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Manga

manga, mangalam
Manga 漫画, Manga are comics created in Japan or by creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century They have a long and complex pre-history in earlier Japanese art

The term manga kanji: 漫画; hiragana: まんが; katakana: マンガ;  listen ; English /ˈmæŋɡə/ or /ˈmɑːŋɡə/ in Japan is a word used to refer to both comics and cartooning "Manga" as a term used outside Japan refers to comics originally published in Japan

In Japan, people of all ages read manga The medium includes works in a broad range of genres: action-adventure, business and commerce, comedy, detective, historical drama, horror, mystery, romance, science fiction and fantasy, sexuality, sports and games, and suspense, among others Many manga are translated into other languages Since the 1950s, manga has steadily become a major part of the Japanese publishing industry, representing a ¥406 billion market in Japan in 2007 approximately $36 billion and ¥420 billion approximately $55 billion in 2009 Manga have also gained a significant worldwide audience In Europe and the Middle East the market was worth $250 million in 2012 In 2008, in the US and Canada, the manga market was valued at $175 million; the markets in France and the United States are about the same size Manga stories are typically printed in black-and-white, although some full-color manga exist eg, Colorful In Japan, manga are usually serialized in large manga magazines, often containing many stories, each presented in a single episode to be continued in the next issue If the series is successful, collected chapters may be republished in tankōbon volumes, frequently but not exclusively, paperback books A manga artist mangaka in Japanese typically works with a few assistants in a small studio and is associated with a creative editor from a commercial publishing company If a manga series is popular enough, it may be animated after or even during its run Sometimes manga are drawn centering on previously existing live-action or animated films

Manga-influenced comics, among original works, exist in other parts of the world, particularly in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan "manhua", and South Korea "manhwa"

Contents

  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 History and characteristics
  • 3 Publications and exhibition
    • 31 Magazines
    • 32 Collected volumes
      • 321 History
    • 33 Dōjinshi
  • 4 International markets
    • 41 Europe
    • 42 United States
  • 5 Localized manga
  • 6 Awards
  • 7 University education
  • 8 See also
  • 9 Notes
  • 10 References
  • 11 Further reading
  • 12 External links

Etymology

The word "manga" comes from the Japanese word 漫画, composed of the two kanji 漫 man meaning "whimsical or impromptu" and 画 ga meaning "pictures"

The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai 1798, and in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo 1814 and the celebrated Hokusai Manga books 1814–1834 containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai Rakuten Kitazawa 1876–1955 first used the word "manga" in the modern sense

In Japanese, "manga" refers to all kinds of cartooning, comics, and animation Among English speakers, "manga" has the stricter meaning of "Japanese comics", in parallel to the usage of "anime" in and outside Japan The term "ani-manga" is used to describe comics produced from animation cels

History and characteristics

A kami-shibai story teller from Sazae-san by Machiko Hasegawa Sazae appears with her hair in a bun Main article: History of manga

Modern manga originated in the Occupation 1945–1952 and post-Occupation years 1952–early 1960s, while a previously militaristic and ultra-nationalist Japan rebuilt its political and economic infrastructure

Writers on manga history have described two broad and complementary processes shaping modern manga One view emphasizes events occurring during and after the US Occupation of Japan 1945–1952, and stresses US cultural influences, including US comics brought to Japan by the GIs and images and themes from US television, film, and cartoons especially Disney The other view, represented by other writers such as Frederik L Schodt, Kinko Ito, and Adam L Kern, stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions, including pre-war, Meiji, and pre-Meiji culture and art

Regardless of its source, an explosion of artistic creativity certainly occurred in the post-war period, involving manga artists such as Osamu Tezuka Astro Boy and Machiko Hasegawa Sazae-san Astro Boy quickly became and remains immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere, and the anime adaptation of Sazae-san drawing more viewers than any other anime on Japanese television in 2011 Tezuka and Hasegawa both made stylistic innovations In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique, the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots This kind of visual dynamism was widely adopted by later manga artists Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience also came to characterize later shōjo manga Between 1950 and 1969, an increasingly large readership for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls

A figure drawn in manga style—typically reduced to black and white and different patterns to compensate for the lack of colors

In 1969 a group of female manga artists later called the Year 24 Group, also known as Magnificent 24s made their shōjo manga debut "year 24" comes from the Japanese name for the year 1949, the birth-year of many of these artists The group included Moto Hagio, Riyoko Ikeda, Yumiko Ōshima, Keiko Takemiya, and Ryoko Yamagishi Thereafter, primarily female manga artists would draw shōjo for a readership of girls and young women In the following decades 1975–present, shōjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously evolving different but overlapping subgenres Major subgenres include romance, superheroines, and "Ladies Comics" in Japanese, redisu レディース, redikomi レディコミ, and josei 女性

Modern shōjo manga romance features love as a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of self-realization With the superheroines, shōjo manga saw releases such as Pink Hanamori's Mermaid Melody Pichi Pichi Pitch Reiko Yoshida's Tokyo Mew Mew, And, Naoko Takeuchi's Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon, which became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats Groups or sentais of girls working together have also been popular within this genre Like Lucia, Hanon, and Rina singing together, and Sailor Moon, Sailor Mercury, Sailor Mars, Sailor Jupiter, and Sailor Venus working together

Manga for male readers sub-divides according to the age of its intended readership: boys up to 18 years old shōnen manga and young men 18 to 30 years old seinen manga; as well as by content, including action-adventure often involving male heroes, slapstick humor, themes of honor, and sometimes explicit sexuality The Japanese use different kanji for two closely allied meanings of "seinen"—青年 for "youth, young man" and 成年 for "adult, majority"—the second referring to sexually overt manga aimed at grown men and also called seijin "adult" 成人 manga Shōnen, seinen, and seijin manga share many features in common

Boys and young men became some of the earliest readers of manga after World War II From the 1950s on, shōnen manga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypal boy, including subjects like robots, space-travel, and heroic action-adventure Popular themes include science fiction, technology, sports, and supernatural settings Manga with solitary costumed superheroes like Superman, Batman, and Spider-Man generally did not become as popular

The role of girls and women in manga produced for male readers has evolved considerably over time to include those featuring single pretty girls bishōjo such as Belldandy from Oh My Goddess!, stories where such girls and women surround the hero, as in Negima and Hanaukyo Maid Team, or groups of heavily armed female warriors sentō bishōjo

With the relaxation of censorship in Japan in the 1990s, a wide variety of explicit sexual themes appeared in manga intended for male readers, and correspondingly occur in English translations However, in 2010 the Tokyo Metropolitan Government passed a bill to restrict harmful content

The gekiga style of drawing—emotionally dark, often starkly realistic, sometimes very violent—focuses on the day-in, day-out grim realities of life, often drawn in gritty and unpretty fashions Gekiga such as Sampei Shirato's 1959–1962 Chronicles of a Ninja's Military Accomplishments Ninja Bugeichō arose in the late 1950s and 1960s partly from left-wing student and working-class political activism and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of young manga artists like Yoshihiro Tatsumi with existing manga

Publications and exhibition

Delegates of 3rd Asian Cartoon Exhibition, held at Tokyo Annual Manga Exhibition by The Japan Foundation A manga store in Japan

In Japan, manga constituted an annual 406 billion yen approximately $395 million USD publication-industry by 2007 In 2006 sales of manga books made up for about 27% of total book-sales, and sale of manga magazines, for 20% of total magazine-sales The manga industry has expanded worldwide, where distribution companies license and reprint manga into their native languages

Marketeers primarily classify manga by the age and gender of the target readership In particular, books and magazines sold to boys shōnen and girls shōjo have distinctive cover-art, and most bookstores place them on different shelves Due to cross-readership, consumer response is not limited by demographics For example, male readers may subscribe to a series intended for female readers, and so on Japan has manga cafés, or manga kissa kissa is an abbreviation of kissaten At a manga kissa, people drink coffee, read manga and sometimes stay overnight

The Kyoto International Manga Museum maintains a very large website listing manga published in Japanese

Magazines

See also: List of manga magazines Eshinbun Nipponchi is credited as the first manga magazine ever made

Manga magazines usually have many series running concurrently with approximately 20–40 pages allocated to each series per issue Other magazines such as the anime fandom magazine Newtype featured single chapters within their monthly periodicals Other magazines like Nakayoshi feature many stories written by many different artists; these magazines, or "anthology magazines", as they are also known colloquially "phone books", are usually printed on low-quality newsprint and can be anywhere from 200 to more than 850 pages thick Manga magazines also contain one-shot comics and various four-panel yonkoma equivalent to comic strips Manga series can run for many years if they are successful Manga artists sometimes start out with a few "one-shot" manga projects just to try to get their name out If these are successful and receive good reviews, they are continued Magazines often have a short life

Collected volumes

After a series has run for a while, publishers often collect the episodes together and print them in dedicated book-sized volumes, called tankōbon These can be hardcover, or more usually softcover books, and are the equivalent of US trade paperbacks or graphic novels These volumes often use higher-quality paper, and are useful to those who want to "catch up" with a series so they can follow it in the magazines or if they find the cost of the weeklies or monthlies to be prohibitive Recently, "deluxe" versions have also been printed as readers have gotten older and the need for something special grew Old manga have also been reprinted using somewhat lesser quality paper and sold for 100 yen about $1 US dollar each to compete with the used book market

History

Kanagaki Robun and Kawanabe Kyōsai created the first manga magazine in 1874: Eshinbun Nipponchi The magazine was heavily influenced by Japan Punch, founded in 1862 by Charles Wirgman, a British cartoonist Eshinbun Nipponchi had a very simple style of drawings and did not become popular with many people Eshinbun Nipponchi ended after three issues The magazine Kisho Shimbun in 1875 was inspired by Eshinbun Nipponchi, which was followed by Marumaru Chinbun in 1877, and then Garakuta Chinpo in 1879 Shōnen Sekai was the first shōnen magazine created in 1895 by Iwaya Sazanami, a famous writer of Japanese children's literature back then Shōnen Sekai had a strong focus on the First Sino-Japanese War

In 1905 the manga-magazine publishing boom started with the Russo-Japanese War, Tokyo Pakku was created and became a huge hit After Tokyo Pakku in 1905, a female version of Shōnen Sekai was created and named Shōjo Sekai, considered the first shōjo magazine Shōnen Pakku was made and is considered the first children's manga magazine The children's demographic was in an early stage of development in the Meiji period Shōnen Pakku was influenced from foreign children's magazines such as Puck which an employee of Jitsugyō no Nihon publisher of the magazine saw and decided to emulate In 1924, Kodomo Pakku was launched as another children's manga magazine after Shōnen Pakku During the boom, Poten derived from the French "potin" was published in 1908 All the pages were in full color with influences from Tokyo Pakku and Osaka Puck It is unknown if there were any more issues besides the first one Kodomo Pakku was launched May 1924 by Tokyosha and featured high-quality art by many members of the manga artistry like Takei Takeo, Takehisa Yumeji and Aso Yutaka Some of the manga featured speech balloons, where other manga from the previous eras did not use speech balloons and were silent

Published from May 1935 to January 1941, Manga no Kuni coincided with the period of the Second Sino-Japanese War 1937–1945 Manga no Kuni featured information on becoming a mangaka and on other comics industries around the world Manga no Kuni handed its title to Sashie Manga Kenkyū in August 1940

Dōjinshi

Main article: Dōjinshi

Dōjinshi, produced by small publishers outside of the mainstream commercial market, resemble in their publishing small-press independently published comic books in the United States Comiket, the largest comic book convention in the world with around 500,000 visitors gathering over three days, is devoted to dōjinshi While they most often contain original stories, many are parodies of or include characters from popular manga and anime series Some dōjinshi continue with a series' story or write an entirely new one using its characters, much like fan fiction In 2007, dōjinshi sold for 2773 billion yen 245 million USD In 2006 they represented about a tenth of manga books and magazines sales

International markets

Main article: Manga outside Japan

By 2007, the influence of manga on international comics had grown considerably over the past two decades "Influence" is used here to refer to effects on the comics markets outside Japan and to aesthetic effects on comics artists internationally

The reading direction in a traditional manga

Traditionally, manga stories flow from top to bottom and from right to left Some publishers of translated manga keep to this original format Other publishers mirror the pages horizontally before printing the translation, changing the reading direction to a more "Western" left to right, so as not to confuse foreign readers or traditional comics-consumers This practice is known as "flipping" For the most part, criticism suggests that flipping goes against the original intentions of the creator for example, if a person wears a shirt that reads "MAY" on it, and gets flipped, then the word is altered to "YAM", who may be ignorant of how awkward it is to read comics when the eyes must flow through the pages and text in opposite directions, resulting in an experience that's quite distinct from reading something that flows homogeneously If the translation is not adapted to the flipped artwork carefully enough it is also possible for the text to go against the picture, such as a person referring to something on their left in the text while pointing to their right in the graphic Characters shown writing with their right hands, the majority of them, would become left-handed when a series is flipped Flipping may also cause oddities with familiar asymmetrical objects or layouts, such as a car being depicted with the gas pedal on the left and the brake on the right, or a shirt with the buttons on the wrong side, but these issues are minor when compared to the unnatural reading flow, and some of them could be solved with an adaptation work that goes beyond just translation and blind flipping

Europe

Manga has influenced European cartooning in a way that is somewhat different from in the US Broadcast anime in France and Italy opened the European market to manga during the 1970s French art has borrowed from Japan since the 19th century Japonism and has its own highly developed tradition of bande dessinée cartooning In France, beginning in the mid-1990s, manga has proven very popular to a wide readership, accounting for about one-third of comics sales in France since 2004 According to the Japan External Trade Organization, sales of manga reached $2126 million within France and Germany alone in 2006 France represents about 50% of the European market and is the second worldwide market, behind Japan In 2013, there were 41 publishers of manga in France and, together with other Asian comics, manga represented around 40% of new comics releases in the country, surpassing Franco-Belgian comics for the first time European publishers marketing manga translated into French include Asuka, Casterman, Glénat, Kana, and Pika Édition, among others European publishers also translate manga into Dutch, German, Italian, and other languages In 2007, about 70% of all comics sold in Germany were manga

Manga publishers based in the United Kingdom include Gollancz and Titan Books Manga publishers from the United States have a strong marketing presence in the United Kingdom: for example, the Tanoshimi line from Random House

United States

Manga made their way only gradually into US markets, first in association with anime and then independently Some US fans became aware of manga in the 1970s and early 1980s However, anime was initially more accessible than manga to US fans, many of whom were college-age young people who found it easier to obtain, subtitle, and exhibit video tapes of anime than translate, reproduce, and distribute tankōbon-style manga books One of the first manga translated into English and marketed in the US was Keiji Nakazawa's Barefoot Gen, an autobiographical story of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima issued by Leonard Rifas and Educomics 1980–1982 More manga were translated between the mid-1980s and 1990s, including Golgo 13 in 1986, Lone Wolf and Cub from First Comics in 1987, and Kamui, Area 88, and Mai the Psychic Girl, also in 1987 and all from Viz Media-Eclipse Comics Others soon followed, including Akira from Marvel Comics' Epic Comics imprint, Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind from Viz Media, and Appleseed from Eclipse Comics in 1988, and later Iczer-1 Antarctic Press, 1994 and Ippongi Bang's F-111 Bandit Antarctic Press, 1995

In the 1980s to the mid-1990s, Japanese animation, like Akira, Dragon Ball, Neon Genesis Evangelion, and Pokémon, made a bigger impact on the fan experience and in the market than manga Matters changed when translator-entrepreneur Toren Smith founded Studio Proteus in 1986 Smith and Studio Proteus acted as an agent and translator of many Japanese manga, including Masamune Shirow's Appleseed and Kōsuke Fujishima's Oh My Goddess!, for Dark Horse and Eros Comix, eliminating the need for these publishers to seek their own contacts in Japan Simultaneously, the Japanese publisher Shogakukan opened a US market initiative with their US subsidiary Viz, enabling Viz to draw directly on Shogakukan's catalogue and translation skills

A young boy reading Black Cat

Japanese publishers began pursuing a US market in the mid-1990s due to a stagnation in the domestic market for manga The US manga market took an upturn with mid-1990s anime and manga versions of Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell translated by Frederik L Schodt and Toren Smith becoming very popular among fans An extremely successful manga and anime translated and dubbed in English in the mid-1990s was Sailor Moon By 1995–1998, the Sailor Moon manga had been exported to over 23 countries, including China, Brazil, Mexico, Australia, North America and most of Europe In 1997, Mixx Entertainment began publishing Sailor Moon, along with CLAMP's Magic Knight Rayearth, Hitoshi Iwaaki's Parasyte and Tsutomu Takahashi's Ice Blade in the monthly manga magazine MixxZine Two years later, MixxZine was renamed to Tokyopop before discontinuing in 2011 Mixx Entertainment, later renamed Tokyopop, also published manga in trade paperbacks and, like Viz, began aggressive marketing of manga to both young male and young female demographics

In the following years, manga became increasingly popular, and new publishers entered the field while the established publishers greatly expanded their catalogues and by 2008, the US and Canadian manga market generated $175 million in annual sales Simultaneously, mainstream US media began to discuss manga, with articles in The New York Times, Time magazine, The Wall Street Journal, and Wired magazine

Localized manga

Main articles: Manfra and Original English-language manga

A number of artists in the United States have drawn comics and cartoons influenced by manga As an early example, Vernon Grant drew manga-influenced comics while living in Japan in the late 1960s and early 1970s Others include Frank Miller's mid-1980s Ronin, Adam Warren and Toren Smith's 1988 The Dirty Pair, Ben Dunn's 1987 Ninja High School and Manga Shi 2000 from Crusade Comics 1997

By the 21st century several US manga publishers had begun to produce work by US artists under the broad marketing-label of manga In 2002 IC Entertainment, formerly Studio Ironcat and now out of business, launched a series of manga by US artists called Amerimanga In 2004 eigoMANGA launched the Rumble Pak and Sakura Pakk anthology series Seven Seas Entertainment followed suit with World Manga Simultaneously, TokyoPop introduced original English-language manga OEL manga later renamed Global Manga

Francophone artists have also developed their own versions of manga manfra, like Frédéric Boilet's la nouvelle manga Boilet has worked in France and in Japan, sometimes collaborating with Japanese artists

Awards

The Japanese manga industry grants a large number of awards, mostly sponsored by publishers, with the winning prize usually including publication of the winning stories in magazines released by the sponsoring publisher Examples of these awards include:

  • The Akatsuka Award for humorous manga
  • The Dengeki Comic Grand Prix for one-shot manga
  • The Japan Cartoonists Association Award various categories
  • The Kodansha Manga Award multiple genre awards
  • The Seiun Award for best science fiction comic of the year
  • The Shogakukan Manga Award multiple genres
  • The Tezuka Award for best new serial manga
  • The Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize multiple genres

The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs has awarded the International Manga Award annually since May 2007

University education

Kyoto Seika University in Japan has offered a highly competitive course in manga since 2000 Then, several established universities and vocational schools 専門学校: Semmon gakkou established a training curriculum

Shuho Sato, who wrote Umizaru and Say Hello to Black Jack, has created some controversy on Twitter Sato says, "Manga school is meaningless because those schools have very low success rates Then, I could teach novices required skills on the job in three months Meanwhile, those school students spend several million yen, and four years, yet they are good for nothing" and that, "For instance, Keiko Takemiya, the then professor of Seika Univ, remarked in the Government Council that 'A complete novice will be able to understand where is "Tachikiri" ie, margin section during four years' On the other hand, I would imagine that, It takes about thirty minutes to completely understand that at work"

See also

  • Japan portal
  • Anime and Manga portal
  • Comics portal
  • Emakimono
  • E-toki horizontal, illustrated narrative form
  • Japanese popular culture
  • Kamishibai
  • Lianhuanhua small Chinese picture book
  • Light novel
  • List of best-selling manga
  • List of films based on manga
  • List of licensed manga in English
  • List of manga distributors
  • Manga iconography
  • Oekaki act of drawing
  • Q-version cartoonification
  • Ukiyo-e
  • Visual novel

Notes

  1. ^ Lent 2001, pp 3–4, Gravett 2004, p 8
  2. ^ Kern 2006, Ito 2005, Schodt 1986
  3. ^ Merriam-Webster 2009
  4. ^ Gravett 2004, p 8
  5. ^ Kinsella 2000, Schodt 1996
  6. ^ Saira Syed 18 August 2011 "Comic giants battle for readers" BBC News BBC Retrieved 16 March 2012 
  7. ^ Wong 2006, Patten 2004
  8. ^ a b Danica Davidson 26 January 2012 "Manga grows in the heart of Europe" Geek Out! CNN Turner Broadcasting System, Inc Retrieved 29 January 2012 
  9. ^ Katzenstein & Shiraishi 1997
  10. ^ a b Gravett 2004, p 8, Schodt 1986
  11. ^ Kinsella 2000
  12. ^ Kittelson 1998
  13. ^ Johnston-O'Neill 2007
  14. ^ Webb 2006
  15. ^ Wong 2002
  16. ^ Rousmaniere 2001, p 54, Thompson 2007, p xvi, Prohl & Nelson 2012, p 596,Fukushima 2013, p 19
  17. ^ Webb 2006,Thompson 2007, p xvi,Onoda 2009, p 10,Petersen 2011, p 120
  18. ^ Prohl & Nelson 2012, p 596,McCarthy 2014, p 6
  19. ^ "Santō Kyōden's picturebooks" 
  20. ^ "Shiji no yukikaiJapanese National Diet Library" 
  21. ^ Bouquillard & Marquet 2007
  22. ^ Shimizu 1985, pp 53–54, 102–103
  23. ^ "Inu Yasha Ani-MangaGraphic Novels" Animecornerstorecom 1999-11-01 Archived from the original on 4 December 2010 Retrieved 2010-11-01 
  24. ^ Kinsella 2000, Schodt 1986
  25. ^ Schodt 1986, Ito 2004, Kern 2006, Kern 2007
  26. ^ Schodt 1986, Schodt 1996, Schodt 2007, Gravett 2004
  27. ^ Kodansha 1999, pp 692–715, Schodt 2007
  28. ^ Schodt 1986
  29. ^ Gravett 2004, p 8, Lee 2000, Sanchez 1997–2003
  30. ^ Schodt 1986, Toku 2006
  31. ^ Gravett 2004, pp 78–80, Lent 2001, pp 9–10
  32. ^ Schodt 1986, Toku 2006, Thorn 2001
  33. ^ Ōgi 2004
  34. ^ Gravett 2004, p 8, Schodt 1996
  35. ^ Drazen 2003
  36. ^ Allison 2000, pp 259–278, Schodt 1996, p 92
  37. ^ Poitras 2001
  38. ^ Thompson 2007, pp xxiii–xxiv
  39. ^ Brenner 2007, pp 31–34
  40. ^ Schodt 1996, p 95, Perper & Cornog 2002
  41. ^ Schodt 1986, pp 68–87, Gravett 2004, pp 52–73
  42. ^ Schodt 1986, pp 68–87
  43. ^ Perper & Cornog 2002, pp 60–63
  44. ^ Gardner 2003
  45. ^ Perper & Cornog 2002
  46. ^ http://wwwyomiuricojp/dy/national/T101213003771htm
  47. ^ Schodt 1986, pp 68–73, Gravett 2006
  48. ^ Schodt 1986, pp 68–73, Gravett 2004, pp 38–42, Isao 2001
  49. ^ Isao 2001, pp 147–149, Nunez 2006
  50. ^ Manga Hai Kya, Comics : Shekhar Gurera The Pioneer, New Delhi
  51. ^ a b Cube 2007
  52. ^ a b Manga Industry in Japan
  53. ^ Schodt 1996
  54. ^ Manga Museum 2009
  55. ^ Schodt 1996, p 101
  56. ^ Eshinbun Nipponchi
  57. ^ Griffiths 2007
  58. ^ a b Poten
  59. ^ a b c Shonen Pakku
  60. ^ Lone 2007, p 75
  61. ^ Manga no Kuni
  62. ^ Pink 2007, Wong 2007
  63. ^ a b Farago 2007
  64. ^ Randal, Bill 2005 "English, For Better or Worse" The Comics Journal Special ed Fantagraphics Books 
  65. ^ a b Fishbein 2007
  66. ^ Berger 1992
  67. ^ Vollmar 2007
  68. ^ Mahousu 2005
  69. ^ Mahousu 2005, ANN 2004, Riciputi 2007
  70. ^ Brigid Alverson February 12, 2014 "Strong French Manga Market Begins to Dip" publishersweeklycom Retrieved December 14, 2014 
  71. ^ Rich Johnston January 1, 2014 "French Comics In 2013 – It's Not All Asterix But Quite A Bit Is" bleedingcoolcom Retrieved December 14, 2014 
  72. ^ Jennifer Fishbein 27 December 2007 "Europe's Manga Mania" Spiegel Online International Retrieved 30 January 2012 
  73. ^ Patten 2004
  74. ^ In 1987, "Japanese comics were more legendary than accessible to American readers", Patten 2004, p 259
  75. ^ Napier 2000, pp 239–256, Clements & McCarthy 2006, pp 475–476
  76. ^ Patten 2004, Schodt 1996, pp 305–340, Leonard 2004
  77. ^ Schodt 1996, p 309, Rifas 2004, Rifas adds that the original EduComics titles were Gen of Hiroshima and I SAW IT
  78. ^ Patten 2004, pp 37, 259–260, Thompson 2007, p xv
  79. ^ Leonard 2004, Patten 2004, pp 52–73, Farago 2007
  80. ^ Schodt 1996, pp 318–321, Dark Horse Comics 2004
  81. ^ Brienza, Casey E 2009 "Books, Not Comics: Publishing Fields, Globalization, and Japanese Manga in the United States" Publishing Research Quarterly 25 2: 101–117 doi:101007/s12109-009-9114-2 
  82. ^ Kwok Wah Lau, Jenny 2003 "4" Multiple modernities: cinemas and popular media in transcultural East Asia Philadelphia: Temple University Press p 78 
  83. ^ Patten 2004, pp 50, 110, 124, 128, 135, Arnold 2000
  84. ^ Schodt 1996, p 95
  85. ^ Arnold 2000, Farago 2007, Bacon 2005
  86. ^ Schodt 1996, pp 308–319
  87. ^ Reid 2009
  88. ^ Glazer 2005, Masters 2006, Bosker 2007, Pink 2007
  89. ^ Stewart 1984
  90. ^ Crandol 2002
  91. ^ Tai 2007
  92. ^ ANN 2002
  93. ^ ANN 10 May 2006
  94. ^ ANN 5 May 2006
  95. ^ Boilet 2001, Boilet & Takahama 2004
  96. ^ ANN 2007, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan 2007
  97. ^ Obunsha Co,Ltd 2014-07-18 京都精華大学、入試結果 倍率、マンガ学科。 in Japanese Obunsha Co,Ltd Archived from the original on 2014-07-17 Retrieved 2014-07-18 
  98. ^ Kyoto Seika University "Kyoto Seika University, Faculty of Manga" Kyoto Seika University Archived from the original on 2014-07-17 Retrieved 2014-07-18 
  99. ^ Shuho Sato; et al 2012-07-26 漫画を学校で学ぶ意義とは in Japanese togetter Retrieved 2014-07-19 

References

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  • Bosker, Bianca 31 August 2007 "Manga Mania" The Wall Street Journal Retrieved 1 April 2008 
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  • Cube 18 December 2007 2007年のオタク市場規模は1866億円―メディアクリエイトが白書 in Japanese Inside for All Games Retrieved 18 December 2007 
  • "Dark Horse buys Studio Proteus" Press release Dark Horse Comics 6 February 2004 
  • Drazen, Patrick 2003 Anime Explosion! The What Why & Wow! of Japanese Animation Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge ISBN 978-1-880656-72-3 
  • Farago, Andrew 30 September 2007 "Interview: Jason Thompson" The Comics Journal Retrieved 4 March 2008 
  • Fishbein, Jennifer 26 December 2007 "Europe's Manga Mania" BusinessWeek Retrieved 29 December 2007 
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  • Gardner, William O November 2003 "Attack of the Phallic Girls" Science Fiction Studies 88 Retrieved 5 April 2008 
  • Glazer, Sarah 18 September 2005 "Manga for Girls" The New York Times Retrieved 4 March 2008 
  • Gravett, Paul 2004 Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics New York: Harper Design ISBN 1-85669-391-0 
  • Gravett, Paul 15 October 2006 "Gekiga: The Flipside of Manga" Retrieved 4 March 2008 
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  • Kern, Adam 2006 Manga from the Floating World: Comicbook Culture and the Kibyōshi of Edo Japan Cambridge: Harvard University Press ISBN 978-0-674-02266-9 
  • Kern, Adam 2007 "Symposium: Kibyoshi: The World's First Comicbook" International Journal of Comic Art 9: 1–486 
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  • "'Manga no Kuni': A manga magazine from the Second Sino-Japanese War period" Kyoto International Manga Museum Retrieved 21 December 2008 
  • "'Poten': a manga magazine from Kyoto" Kyoto International Manga Museum Retrieved 21 December 2008 
  • "'Shonen Pakku'; Japan's first children's manga magazine" Kyoto International Manga Museum Retrieved 21 December 2008 
  • "The first Japanese manga magazine: Eshinbun Nipponchi" Kyoto International Manga Museum Retrieved 21 December 2008 
  • "Tokyopop To Move Away from OEL and World Manga Labels" Anime News Network 5 May 2006 Retrieved 19 December 2007 

Further reading

  • "Japanese Manga Market Drops Below 500 Billion Yen" ComiPress 10 March 2007 
  • "Un poil de culture – Une introduction à l'animation japonaise" in French 11 July 2007 
  • Hattie Jones, "Manga girls: Sex, love, comedy and crime in recent boy's manga and anime," in Brigitte Steger and Angelika Koch 2013 eds: Manga Girl Seeks Herbivore Boy Studying Japanese Gender at Cambridge Lit Publisher, pp 24–81
  • Italian Marcella Zaccagnino and Sebastiano Contrari "Manga: il Giappone alla conquista del mondo" Archive Limes, rivista italiana di geopolitica 31/10/2007

External links

  • Manga at DMOZ

manga, manga fox, manga panda, manga reader, mangakakalot, mangaku, mangalam, manganese, mangareader.net, mangastream.com


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