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Mandukya Upanishad

mandukya upanishad, mandukya upanishad pdf
The Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad Sanskrit: माण्डूक्य उपनिषद्, Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad is the shortest of all the Upanishads, and is assigned to Atharvaveda1 It is listed as number 6 in the Muktikā canon of 108 Upanishads2

It is in prose, consisting of twelve terse verses, and is associated with a Rig Vedic school of scholars1 It discusses the syllable Om, presents the theory of four states of consciousness, asserts the existence and nature of Atman Soul, Self34

The Mandukya Upanishad is notable for having been recommended in the Muktikā Upanishad, through two central characters of the Ramayana, as the one Upanishad that alone is sufficient for knowledge to gain moksha, and as first in its list of eleven principal Upanishads2 The text is also notable for inspiring Gaudapada's Karika, a classic for the Vedanta school of Hinduism2 Mandukya Upanishad is among the oft cited texts on chronology and philosophical relationship between Hinduism and Buddhism56

Contents

  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 Chronology and authorship
    • 21 Chronology
    • 22 Chronological Beginnings
    • 23 Authorship
  • 3 Structure
  • 4 Contents
    • 41 Aum in the Mandukya Upanishad
    • 42 Four states of consciousness
    • 43 Theory and nature of Atman
  • 5 Similarities and differences with Buddhist teachings
  • 6 Reception
    • 61 Muktika Upanishad
    • 62 Classical commentators
      • 621 Gaudapada
      • 622 Shankaracharya
      • 623 Madhvacharya
    • 63 Modern commentators
  • 7 See also
  • 8 Notes
  • 9 References
  • 10 Sources
    • 101 Published sources
    • 102 Web-sources
  • 11 Further reading
  • 12 External links

Etymologyedit

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The root of Mandukya is sometimes considered as Manduka Sanskrit: मण्डूक which literally has several meanings It means "frog", "a particular breed of horse", "the sole of horse's hoof", or "a kind of coitus"7 Some writers8 have suggested the "frog" as the etymological root for Mandukya Upanishad

Another root for the Upanishad's name is Mānduka Sanskrit: माण्डूक which literally is "a Vedic school" or means "a teacher"9 Paul Deussen states the etymological roots of Mandukya Upanishad to be a "half lost school of Rigveda"1 This school may be related to the scholar named Hrasva Māṇḍūkeya, whose theory of semivowels is discussed in Aitareya Aranyaka of Rigveda10

Applying the rules of sandhi, the text is also called Mandukyopanishad11

Chronology and authorshipedit

Chronologyedit

The chronology of Mandukya Upanishad, like other Upanishads, is uncertain and contested12 The chronology is difficult to resolve because all opinions rest on scanty evidence, an analysis of archaism, style and repetitions across texts, driven by assumptions about likely evolution of ideas, and on presumptions about which philosophy might have influenced which other Indian philosophies1213

Nakamura dates the Mandukya Upanishad to "about the first or second centuries AD"14 Richard King too dates the Mandukya Upanishad at the first two centuries of the Common Era15 Olivelle states, "we have the two late prose Upanisads, the Prasna and the Mandukya, which cannot be much older than the beginning of the common era"16

Mahony, on the other hand, states that Mandukya Upanishad probably emerged in the late fifth and early fourth centuries BCE, along with Prashna and Maitri Upanishads17 Phillips lists Mandukya Upanishad before and about the time the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, the Maitri Upanishad, as well as the first Buddhist Pali and Jaina canonical texts were composed12 Ranade18 posits a view similar to Phillips, placing Mandukya's chronological composition in the fifth, that is the last group of ancient Principal Upanishads

Chronological Beginningsedit

The foundation of several theories in the Mandukya Upanishad are found in chronologically more ancient Sanskrit texts19 For example, chapters 87 through 812 of Chandogya Upanishad discuss the "four states of consciousness" as awake, dream-filled sleep, deep sleep, and beyond deep sleep1920

Authorshipedit

The text of the Mandukya Upanishad is fully incorporated in the Mandukya Karika, a commentary attributed to the 6th century CE21 Gaudapada, and is not known to exist independent of this commentary11 Isaeva states that some scholars, including Paul Deussen, presumed that Gaudapada may be its author; however, there is no historical or textual evidence for this hypothesis11 Scholars consider Mandukya Upanishad as a Principal Upanishad with more ancient origins1213

Structureedit

In contrast to the older Upanishads, the Mandukya Upanishad is very short, with clear and concise formulations2223 It has twelve terse prose paragraphs4

Contentsedit

The Mandukya Upanishad is an important Upanishad in Hinduism, particularly to its Advaita Vedanta school2425 It tersely presents several central doctrines, namely that "the universe is Brahman," "the self soul, atman exists and is Brahman," and "the four states of consciousness"242627 The Mandukya Upanishad also presents several theories about the syllable Om, and that it symbolizes self244

Aum in the Mandukya Upanishadedit

The Mandukya Upanishad is one of several Upanishads that discuss the meaning and significance of the syllable Om Aum

The Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad opens by declaring, "Om!, this syllable is this whole world" Thereafter it presents various explanations and theories on what it means and signifies4 This discussion is built on a structure of "four fourths" or "fourfold", derived from A + U + M + "silence" or without an element2834

Aum as all states of time

In verse 1, the Upanishad states that time is threefold: the past, the present and the future, that these three are "Aum" The four fourth of time is that which transcends time, that too is "Aum" expressed4

Aum as all states of Atman

In verse 2, states the Upanishad, everything is Brahman, but Brahman is Atman the soul, self, and that the Atman is fourfold3

Aum as all states of consciousness

In verses 3 to 6, the Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad enumerates four states of consciousness: wakeful, dream, deep sleep and the state of ekatma being one with Self, the oneness of Self4 These four are A + U + M + "without an element" respectively4

Aum as all of etymological knowledge

In verses 9 to 12, the Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad enumerates fourfold etymological roots of the syllable "Aum" It states that the first element of "Aum" is A, which is from Apti obtaining, reaching or from Adimatva being first3 The second element is U, which is from Utkarsa exaltation or from Ubhayatva intermediateness4 The third element is M, from Miti erecting, constructing or from Mi Minati, or apīti annihilation3 The fourth is without an element, without development, beyond the expanse of universe In this way, states the Upanishad, the syllable Om is the Atman the self indeed34

Four states of consciousnessedit

See also: Three Bodies Doctrine Vedanta and Kosha

The Mandukya Upanishad describes four states of consciousness, namely waking jågrat, dreaming svapna, and deep sleep suṣupti,web 1web 2 which correspond to the Three Bodies Doctrine:29

  1. The first state is the waking state, in which we are aware of our daily world "It is described as outward-knowing bahish-prajnya, gross sthula and universal vaishvanara"web 2 This is the gross body
  2. The second state is the dreaming mind "It is described as inward-knowing antah-prajnya, subtle pravivikta and burning taijasa"web 2 This is the subtle body
  3. The third state is the state of deep sleep In this state the underlying ground of consciousness is undistracted, "the Lord of all sarv'-eshvara, the knower of all sarva-jnya, the inner controller antar-yami, the source of all yonih sarvasya, the origin and dissolution of created things prabhav'-apyayau hi bhutanam"web 2 This is the causal body
  4. The fourth factor is Turiya, pure consciousness It is the background that underlies and transcends the three common states of consciousnessweb 3 web 4 In this consciousness both absolute and relative, saguna brahman and Nirguna Brahman, are transcended30 It is the true state of experience of the infinite ananta and non-different advaita/abheda, free from the dualistic experience which results from the attempts to conceptualise vipalka reality31 It is the state in which ajativada, non-origination, is apprehended31

Theory and nature of Atmanedit

The verses 3 through 7 discuss four states of Atman Self, Soul34

Verse 3 of the Upanishad describes the first state of Self as outwardly cognitive with seven limbs,32 nineteen mouths,33 enjoying the gross,34 a state of Self common in all of human beings34

The Mandukya Upanishad, in verse 4, asserts the second state of Self as inwardly cognitive with seven limbs, nineteen mouths, enjoying the exquisite, a state of brilliant Self34

The Upanishad's verse 5 states the third state of Self as one without desire or anticipations, where pure conscience is his only mouth, where he is in unified cognition, enjoying the delight, a state of blissful Self34

The verses 6 and 7 of the Upanishad states the fourth state of Self as one beyond all the three, beyond extrospective state, beyond introspective state, beyond cognitive state, the state of ekatmya pratyaya sara one with the Self, tranquil, benign, advaita without second He then is the Self, just Atman, the one which should be discerned34

Johnston summarizes these four states of Self, respectively, as seeking the physical, seeking inner thought, seeking the causes and spiritual consciousness, and the fourth state is realizing oneness with the Self, the Eternal35

Similarities and differences with Buddhist teachingsedit

Scholars contest whether Mandukya Upanishad was influenced by Buddhist theories along with the similarities and differences between Buddhism and Hinduism in light of the text According to Hajime Nakamura, the Mandukya Upanishad was influenced by Mahayana Buddhism and its concept of śūnyatā5 Nakamura states, "many particular Buddhist terms or uniquely Buddhist modes of expression may be found in it",36note 1 such as adrsta, avyavaharya, agrahya, alaksana, acintya, prapancopasama38 According to Randall Collins the Madukya Upanishad "includes phrases found in the Prajnaparamitrasutras of Mahayana Buddhism"39

According to Michael Comans, Vidushekhara also notes that the term prapañcopaśama does not appear in pre-Buddhist Brahmanic works, but in contrast to Nakamura he does not conclude that the term was taken over from Mahayana Buddhism6 According to Comans, eventual Mahayana origins of this term are no more than a possibility, and not a certainty6

Comans also disagrees with Nakamura's thesis that "the fourth realm caturtha was perhaps influenced by the Sunyata of Mahayana Buddhism"note 2 According to Comans,

It is impossible to see how the unequivocal teaching of a permanent, underlying reality, which is explicitly called the "Self", could show early Mahayana influence40

Comans further refers to Nakamura himself, who notes that later Mahayana sutras such as the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra and the concept of Buddha-nature, were influenced by Vedantic thought40 Comans concludes that

There can be no suggestion that the teaching about the underlying Self as contained in the Mandukya contains shows any trace of Buddhist thought, as this teaching can be traced to the pre-Buddhist Brhadaranyaka Upanishad40

Jacobs lists adrsta and other terms in more ancient, pre-Buddhist literature such as the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad41

Isaeva states that there are differences in the teachings in the texts of Buddhism and the Mandukya Upanishad of Hinduism, because the latter asserts that citta "consciousness" is identical with the eternal and immutable atman "soul, self" of the Upanishads42 In other words, Mandukya Upanishad and Gaudapada affirm the soul exists, while Buddhist schools affirm that there is no soul or self44344

Receptionedit

Muktika Upanishadedit

Rama and Hanuman of the Hindu Epic Ramayana, in Muktika Upanishad, discuss moksha freedom, liberation, deliverance Rama, therein, recommends Mandukya as first among 108 Upanishads, as follows,2

The Mandukya alone is sufficient
for the deliverance of the aspirant,
if even then, the knowledge lacks,
then read the ten Upanishads

He attains the goal
if he reads the thirty two Upanishads,
if you just wish deliverance, while death is near,
read, then, the hundred and eight Upanishads

— Muktika Upanishad Ii26-29, Translated by Paul Deussen2

Classical commentatorsedit

Gaudapadaedit

Further information: Gaudapada § Mandukya Karika

One of the first known extant metrical commentary on this Upanishad was written by Gaudapada, This commentary, called the Māndūkya-kārikā, is the earliest known systematic exposition of Advaita Vedanta

Raju states that Gaudapada took over the Buddhist doctrines that ultimate reality is pure consciousness vijñapti-mātra,45note 3 and "the four-cornered negation"45note 4 Raju further states that Gaudapada "weaved both doctrines into a philosophy of the Mandukaya Upanisad, which was further developed by Shankara"49note 5 Other scholars such as Murti state, that while there is shared terminology, the doctrines of Gaudapada and Buddhism are fundamentally different51note 6

Shankaracharyaedit

Shankaracharya, a disciple of Govindapada who himself was either a direct or a distant disciple of Gaudapada,53 further made commentaries on Gaudapada Mandukya karika, Mandukya upanishad forms one of the basis of Advaita Vedanta as expounded by shankaracharya54

Madhvacharyaedit

Madhvacharya, the proponder of Dvaita Vedanta, has written commentaries on Mandukya upanishad and offers an emotional and thestic perspective of the scripture, and attributes them to Śruti, his commentary based on bhakti yoga and uses Vishnu and his attributes as a similes for deciphering sholokas of mandukya upanishad 55

Modern commentatorsedit

According to Aurobindo, Brahman, which has the potentiality of becoming, has created out an existence which has a relation between itself This existence with its experience of becoming and having relation with the absolute is called as Soul or purusha, the principle or power of becoming is called as nature or prakriti56relevant – discuss

Swami Rama has provided an interpretation of this Upanishad from the experiential standpoint in his commentary Enlightenment without God57

Ranade calls the aphoristic style of Mandukya Upanishad as highly influential on the Sutras of Indian philosophies that followed it, and that the Upanishad has served as a foundational text of the major Vedanta school of Hinduism He states,58

We are told in Mandukya Upanishad how, "the syllable Om is verily all that exists Under it is included all the past, the present and the future, as well as that which transcends time Verily all this is Brahman The Atman is Brahman This Atman is four-footed The first foot is the Vaisvanara, who enjoys gross things, in the state of wakefulness The second foot is the Taijasa, who enjoys exquisite things in the state of dream The third is the Prajna who enjoys bliss in the state of deep sleep The fourth is Atman, who is alone without a second, calm, holy and tranquil" This passage has been verily the basis upon which all the later systems of Vedantic philosophy have come to be built

— RD Ranade58

Ranade's views on the importance of Mandukya Upanishad and Gaudapada's commentary on Vedanta school, particularly Advaita Vedanta sub-school of Hinduism, is shared by modern era scholars such as Hacker, Vetter and others59

Johnston states that Mandukya Upanishad must be read in two layers, consciousness and vehicles of consciousness, soul and nature of soul, the empirical and the eternal35 The text aphoristically condenses these layers of message, both in literal and metaphorical sense

William Butler Yeats, the Irish poet, was inspired by the Upanishads and Mandukya Upanishad were among texts he commented on6061

David Stoll's 1987 Piano Quartet is inspired by three Upanishads, one being Mandukya Upanishad, other two being Katha and Isha Upanishads62

See alsoedit

  • Adi Shri Gauḍapādāchārya
  • Adi Shri Shankaracharya
  • Advaita
  • Shri Gaudapadacharya Mutt
  • Shri Govinda Bhagavatpadacharya

Notesedit

  1. ^ Nakamura:
    • "As was pointed out in detail in the section titled Interpretation, many particular Buddhist terms or uniquely Buddhist modes of expression may be found in it"36
    • "From the fact that many Buddhist terms are found in its explanation, it is clear that this view was established under the influence of the Mahayana Buddhist concept of Void"37
    • "Although Buddhistic influence can be seen in the Maitri-Upanishad, the particular terms and modes of expression of Mahayana Buddhism do not yet appear, whereas the influence of the Mahayana concept of Void can clearly be recognized in the Mandukya-Upanisad"37
    • "Although Mahayana Buddhism strongly influenced this Upanisad, neither the mode of exposition of the Madhyamika school nor the characteristic terminology of the Vijnanavada school appears"14
  2. ^ Nakamura, as cited in Comans 2000 p9840
  3. ^ It is often used interchangeably with the term citta-mātra, but they have different meanings The standard translation of both terms is "consciousness-only" or "mind-only" Several modern researchers object this translation, and the accompanying label of "absolute idealism" or "idealistic monism"46 A better translation for vijñapti-mātra is representation-only47
  4. ^ 1 Something is 2 It is not 3 It both is and is not 4 It neither is nor is notweb 548
  5. ^ The influence of Mahayana Buddhism on other religions and philosophies was not limited to Vedanta Kalupahana notes that the Visuddhimagga in Theravada Buddhism tradition contains "some metaphysical speculations, such as those of the Sarvastivadins, the Sautrantikas, and even the Yogacarins"50
  6. ^ Gaudapada's doctrines are unlike Buddhism, states Murti Gaudapada's influential Vedanta text consists of four chapters; Chapter One, Two and Three of which are entirely Vedantin and founded on the Upanishads, with little Buddhist flavor51 Chapter Four uses Buddhist terminology and incorporates Buddhist doctrines, state both Murti and Richard King, but Vedanta scholars who followed Gaudapada through the 17th century never referenced nor used Chapter Four, they only quote from the first three5152

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b c Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814691, pages 605-609
  2. ^ a b c d e Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814691, pages 556-557
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Volume 2, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814691, pages 605-637
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Hume, Robert Ernest 1921, The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, pp 391–393 
  5. ^ a b Nakamura 2004, p 284-286
  6. ^ a b c Comans 2000, p 97
  7. ^ maNDUka Monier-Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Cologne Digital Lexicon, Germany
  8. ^ Nanditha Krishna 2010 Sacred animals of India India: Penguin books pp 144–145 Retrieved March 11, 2015 
  9. ^ mANDUka Monier-Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Cologne Digital Lexicon, Germany
  10. ^ Charles W Kreidler, Phonology: Critical Concepts, Volume 1, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415203456, page 9
  11. ^ a b c Isaeva 1993, p 50
  12. ^ a b c d Stephen Phillips 2009, Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231144858, Chapter 1
  13. ^ a b Patrick Olivelle 1996, The Early Upanishads: Annotated Text & Translation, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195124354, Introduction Chapter
  14. ^ a b Nakamura 2004, p 286
  15. ^ King 1995, p 52
  16. ^ Olivelle 1998, p 13
  17. ^ WK Mahony 1987, Upanishads, in Jones, Lindsay, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion 2005, MacMillan, ISBN 978-0028659978, page 9483
  18. ^ RD Ranade, A Constructive Survey of Upanishadic Philosophy, Chapter 1, pages 13-18
  19. ^ a b PT Raju 1985, Structural Depths of Indian Thought, State University New York Press, ISBN 978-0887061394, pages 32-33; Quote: "We can see that this story in Chandogya Upanishad is an anticipation of the Mandukya doctrine, "
  20. ^ Robert Hume, Chandogya Upanishad - Eighth Prathapaka, Seventh through Twelfth Khanda, Oxford University Press, pages 268-273
  21. ^ PT Raju 2009, The Philosophical Traditions of India, Routledge, ISBN 978-8120809833, page 177
  22. ^ Rama 2007, p 3-4
  23. ^ Nakamura 2004
  24. ^ a b c King 1995, p 67
  25. ^ K Singh 2001, Some Thoughts on Vedanta, India International Centre Quarterly, Vol 28, No 3, pages 100-108
  26. ^ R V De Smet 1972, Early Trends in the Indian Understanding of Man, Philosophy East and West, Vol 22, No 3 Jul, 1972, pages 259-268
  27. ^ Mark B Woodhouse 1978, Consciousness and Brahman-Atman, The Monist, Vol 61, No 1, Conceptions of the Self: East & West JANUARY, 1978, pages 109-124
  28. ^ Verse 12 of Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad; see Robert Hume's The Thirteen Principal Upanishad, page 393
  29. ^ Wilber 2000, p 132
  30. ^ Sarma 1996, p 137
  31. ^ a b King 1995, p 300 note 140
  32. ^ Sankara's Bhasya refers to Chandogya Upanishad's verse 5182 for the list of seven
  33. ^ Sankara's Bhasya states that these nineteen mouths of a human being are what interact with the empirical universe: five senses - seeing, hearing, touch, taste and smell; five organs of action - speech, hand, locomotion, sexual activity and excretion; five vital types of breath; the manas mind, the buddhi intellect, power to reason, the ahamkara ego and the citta consciousness
  34. ^ this is everything in the perceived empirical universe
  35. ^ a b Charles Johnston, The Measures of the Eternal - Mandukya Upanishad Theosophical Quarterly, October, 1923, pages 158-162
  36. ^ a b Nakamura 2004, p 284
  37. ^ a b Nakamura 2004, p 285
  38. ^ Nakamura 2004, p 215-218
  39. ^ Collins 2009, p 963, note 17
  40. ^ a b c d Comans 2000, p 98
  41. ^ GA Jacobs, A Concordance of the Principal Upanishads and Bhagavad Gita, Upanishad Vakya Kosha, Motilal Banarsidass, see pages 31-32 for adrsta, page 128 for avyavaharya, pages 13-14 for agrahya, etc
  42. ^ Isaeva 1993, p 54
  43. ^ KN Jayatilleke 2010, Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, ISBN 978-8120806191, pages 246-249, from note 385 onwards;
    Steven Collins 1994, Religion and Practical Reason Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy, State Univ of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791422175, page 64; Quote: "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought Put very briefly, this is the Buddhist doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence";
    Edward Roer Translator, Shankara's Introduction, p 2, at Google Books, pages 2-4
    Katie Javanaud 2013, Is The Buddhist 'No-Self' Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana, Philosophy Now
  44. ^ John C Plott et al 2000, Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120801585, page 63, Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism"
  45. ^ a b Raju 1992, p 177
  46. ^ Kochumuttom 1999, p 1
  47. ^ Kochumuttom 1999, p 5
  48. ^ Garfield 2003
  49. ^ Raju 1992, p 177-178
  50. ^ Kalupahana 1994, p 206
  51. ^ a b c TRV Murti 1955, The central philosophy of Buddhism, Routledge 2008 Reprint, ISBN 978-0-415-46118-4, pages 114-115
  52. ^ Gaudapada, Devanathan Jagannathan, University of Toronto, IEP
  53. ^ Comans 2000, p 2, 163
  54. ^ Izzo, David Garrett 2009 The Influence of Mysticism on 20th Century British and American Literature McFarland p 18 ISBN 9780786441068 Retrieved March 16, 2015 
  55. ^ D Sonde, Nagesh Sri Madhva Mandukya Upanishad PDF India pp 1–5 Retrieved March 3, 2015 
  56. ^ Aurobindo, Sri "Soul and nature" The Synthesis of Yoga Wisconsin: Lotus Press p 429 ISBN 0-941524-65-5 
  57. ^ Swami Rama 9182, Enlightenment without God Himalayan International Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy of the USA
  58. ^ a b RD Ranade, A Constructive Survey of Upanishadic Philosophy, Chapter 1, pages 35-36
  59. ^ W Halbfass 1991, Tradition and Reflection - Explorations in Indian Thought, State University of New York, ISBN 0-791403629, pages 139-141, 169-182
  60. ^ Enoch Brater 1975, W B Yeats: The Poet as Critic, Journal of Modern Literature, Vol 4, No 3, Special Yeats Number, pages 651-676
  61. ^ Bruce Wilson 1982, "From Mirror after Mirror": Yeats and Eastern Thought, Comparative Literature, Vol 34, No 1, pages 28-46
  62. ^ Guy Rickards 2002, David Stoll Record Reviews, Tempo New Series, Cambridge University Press, No 222, page 53 column 1

Sourcesedit

Published sourcesedit

  • Collins, Randall 2009, The Sociology of Philosophies, Harvard University Press 
  • Comans, Michael 2000, The Method of Early Advaita Vedānta: A Study of Gauḍapāda, Śaṅkara, Sureśvara, and Padmapāda, Motilal Banarsidass Publ 
  • Isaeva, NV 1993, Shankara and Indian Philosophy, SUNY Press 
  • Kalupahana, David J 1994, A history of Buddhist philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited 
  • King, Richard 1995, Early Advaita Vedānta and Buddhism: The Mahāyāna Context of the Gauḍapādīya-kārikā, SUNY Press 
  • Kochumuttom, Thomas A 1999, A buddhist Doctrine of Experience A New Translation and Interpretation of the Works of Vasubandhu the Yogacarin, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass 
  • Mahony, William K 1987, "Upanisads", in Jones, Lindsay, MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religion 2005, MacMillan 
  • Nakamura, Hajime 2004, A History of Early Vedānta Philosophy, Part 2, Motilal Banarsidass Publ 
  • Olivelle, Patrick 1998, The Early Upanishads, Oxford University Press 
  • Raju, PT 1992, The Philosophical Traditions of India, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited 
  • Sarma, Chandradhar 1996, The Advaita Tradition in Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass 
  • Rama, Swami 1982, Enlightenment Without God, Honesdale, Pennsylvania, USA: The Himalayan International Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy 
  • Rama, Swami 2007, OM the Eternal Witness: Secrets of the Mandukya Upanishad Prakash Keshaviah PHD ed, India: Himalaya Institute hospital trust, ISBN 978-81-88157-43-3, retrieved March 11, 2015 

Web-sourcesedit

  1. ^ Arvind Sharma, Sleep as a State of Consciousness in Advaita Vedånta State University of New York Press
  2. ^ a b c d advaitaorguk, Om' – three states and one reality An interpretation of the Mandukya Upanishad
  3. ^ Ramana Maharshi States of Consciousness 
  4. ^ Sri Chinmoy Summits of God-Life 
  5. ^ Anthony Peter Iannini 2001, Nāgārjuna’s Emptiness and Pyrrho’s Skepticism

Further readingedit

  • Dvivedi, Manilal N 2003, The Mandukyopanishad: With Gaudapada's Karikas and the Bhashya of Sankara, Jain Publishing Company 
  • Eight Upanishads Vol2 With the commentary of Sankaracharya, Tr By Swami Gambhirananda Advaita Ashrama, Calcutta, 1990
  • V Krishnamurthy Essentials of Hinduism Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi 1989
  • Swami Rama Enlightenment Without God commentary on Mandukya Upanishad Himalayan International Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy, 1982
  • Sri Aurobindo, The Upanishads 1 Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Pondicherry 1972

External linksedit

  • The Mandukya Upanishad/Karika, Shankara’s Commentary and Anandagiri’s Tika Translated by Swami Nikhilananda, online ebook
  • Mandukya Upanishad Robert Hume Translator, Oxford University Press
  • Multiple translations Johnston, Nikhilānanda, Dvivedi, Panoli
  • The Mandukya Upanishad English Translation by Jayaram V
  • Mandukya Upanishad with Gaudapada Karika
  • Part 1 of a Vedanta class by Swami Sarvapriyananda on the Mandukya Upanishad
  • Part 2 of a Vedanta class by Swami Sarvapriyananda on the Mandukya Upanishad
Recitation
  • Mandukya Upanishad recitation by Pt Ganesh Vidyalankar
  • Downloadable Audio of 44 Classes on Mandukya Upanishad and Gaudapada Karika by Swami Tattwamayananda

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    29.10.2014


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