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List of the 72 names on the Eiffel Tower


On the Eiffel Tower, seventy-two names of French scientists, engineers, and mathematicians are engraved in recognition of their contributions1 Gustave Eiffel chose this "invocation of science" because of his concern over the protests against the tower2 The engravings are found on the sides of the tower under the first balcony, in letters about 60 cm high, and originally painted in gold The engraving was painted over at the beginning of the twentieth century and restored in 1986–1987 by Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, the company contracted by the city of Paris to operate the Tower The repainting of 2010–2011 restored the letters to their original gold colour

There are also names of the engineers who helped build the tower and design its architecture on the top of the tower on a plaque, where a laboratory was also builtcitation needed

Contents

  • 1 List
    • 11 Location
    • 12 Names
  • 2 Criticism
    • 21 Women
    • 22 Hydraulic engineers and scholars
  • 3 References
  • 4 Further reading
  • 5 External links

Listedit

Locationedit

The list is split in four parts for each side of the tower The sides have been named after the parts of Paris that each side faces:

  • The North-East side also known as La Bourdonnais side, La Bourdonnais is a part of Paris
Petiet, Daguerre, Wurtz, Le Verrier, Perdonnet, Delambre, Malus, Breguet, Polonceau, Dumas, Clapeyron, Borda, Fourier, Bichat, Sauvage, Pelouze, Carnot, Lamé
  • The South-East side also known as the Military School side
Cauchy, Belgrand, Regnault, Fresnel, De Prony, Vicat, Ebelmen, Coulomb, Poinsot, Foucault, Delaunay, Morin, Haüy, Combes, Thénard, Arago, Poisson, Monge
  • The South-West side also known as the Grenelle side
Jamin, Gay-Lussac, Fizeau, Schneider, Le Chatelier, Berthier, Barral, De Dion, Goüin, Jousselin, Broca, Becquerel, Coriolis, Cail, Triger, Giffard, Perrier, Sturm
  • The North West side also known as the Trocadéro side
Seguin, Lalande, Tresca, Poncelet, Bresse, Lagrange, Belanger, Cuvier, Laplace, Dulong, Chasles, Lavoisier, Ampère, Chevreul, Flachat, Navier, Legendre, Chaptal

Namesedit

In the table below are all the names on the four sides

Name appearing Full name Occupation Location Portrait
SEGUIN Marc Seguin engineer NW01
LALANDE Jérôme Lalande astronomer NW02
TRESCA Henri Tresca engineer and mechanic NW03
PONCELET Jean-Victor Poncelet geometer NW04
BRESSE Jacques Antoine Charles Bresse civil engineer and hydraulic engineer NW05
LAGRANGE Joseph-Louis Lagrange mathematician NW06
BELANGER Jean-Baptiste-Charles-Joseph Bélanger mathematician and hydraulic engineer NW07
CUVIER Georges Cuvier naturalist NW08
LAPLACE Pierre-Simon Laplace mathematician and astronomer NW09
DULONG Pierre Louis Dulong physicist and chemist NW10
CHASLES Michel Chasles geometer NW11
LAVOISIER Antoine Lavoisier chemist NW12
AMPERE André-Marie Ampère mathematician and physicist NW13
CHEVREUL Michel Eugène Chevreul chemist NW14
FLACHAT Eugène Flachat engineer NW15
NAVIER Claude-Louis Marie Henri Navier mathematician NW16
LEGENDRE Adrien-Marie Legendre mathematician NW17
CHAPTAL Jean-Antoine Chaptal agronomist and chemist NW18
JAMIN Jules Jamin physicist SW01
GAY-LUSSAC Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac chemist SW02
FIZEAU Hippolyte Fizeau physicist SW03
SCHNEIDER Eugène Schneider industrialist SW04
LE CHATELIER Louis Le Chatelier engineer SW05
BERTHIER Pierre Berthier mineralogist SW06
BARRAL Jean-Augustin Barral agronomist, chemist, physicist SW07
DE DION Henri de Dion engineer SW08
GOUIN Ernest Goüin engineer and industrialist SW09
JOUSSELIN Louis Didier Jousselin engineer SW10
BROCA Paul Broca physician and anthropologist SW11
BECQUEREL Antoine César Becquerel physicist SW12
CORIOLIS Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis engineer and scientist SW13
CAIL Jean-François Cail industrialist SW14
TRIGER Jacques Triger engineer SW15
GIFFARD Henri Giffard engineer SW16
PERRIER François Perrier geographer and mathematician SW17
STURM Jacques Charles François Sturm mathematician SW18
CAUCHY Augustin-Louis Cauchy mathematician SE01
BELGRAND Eugène Belgrand engineer SE02
REGNAULT Henri Victor Regnault chemist and physicist SE03
FRESNEL Augustin-Jean Fresnel physicist SE04
DE PRONY Gaspard de Prony engineer SE05
VICAT Louis Vicat engineer SE06
EBELMEN Jacques-Joseph Ebelmen chemist SE07
COULOMB Charles-Augustin de Coulomb physicist SE08
POINSOT Louis Poinsot mathematician SE09
FOUCAULT Léon Foucault physicist SE10
DELAUNAY Charles-Eugène Delaunay astronomer SE11
MORIN Arthur Morin mathematician and physicist SE12
HAUY René Just Haüy mineralogist SE13
COMBES Charles Combes engineer and metallurgist SE14
THENARD Louis Jacques Thénard chemist SE15
ARAGO François Arago astronomer and physicist SE16
POISSON Siméon Denis Poisson mathematician and physicist SE17
MONGE Gaspard Monge geometer SE18
PETIET Jules Petiet engineer NE01
DAGUERRE Louis Daguerre artist and chemist NE02
WURTZ Charles-Adolphe Wurtz chemist NE03
LE VERRIER Urbain Le Verrier astronomer NE04
PERDONNET Albert Auguste Perdonnet engineer NE05
DELAMBRE Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre astronomer NE06
MALUS Étienne-Louis Malus physicist NE07
BREGUET Louis Breguet physicist and inventor NE08
POLONCEAU Camille Polonceau engineer NE09
DUMAS Jean-Baptiste Dumas chemist NE10
CLAPEYRON Émile Clapeyron engineer and physicist NE11
BORDA Jean-Charles de Borda mathematician NE12
FOURIER Joseph Fourier mathematician NE13
BICHAT Marie François Xavier Bichat anatomist and physiologist NE14
SAUVAGE François Clément Sauvage engineer and geologist NE15
PELOUZE Théophile-Jules Pelouze chemist NE16
CARNOT Lazare Carnot3 mathematician NE17
LAME Gabriel Lamé mathematician NE18

Criticismedit

Womenedit

The list contains no women The list has been criticized for excluding the name of Sophie Germain, a noted French mathematician whose work on the theory of elasticity was used in the construction of the tower itself4 In 1913 John Augustine Zahm suggested that Germain was excluded because she was a woman5

Hydraulic engineers and scholarsedit

14 hydraulic engineers and scholars are listed on the Eiffel Tower Eiffel acknowledged most of the leading scientists in the field Henri Philibert Gaspard Darcy is missing; some of his work did not come into wide use until the 20th century Also missing are Antoine Chézy, who was less famous; Joseph Valentin Boussinesq, who was early in his career at the time;6 and mathematician Evariste Galois

Referencesedit

  1. ^ "The 72 Scientists" La Tour Eiffel Archived from the original on 15 February 2008 Retrieved 31 January 2008 
  2. ^ Harriss, Joseph 2004 The Tallest Tower: Eiffel And The Belle Epoque Unlimited Publishing LLC p 80 ISBN 978-1-58832-104-6 
  3. ^ Not to be confused with Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, his son
  4. ^ Gray, Mary 1978 "Sophie Germain 1776-1831" In Louise S Grinstein and Paul Campbell Women of Mathematics: A Bibliographic Sourcebook Greenwood pp 47–55 ISBN 978-0-313-24849-8 CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link
  5. ^ Mozen, H J pseud 1913 Women in Science: With an Introductory Chapter on Women's Long Struggle for Things of the Mind D Appleton pp 154–157 
  6. ^ Chanson, Hubert 13 April 2009 "Hydraulic Engineering Legends Listed on the Eiffel Tower" In Jerry R Rogers Great Rivers History: Proceedings and Invited Papers for the EWRI Congress and Great Rivers History Symposium American Society of Civil Engineers pp 1–7 ISBN 978-0-7844-1032-5 doi:101061/410323441 

Further readingedit

  • Barral, Georges 1892 Le Panthéon scientifique de la tour Eiffel: histoire des origines de la construction de la Tour Savine  Reprinted as Barral, Georges 2013 Le Panthéon scientifique de la tour Eiffel: histoire des origines de la construction de la Tour Hachette Livre ISBN 2-01-285936-4 

External linksedit

  • Paris portal

Media related to 72 names on the Eiffel Tower at Wikimedia Commons

  • Paris streets named for the 72 scientists


List of the 72 names on the Eiffel Tower Information about

List of the 72 names on the Eiffel Tower


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    List of the 72 names on the Eiffel Tower beatiful post thanks!

    29.10.2014


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