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Lullaby

lullaby songs, lullaby music
A lullaby, or cradle song, is a soothing song or piece of music, usually played for or sung to children The purposes of lullabies vary In some societies they are used to pass down cultural knowledge or tradition In addition, lullabies are often used for the developing of communication skills, indication of emotional intent, maintenance of infants' undivided attention, modulation of infants' arousal, and regulation of behavior1 Perhaps one of the most important uses of lullabies is as a sleep aid for infants2 As a result, the music is often simple and repetitive Lullabies can be found in many countries, and have existed since ancient times3

Contents

  • 1 Characteristics
  • 2 Cross-cultural prevalence
  • 3 Therapeutic value
  • 4 Mother–infant interaction
  • 5 In classical music
  • 6 By geography
    • 61 Asia-Pacific
      • 611 Bangladeshi
    • 62 Brazilian
    • 63 British
    • 64 Czech
    • 65 Danish
    • 66 Dutch
    • 67 German
    • 68 Persian
    • 69 Turkish
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

Characteristicsedit

Lullabies tend to share exaggerated melodic tendencies, including simple pitch contours, large pitch ranges, and generally higher pitch4 These clarify and convey heightened emotions, usually of love or affection When there is harmony, infants almost always prefer consonant intervals over dissonant intervals Furthermore, if there is a sequence of dissonant intervals in a song, an infant will usually lose interest and it becomes very difficult to regain its attention5 To reflect this, most lullabies contain primarily consonant intervals Tonally, most lullabies are simple, often merely alternating tonic and dominant harmonies

In addition to pitch tendencies, lullabies share several structural similarities The most frequent tendencies are intermittent repetitions and long pauses between sections67 This dilutes the rate of material and appeals to infants' slower capacity for processing music

Rhythmically, there are shared patterns Lullabies are usually in triple meter or 6/8 time, giving them a "characteristic swinging or rocking motion" 8 This mimics the movement a baby experiences in the womb as a mother moves In addition, infants' preference for rhythm shares a strong connection with what they hear when they are bounced, and even their own body movements9 The tempos of lullabies tend to be generally slow, and the utterances are short4 Again, this aids in the infant's processing of the song

Lullabies almost never have instrumental accompaniments Infants have shown a strong preference for unaccompanied lullabies over accompanied lullabies10 Again, this appeals to infants' more limited ability to process information

Lullabies are often used for their soothing nature, even for non-infants One study found lullabies to be the most successful type of music or sound for relieving stress and improving the overall psychological health of pregnant women11

These characteristics tend to be consistent across cultures It was found that adults of various cultural backgrounds could recognize and identify lullabies without knowing the cultural context of the song6 Infants have shown a strong preferences for songs with these qualities12:19

Cross-cultural prevalenceedit

Lullabies are often used to pass down or strengthen cultural roles and practices In an observation of the setting of lullabies in Albanian culture, lullabies tended to be paired with the rocking of the child in a cradle This is reflected in the swinging rhythmicity of the music In addition to serving as a cultural symbol of the infant's familial status, the cradle's presence during the singing of lullabies helps the infant associate lullabies with falling asleep and waking up13

Therapeutic valueedit

Studies conducted by Dr Jeffery Perlman, chief of newborn medicine at New York–Presbyterian Hospital's Komansky Center for Children's Health, find that gentle music therapy not only slows down the heart rate of prematurely delivered infants but also helps them feed and sleep better This helps them gain weight and speeds their recovery A study published in May 2013 in the Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics under the aegis of the Beth Israel Medical Center in New York City found that the type of music matters Therapeutically designed "live" music — and lullabies sung in person — can influence cardiac and respiratory function Another study published in February 2011 in Arts in Psychotherapy by Jayne M Standley of the National Institute for Infant and Child Medical Music Therapy at Florida State University suggests that babies who receive this kind of therapy leave the hospital sooner14

Additional research by Jayne M Standley has demonstrated that the physiological responses of prematurely delivered infants undergoing intensive care can be regulated by listening to gentle lullabies through headphones In addition to slowing heart and respiration rates, lullabies have been associated with increased oxygen saturation levels and the possible prevention of potentially life-threatening episodes of apnea and bradycardia15 Gentle music can also provide stimulation for premature infants to behave in ways that boost their development and keep them alive Lullabies can serve as a low-risk source of stimulation and reinforcement for increasing nipple sucking feeding rates, providing infants with the nutrition they require for growth and development Lullabies are thus associated with encouraging the rapid development of the neurological system and with a shorter length of hospitalization16

More recent research has shown that lullabies sung live can have beneficial effects on physiological functioning and development in premature infants The live element of a slow, repetitive entrained rhythm can regulate sucking behavior Infants have a natural tendency to entrain to the sounds that surround them Beat perception begins during fetal development in the womb and infants are born with an innate musical preference The element of live breathing sounds can regulate infant heart rate, quiet-alert states, and sleep Live lullabies can also enhance parent-child bonding, thus decreasing parental stress associated with the intensive care In short, live lullabies sung by music therapists induce relaxation, rest, comfort, and optimal growth and development17

Many lullabies, regardless of the meaning of their words, possess a peaceful hypnotic quality Others are mournful or dark, like a lament The Gaelic lullaby "Ba, Ba, Mo Leanabh Beag" was written in 1848 during the potato famine, which caused much hardship in the Scottish Highlands The song mentions, soft potatoes, the mother's situation, and her fears for her child18 In the 1920s, poet Federico García Lorca studied Spanish lullabies and noted the "poetic character" and "depth of sadness" of many of them Lorca's theory was that a large part of the function of the lullaby is to help a mother vocalize her worries and concerns In short, they also serve as therapy for the mother8

Combined with lament, lullaby can have "restorative resounding" properties for hospice inpatients and their families Lullabies typically soothe people through the awake/sleep transition, and similarly can soothe people through the life/death transition Music therapists have called these tunes "lullaments", that which sustain the spirit, support psychological structure, and enable resilience during times of vulnerability to the effects of adversity Lullaments are music-contextualized expressions of attachment and detachment, sadness/tears and happiness/laughter, privilege and loss, nurturance and grief, deterioration, stasis and moving forward19

Many Christmas carols are designed as lullabies for the infant Jesus, the most famous of them being "Silent Night" "Hush Little Baby" has been observed cross-culturally and is known to have a natural capacity for soothing and energizing infants, as well as nurturing caregiving bonds20: 216

Mother–infant interactionedit

Infants exhibit a natural preference for infant-directed over non-infant-directed lullabies12: 83–92 and their own mothers' voice over that of another female21

Much research has been generated on the role of lullabies in nurturing caregiving bonds between mother and child Mothers who sing lullabies to their infants engage in a bonding activity that actually alters the underlying neural structure of the infant brain such that the infant becomes "tuned" into music and its association with parental affiliation20:217 In one Taiwanese study of Kangaroo Care, a technique practiced on newborn infants in which a mother holds her child tightly against her chest, it was demonstrated that infant–mother dyads who listened to their choice of lullaby were associated with more quiet sleep states and less occurrence of crying by the infant and were also associated with significantly lower maternal anxiety, than those dyads who did not listen to lullabies The therapeutic effect of lullabies can thus have a strong impact on calming anxieties and nurturing bonds, which is especially important with premature and fragile infants22

In classical musicedit

Lullabies written by established classical composers are often given the form-name berceuse, which is French for lullaby, or cradle song The most famous lullaby is the one by Johannes Brahms "Wiegenlied", 1868 While there has been no confirmation, there are many strong arguments that Brahms suffered from a sleep disorder known as sleep apnea It is speculated based on lullabies' utility as a sleep aid that this was part of his inspiration for composing "Wiegenlied" 23

Chopin's Opus 57 is a berceuse for solo piano Other famous examples of the genre include Maurice Ravel's Berceuse sur le nom de Gabriel Fauré for violin and piano; the Berceuse élégiaque by Ferruccio Busoni; the Berceuse from the opera Jocelyn by Benjamin Godard; the Berceuse by Igor Stravinsky which is featured in the Firebird ballet, and Lullaby for String Quartet by George Gershwin The English composer Nicholas Maw's orchestral nocturne, The World in the Evening, is subtitled "lullaby for large orchestra" German composer's Paul Graener last movement of his Suite From The Realm of Pan is entitled Pan sings the world a lullaby American composer's Michael Glenn Williams Berceuse for solo piano uses an ostinato similar to Chopin's but in a 21st-century harmonic context

By geographyedit

Asia-Pacificedit

Asia also has its own versions of the lullaby

In Hindi and in many Indian languages, the lullaby is called "Lori" Mostly, lullabies are sung in folk languages Lullabies have been also an integral part of Indian cinema Many lullabies were written and composed in the fifties, such as:

  • "Aaja Ri Aa Nindiya Tu Aa" – Do Bigha Zamin
  • "Main Gaoon Tu Chhup Ho Jaa" – Do Aankhen Barah Haath
  • "So Jaa Re Lalna Jhulao Tohe Palna" – Journey Beyond Three Seas

In the Malayalam language, there is a rich collection of traditional lullabies, known as "tharaattu Pattu" One of the most famous is "Omanathinkal Kidavo", written and composed by poet lyricist Iravi Varman Thampi who is widely known as Irayimman Thampi This lullaby was written for the queen of Travancore to sing to her son young prince Swathi Thirunal, who later became the king and a famous musician composed many Keerthanas in a Ragaa Dheerasankarabharanam commonly known as Sankarabharanam

In the Odia language, a lullaby is called a Nanabaya gita A book in the same name by Nanda Kishore bal that was published in two volumes in 1934 is a major compilation of the known lullabies in the language24

In Telugu language, a lullaby is called a "Jola" or "Jola pata" A famous Telugu lullaby is "jo achuthaa nanda jo jo mukunda"

In the Tamil language, a lullaby is called a thaalattu thal means "tongue" A melodious sound is created by frequent movement of the tongue at the beginning of the song

In the Philippines the song is known as the oyayi The province of Batangas has a very specialized form of lullaby known as the huluna Though only composed of simple words, it is notable for being very difficult to sing, due to the lengthy melismas Like many traditional songs from Spain, it is full of fioriture yet unlike many of the western type songs, it has no time signature

In Vietnamese, lullabies are called "bài hát ru" A famous one is "Ầu ơ ví dầu" They are hard to sing due to the melismas The lullabies usually use images of the old villages and countryside, such as the bamboo bridges, rice fields, farming, daily meals that the mother cooks They usually have a sad tone

Other lullabies from Asia include the "Northeastern Cradle Song" from China, "Nina Bobo" from Indonesia, the "Itsuki Lullaby", "Chūgoku Region Lullaby", "Edo Lullaby", "Shimabara Lullaby", "Takeda Lullaby" from Japan, and "Hine E Hine" from New Zealand

Bangladeshiedit

In Bangladesh, the lullaby is termed "Ghum-Parrani-Gaan" song to make sleep Examples of Bangla lullabies are "Ghum-Parrani Maashi, Pishi" and "Baash baganer mathar upor"citation needed

Brazilianedit

"Dorme neném" Sleep Little Baby is sung all over the country and includes a reference to "Cuca", a folk character very feared by children

Britishedit

Many medieval English verses associated with the birth of Jesus take the form of a lullaby, including "Lullay, my liking, my dere son, my sweting" and may be versions of contemporary lullabies25 However, most of those used today date from the seventeenth century onwards, and some of the best known English-language lullabies originate from the US Notable English language lullabies include "Bye, baby Bunting", "Scottish Lullaby", "Suo Gân" Welsh Lullaby, and "Hush, Little Baby"

There are many lullabies in Scottish song tradition, with well-known examples in Scottish Gaelic, Scots and English They include songs which express emotions other than affection for the child - notably "Griogal Cridhe", which commemorates the beheading of Gregor Roy MacGregor by his father-in-law, Campbell of Glenlyon and brother-in-law in 1570 and "Hishie Ba" which may refer to a gang assault A number of traditional lullabies also express social issues and this has been continued in modern lullaby writing in Scotland, notably Jim MacLean's "Smile in Your Sleep also known as "Hush, Hush, Time to Be Sleeping", Matt McGinn's "Miner's Lullaby" also known as "Coorie Doon" and Karine Polwart's "Baleerie Baloo" Christina Stewart's kist o dreams project provides a resource of over 30 Scottish lullabies, ranging from Doric Scots of the North East, to Northern Isles dialect of Shetland, Scottish Gaelic and English language examples26

Czechedit

"Spi, Janíčku, spi" "Sleep, Johny, sleep" – This playful lullaby was collected in Moravia by František Sušil 1804–1868, a priest and an activist of Czech national revival He collected songs in Moravia and Silesia as well as in Slavic villages in Austria This lullaby uses a specific name of the child, Janíček, a familiar form of the very common male name Jan Nonsense is employed here, as the boy is promised not only a green and a red apple but also a blue one if he falls asleep

"Ukolébavka" "Lullaby" – This lullaby was published in 1633 in The Informatorium of the School of Infancy by Johann Amos Comenius 1592–1670 The book is likely to be the first treatise on the development and educating infants and children up to six in the family Comenius stressed among other things the necessity of sensory and emotional stimuli at an early age Thus, he included for mothers and nurses the Czech text and the score of the originally German lullaby by 16th century preacher Mathesius

"Hajej, můj andílku" "Sleep, My Little Angel" – This is one of the most melodious Czech lullabies, first collected by Karel Jaromír Erben 1811–1870, Czech romantic writer, poet and collector of Czech folk songs and fairy tales The text refers specifically to the mother rocking her baby

"Halí, dítě" "Hullee, baby" – This lullaby was collected by František Bartoš 1837–1906, pedagogue and ethnographer who collected Moravian songs The second line says the carer will leave after the child falls asleep, but in the third line we learn that only to the garden in the valley to pick raspberries

"Halaj, belaj, malučký" "Sleep, Sleep, Little One" – This lullaby is from the east of Moravia, where the dialect is influenced by the Slovak language, and also folk songs are similar to the Slovak ones from across the border A boy is promised the essential food for infants, kašička, a smooth mixture made of milk and flour

Danishedit

"Solen er så rød, mor" "The Sun is so Red, Mom" – This is a classic Danish lullaby, written in 1920 by the Danish novelist, playwright and poet Harald Bergstedt 1877–1965, with music composed by classical composer Carl Nielsen 1865–1931citation needed

"Elefantens vuggevise" "The Elephant's Lullaby" – This lullaby is considered one of the most popular lullabies in Denmark Using exotic animals as theme, the lyrics are simple and easily understood by a child It was made politically correct in the 1990s: The word negerdreng Negro boy was changed to kokosnød coconut27 The song was written in 1948 by the Danish writer and poet Harald H Lund with music composed by writer-musician Mogens Jermiin Nissen 1906–72

"Godnatsang" "Goodnight Song" – This is a popular lullaby that was composed lyrics and music by Sigurd Barrett born 1967, pianist, composer and host of a children's TV programme in Denmark, and fellow musician Steen Nikolaj Hansen Sigurd usually sings this song at the end of his children's show This lullaby has sleeping time as theme: The day is over and we must sleep and rest so we will be fresh again in the morning

"Mues sang få Hansemand" "Mother's Song to Little Hans" – This lullaby originated from south Jutland and is very old year of composition is unknown It is not well known in Denmark This may, in part, be due to the fact that it was written in Jutlandic dialect The lyrics were written by Marie Thulesen 1878–1924 with music by the Danish musician Oluf Ring 1884–1946

"Jeg vil tælle stjernerne" "I Will Count the Stars" – This lullaby was written in 1951 by the Danish poet and writer Halfdan Rasmussen 1915–2002 Rasmussen had written numerous rhymes and jingles, some of which are still being used in Danish beginner classes in public schools eg the picture book "Halfdans ABC" This lullaby's music was composed by Hans Dalgaard 1919–81 The song is a simple story of a child who tries to count the stars with his/her fingers and toes

Dutchedit

"Slaap kindje slaap" – Most famous Dutch lullabycitation needed The text is mostly chosen for its rhyme Sleep, little child, sleep Outside a sheep is walking A sheep with white feet, it drinks its milk so sweet

"Maantje tuurt, maantje gluurt" – Older Dutch lullaby Look the moon peeps and spies through the window Have the children already gone to bed Yes moon, they're lying in bed Good, tomorrow will be a new day of playing and learning

"Suja suja kindje" – The child is spoken to Is your stomach aching or do you have cold feet We will make a fire, make porridge The cradle is rocking

"Suze Naanje, ik waige die" – Also the child is spoken to in this lullaby I rock you, but if you were older I would slap you The language is Gronings dialect

Germanedit

"Der Mond ist aufgegangen" German for "The moon has risen" and "Weißt du, wie viel Sternlein stehen" German for "Can you count the stars" are widely known since the 18th and 19th century

Persianedit

"Laay laay, laay, laay, gol-e laaleh" Persian: لای لای، لای، لای، گل لاله‎‎ is one of the most famous and oldest Persian lullabies which comes from the Gorgan region in North-Eastern Iran28 "Laay laaya, laay laaya, rolay shirinm laaya" is an ancient Kurdish lullabycitation needed

Turkishedit

"Uyusun da büyüsün ninni" – Most famous Turkish lullaby which is sung to children all over the territory where Turks live, including Anatolia, Balkan peninsula and Middle Eastcitation needed

See alsoedit

  • Pacifier-activated lullaby

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Doja, Albert "Socializing Enchantment: A Socio-Anthropological Approach to Infant-Directed Singing, Music Education and Cultural Socialization" International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music, Vol 45, No 1 June 2014, pp 118–120
  2. ^ Trehub, Sandra E, Trainor, Laurel J "Singing to infants: lullabies and play songs" Advances in Infancy Research, 1998, pp 43–77
  3. ^ I Opie and P Opie, The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes Oxford University Press, 1951, 2nd ed, 1997, p 6
  4. ^ a b Doja, Albert "Socializing Enchantment: A Socio-Anthropological Approach to Infant-Directed Singing, Music Education and Cultural Socialization" International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music, Vol 45, No 1 June 2014, p 120
  5. ^ Trainor, Laurel J, Tsang, Christine D, Cheung, Vivian HW "Preference For Sensory Consonance in 2- and 4-month Old Infants" Musical Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol 20, No 2 Winter 2002, pp 187–194
  6. ^ a b Mitterschiffthaler, M T, Fu, C HY, Dalton, J A, Andrew, C M and Williams, S CR "A functional MRI study of happy and sad affective states induced by classical music" Human Brain Mapping, Vol 28 No 11 November 2007
  7. ^ O'Neill, Colleen T, Trainor, Laurel J, Trehub, Sandra E "Infants' Responsiveness to Fathers' Singing" Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol 18, No 4 Summer 2001, p 410
  8. ^ a b Perry, Nina 20 January 2013 "The universal language of lullabies" BBC News 
  9. ^ Pouthas, V " The development of the perception of time and temporal regulation of action in infants and children" Musical beginnings: Origins and development of musical competence, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, pp 115–141
  10. ^ Ilari, Beatriz and Sundara, Megha "Music Listening Preferences in Early Life: Infants' Responses to Accompanied versus Unaccompanied Singing" Journal of Research in Music Education, Vol 56, No 4 January 2009, p 356
  11. ^ Chang, Mei-Yueh; Chen, Chung-Hey; Huang Kuo-Feng, "Effects of music therapy on psychological health of women during pregnancy" Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol 17, No 19 October 2008, pp 2580–2587
  12. ^ a b Trainor, Laurel J January–March 1996 "Infant preferences for infant-directed versus noninfant-directed playsongs and lullabies" Infant Behavior and Development 19
  13. ^ Doja, Albert "Socializing Enchantment: A Socio-Anthropological Approach to Infant-Directed Singing, Music Education and Cultural Socialization" International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music, Vol 45, No 1 June 2014, pp 118–122
  14. ^ Clark, Daniel; Humphries, Rachel 18 June 2013 "Lullaby Medicine for Premature Babies" ABC News 
  15. ^ Cassidy, Jane W; Standley, Jayne M 1995 "The Effect of Music Listening on Physiological Responses of Premature Infants in the NICU" Journal of Music Therapy 32
  16. ^ Standley, Jayne M June 2003 "The effect of music-reinforced non-nutritive sucking on feeding rate of premature infants" Journal of Pediatric Nursing 18 3: 169–73 doi:101053/jpdn200334 
  17. ^ Loewy, Joanne; Stewart, Kristen May 2013 "The Effects of Music Therapy on Vital Signs, Feeding, and Sleep in Premature Infants" Pediatrics 131 5: 902–18 doi:101542/peds2012-1367 PMID 23589814 
  18. ^ "Lullabies and dandlings", Foghlam Alba, EducationScotlandgovuk
  19. ^ O'Callaghan, Clare April–May 2008 "Lullament: Lullaby and Lament Therapeutic Qualities Actualized Through Music Therapy" American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine 25 2: 93–99 doi:101177/1049909107310139 
  20. ^ a b Thompson, William F 2009, Music, Thought, and Feeling 2nd ed, Oxford University Press 
  21. ^ DeCasper, Anthony J; Fifer, William P June 1980 "Of Human Bonding: Newborns Prefer Their Mothers' Voices" Science 208 4448: 1174–76 doi:101126/science7375928 PMID 7375928 
  22. ^ Lai, Hui-Ling, Chen, Chia-Jung Peng, Tai-Chu, Chang, Fwu-Mei; et al February 2006 "Randomized controlled trial of music during kangaroo care on maternal state anxiety and preterm infants' responses" International Journal of Nursing Studies 43 2: 139–46 doi:101016/jijnurstu200504008 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  23. ^ Margolis, Mitchell L 2000 "Brahms' Lullaby Revisited: Did the Composer Have Obstructive Sleep Apnea" Chest 118 1: 210–13 doi:101378/chest1181210 
  24. ^ Peter Hunt 2 September 2003 International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature Routledge pp 804– ISBN 978-1-134-87993-9 
  25. ^ Carpenter, H; Prichard, M 1984, The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature, Oxford University Press, p 326 
  26. ^ "Kist O Dreams", lullabies and children's songs from Scottish tradition
  27. ^ "politisk korrekthed – Gyldendal – Den Store Danske" Den Store Danske Gyldendal Retrieved October 31, 2012 
  28. ^ "Persian Lullaby in Swedish Church" PDN Retrieved January 16, 2013 
  • Lacy, Lyn Ellen 1986 Art and Design in Children's Books Chicago: American Library Association p 76 ISBN 0-8389-0446-7 

External linksedit

  • Media related to Lullabies at Wikimedia Commons
  • Lullabies of the World, a European Union-funded project to collect lullabies from around the world
  • Acoustic lullabies to help children fall asleep, an eBook bedtime stories project linking music and reading in rhyme

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