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Mahdist State

mahdist state
The Mahdist State, also known as Mahdist Sudan or the Sudanese Mahdiyya, was a religious and political movement launched in 1881 by Muammad Ahmad bin Abdullah later Muhammad al-Mahdi against the Khedivate of Egypt, which had ruled the Sudan since 1821 After four years of struggle, the Mahdist rebels overthrew the Ottoman-Egyptian administration and established their own "Islamic and national" government with its capital in Omdurman Thus, from 1885 the Mahdist government maintained sovereignty and control over the Sudanese territories until its existence was terminated by the Anglo-Egyptian forces in 1898

Mohammed Ahmed al-Mahdi enlisted the people of Sudan in what he declared a jihad against the administration that was based in Khartoum, which was dominated by Egyptians and Turks The Khartoum government initially dismissed the Mahdi's revolution; he defeated two expeditions sent to capture him in the course of a year The Mahdi's power increased, and his call spread throughout the Sudan, with his movement becoming known as the Ansar During the same period, the 'Urabi revolution broke out in Egypt, with the British occupying the country in 1882 Britain appointed Charles Gordon as General-Governor of Sudan Months after his arrival in Khartoum and after several battles with the Mahdi rebels, Mahdist forces captured Khartoum, and Gordon was killed in his palace The Mahdi did not live long after this victory, and his successor Abdallahi ibn Muhammad consolidated the new state, with administrative and judiciary systems based in Islamic law

Sudan's economy was destroyed during the Mahdist War and famine; war and disease reduced the population by half[4][5][6][7] The British reconquered the Sudan in 1898, ruling it after that in theory as a condominium with Egypt but in practice as a colony

Contents

  • 1 Background
  • 2 Muhammad Ahmad
  • 3 Advancing attacks
  • 4 British response
  • 5 Mahdiyah
  • 6 The Khalifa
  • 7 Reconquest of Sudan
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 Further reading

Background

Developments in Sudan during the late 19th century were heavily influenced by the British position in Egypt In 1869, the Suez Canal opened and quickly became Britain's economic lifeline to India and the Far East To defend this waterway, Britain sought a greater role in Egyptian affairs In 1873, the British government therefore supported a programme whereby an Anglo-French debt commission assumed responsibility for managing Egypt's fiscal affairs This commission eventually forced khedive Ismail to abdicate in favour of his more politically acceptable son, Tawfiq 1877–1892

After the removal in 1877 of Ismail, who had appointed him to the post, Charles George Gordon resigned as governor general of Sudan in 1880 His successors lacked direction from Cairo and feared the political turmoil that had engulfed Egypt As a result, they failed to continue the policies Gordon had put in place The illegal slave trade revived, although not enough to satisfy the merchants whom Gordon had put out of business The Sudanese army suffered from a lack of resources, and unemployed soldiers from disbanded units troubled garrison towns Tax collectors arbitrarily increased taxation

Muhammad Ahmad

Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi

In this troubled atmosphere, Muhammad Ahmad ibn as Sayyid Abd Allah, a fakir, or holy man, who combined personal magnetism with religious zealotry, emerged, determined to expel the Turks and restore Islam to its primitive purity The son of a Dongola boatbuilder, Muhammad Ahmad had become the disciple of Muhammad ash Sharif, the head of the Sammaniyah order Later, as a sheikh of the order, Muhammad Ahmad spent several years in seclusion and gained a reputation as a mystic and teacher In 1880, he became a Sammaniyah

A 20 qurush coin minted during the reign of Abdallahi ibn Muhammad

In 1881, Muhammad Ahmad proclaimed himself the Mahdi or expected one Some of his most dedicated followers regarded him as directly inspired by Allah He wanted Muslims to reclaim the Quran and hadith as the foundational sources of Islam, creating a just society Specifically relating to Sudan, he claimed its poverty was a virtue and denounced worldly wealth and luxury For Muhammad Ahmad, Egypt was an example of wealth leading to impious behavior[8]

Even after the Mahdi proclaimed a jihad, or holy war, against the Turkiyah, Khartoum dismissed him as a religious fanatic The Egyptian government paid more attention when his religious zeal turned to denunciation of tax collectors To avoid arrest, the Mahdi and a party of his followers, the Ansar, made a long march to Kurdufan, where he gained a large number of recruits, especially from the Baggara From a refuge in the area, he wrote appeals to the sheikhs of the religious orders and won active support or assurances of neutrality from all except the pro-Egyptian Khatmiyyah Merchants and Arab tribes that had depended on the slave trade responded as well, along with the Hadendoa Beja, who were rallied to the Mahdi by an Ansar captain, Osman Digna

Advancing attacks

Early in 1882, the Ansar, armed with spears and swords, overwhelmed a British-led 7,000-man Egyptian force not far from Al Ubayyid and seized their rifles, field guns and ammunition The Mahdi followed up this victory by laying siege to Al Ubayyid and starving it into submission after four months The Ansar, 30,000 men strong, then defeated an 8,000-man Egyptian relief force at Sheikan Next the Mahdi captured Darfur and imprisoned Rudolf Carl von Slatin, an Austrian in the khedive's service, who later became the first Egyptian-appointed governor of Darfur Province

The advance of the Ansar and the Hadendowa rising in the east imperiled communications with Egypt and threatened to cut off garrisons at Khartoum, Kassala, Sennar, and Suakin and in the south To avoid being drawn into a costly military intervention, the British government ordered an Egyptian withdrawal from Sudan Gordon, who had received a reappointment as governor general, arranged to supervise the evacuation of Egyptian troops and officials and all foreigners from Sudan

British response

"Death of General Gordon at Khartoum", by JLG Ferris The defeat of the Dervishes at Toski Main article: Nile Expedition

After reaching Khartoum in February 1884, Gordon soon realized that he could not extricate the garrisons As a result, he called for reinforcements from Egypt to relieve Khartoum Gordon also recommended that Zubayr, an old enemy whom he recognized as an excellent military commander, be named to succeed him to give disaffected Sudanese a leader other than the Mahdi to rally behind London rejected this plan As the situation deteriorated, Gordon argued that Sudan was essential to Egypt's security and that to allow the Ansar a victory there would invite the movement to spread elsewhere

Increasing British popular support for Gordon eventually forced Prime Minister William Gladstone to mobilize a relief force under the command of Lord Garnet Joseph Wolseley A "flying column" sent overland from Wadi Halfa across the Bayuda Desert bogged down at Abu Tulayh commonly called Abu Klea, where the Hadendowa broke the British line An advance unit that had gone ahead by river when the column reached Al Matammah arrived at Khartoum on 28 January 1885, to find the town had fallen two days earlier The Ansar had waited for the Nile flood to recede before attacking the poorly defended river approach to Khartoum in boats, slaughtering the garrison, killing Gordon, and delivering his head to the Mahdi's tent Kassala and Sennar fell soon after, and by the end of 1885, the Ansar had begun to move into the southern region In all Sudan, only Sawakin, reinforced by Indian army troops, and Wadi Halfa on the northern frontier remained in Anglo-Egyptian hands

Mahdiyah

A Mahdist Dervish 1899

The Mahdiyah Mahdist regime imposed traditional Sharia Islamic laws Sudan's new ruler also authorized the burning of lists of pedigrees and books of law and theology because of their association with the old order and because he believed that the former accentuated tribalism at the expense of religious unity

The Mahdiyah has become known as the first genuine Sudanese nationalist government The Mahdi maintained that his movement was not a religious order that could be accepted or rejected at will, but that it was a universal regime, which challenged man to join or to be destroyed The Mahdi modified Islam's five pillars to support the dogma that loyalty to him was essential to true belief The Mahdi also added the declaration "and Muhammad Ahmad is the Mahdi of God and the representative of His Prophet" to the recitation of the creed, the shahada Moreover, service in the jihad replaced the hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, as a duty incumbent on the faithful Zakat almsgiving became the tax paid to the state The Mahdi justified these and other innovations and reforms as responses to instructions conveyed to him by God in visions

The Mahdist regime was also known for its severe persecution of Christians in Sudan, including Copts[9]

The Khalifa

Six months after the capture of Khartoum, the Mahdi died of typhus 22 June 1885 The task of establishing and maintaining a government fell to his deputies—three caliphs chosen by the Mahdi in emulation of the Prophet Muhammad Rivalry among the three, each supported by people of his native region, continued until 1891, when Abdallahi ibn Muhammad, with the help primarily of the Baqqara Arabs, overcame the opposition of the others and emerged as unchallenged leader of the Mahdiyah Abdallahi—called the Khalifa successor—purged the Mahdiyah of members of the Mahdi's family and many of his early religious disciples

Originally, the Mahdiyah functioned as a jihad state, run like a military camp Sharia courts enforced Islamic law and the Mahdi's precepts, which had the force of law After consolidating his power, the Khalifa instituted an administration and appointed Ansar who were usually Baqqara as amirs over each of the several provinces The Khalifa also ruled over rich Al Jazirah Although he failed to restore this region's commercial wellbeing, the Khalifa organized workshops to manufacture ammunition and to maintain river steamboats

Regional relations remained tense throughout much of the Mahdiyah period, largely because of the Khalifa's commitment to using jihad to extend his version of Islam throughout the world For example, the Khalifa rejected an offer of an alliance against the Europeans by Emperor Yohannes IV of Ethiopia reigned 1871-1889 In 1887, a 60,000-man Ansar army invaded Ethiopia, penetrated as far as Gondar, and captured prisoners and booty The Khalifa then refused to conclude peace with Ethiopia In March 1889, an Ethiopian force, commanded by the emperor, marched on Metemma; however, after Yohannes fell in the ensuing Battle of Gallabat, the Ethiopians withdrew Abd ar Rahman an Nujumi, the Khalifa's best general, invaded Egypt in 1889, but British-led Egyptian troops defeated the Ansar at Tushkah The failure of the Egyptian invasion ended the myth of the Ansars' invincibility The Belgians prevented the Mahdi's men from conquering Equatoria, and in 1893, the Italians repulsed an Ansar attack at Akordat in Eritrea and forced the Ansar to withdraw from Ethiopia

Reconquest of Sudan

See also: Mahdist War § Return of the British, and Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan Charging Mahdist army Part of a series on the