Oct 28;3346055:521-4
  18. ^ Nilsson, M A; Churakov, G; Sommer, M; Van Tran, N; Zemann, A; Brosius, J; Schmitz, J 2010 "Tracking Marsupial Evolution Using Archaic Genomic Retroposon Insertions" PLoS Biology Public Library of Science 8 7: e1000436 doi:101371/journalpbio1000436 PMC 2910653  PMID 20668664 
  19. ^ Phillips MJ, McLenachan PA, Down C, Gibb GC, Penny D Combined mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences resolve the interrelations of the major Australasian marsupial radiations Systematic Biology 2006 Feb 1;551:122-37
  20. ^ Asher RJ, Horovitz I, Sánchez-Villagra MR 2004 First Combined Cladistic Analysis of Marsupial Mammal Interrelationships Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33: 240-250
  21. ^ Beck RM, Godthelp H, Weisbecker V, Archer M, Hand SJ Australia's oldest marsupial fossils and their biogeographical implications PLos one 2008 Mar 26;33:e1858
  22. ^ O’Meara RN, Thompson RS Were there Miocene meridiolestidans Assessing the phylogenetic placement of Necrolestes patagonensis and the presence of a 40 million year meridiolestidan ghost lineage Journal of Mammalian Evolution 2014 Sep 1;213:271-84
  23. ^ Mitchell KJ, Pratt RC, Watson LN, Gibb GC, Llamas B, Kasper M, Edson J, Hopwood B, Male D, Armstrong KN, Meyer M Molecular phylogeny, biogeography, and habitat preference evolution of marsupials Molecular biology and evolution 2014 Sep 1;319:2322-30

External links

  • ARKive - images and movies of the marsupial mole Notoryctes typhlops
  • Australian Geographic - The marsupial mole: an enduring enigma

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