Wed . 18 Oct 2018

List of synthetic polymers

list of synthetic polymers, list of synthetic polymers and their uses
Synthetic polymers are human-made polymers From the utility point of view they can be classified into four main categories: thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers and synthetic fibers They are found commonly in a variety of consumer products such as money, super glue, etc

A wide variety of synthetic polymers are available with variations in main chain as well as side chains The back bones of common synthetic polymers such as polythene, polystyrene and poly acrylates are made up of carbon-carbon bonds, whereas hetero chain polymers such as polyamides, polyesters, polyurethanes, polysulfides and polycarbonates have other elements eg oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen inserted along the backbone Also silicon forms similar materials without the need of carbon atoms, such as silicones through siloxane linkages; these compounds are thus said to be inorganic polymers Coordination polymers may contain a range of metals in the backbone, with non-covalent bonding present

Some familiar household synthetic polymers include: Nylons in textiles and fabrics, Teflon in non-stick pans, Bakelite for electrical switches, polyvinyl chloride PVC in pipes, etc The common PET bottles are made of a synthetic polymer, polyethylene terephthalate The plastic kits and covers are mostly made of synthetic polymers like polythene and tires are manufactured from Buna rubbers1 However, due to the environmental issues created by these synthetic polymers which are mostly non-biodegradable and often synthesized from petroleum, alternatives like bioplastics are also being considered They are however expensive when compared to the synthetic polymers2

IUPAC definition Artificial polymer: Man-made polymer that is not a biopolymer

Note 1: Artificial polymer should also be used in the case of chemically
modified biopolymers

Note 2: Biochemists are now capable of synthesizing copies of biopolymers
that should be named synthetic biopolymers to make a distinction
with true biopolymers

Note 3: Genetic engineering is now capable of generating non-natural analogues
of biopolymers that should be referred to as artificial biopolymers, eg,
artificial protein, artificial polynucleotide, etc3

Contents

  • 1 Inorganic polymers
  • 2 Organic polymers
  • 3 Brand names
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References

Inorganic polymersedit

Main article: Inorganic polymer
  • Polysiloxane
  • Polyphosphazene

Organic polymersedit

The eight most common types of synthetic organic polymers, which are commonly found in households are:

  • Low-density polyethylene LDPE
  • High-density polyethylene HDPE
  • Polypropylene PP
  • Polyvinyl Chloride PVC
  • Polystyrene PS
  • Nylon, nylon 6, nylon 6,6
  • Teflon Polytetrafluoroethylene
  • Thermoplastic polyurethanes TPU
List of some addition polymers and their uses
Polymer Abbreviation Properties Uses
Low-density polyethylene LDPE Chemically inert, flexible, insulator Squeeze bottles, toys, flexible pipes, insulation cover electric wires, six pack rings, etc
High-density polyethylene HDPE Inert, thermally stable, tough and high tensile strength Bottles, pipes, inner insulation dielectric of coax cable see also PTFE, plastic bags, etc
Polypropylene PP Resistant to acids and alkalies, High tensile strength Auto parts, industrial fibers, food containers, liner in bags, dishware and as a wrapping material for textiles and food
Polystyrene thermocole PS Thermal insulator Properties depends on the form, expanded form is tough and rigid Petri dishes, CD case, plastic cutlery
Polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE Very low coefficient of friction, excellent dielectric properties, chemically inert Low friction bearings, non-stick pans, inner insulation dielectric of coax cable see also HDPE, coating against chemical attack etc
Polyvinylchloride PVC Insulator, flame retardant, chemically inert Pipe mainly draining, fencing, lawn chairs, hand-bags, curtain clothes, non-food bottles, raincoats, toys, vinyl flooring, electrical installation insulations, etc
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene PCTFE Stable to heat and thermal attacks, high tensile strength and non wetting valves, seals, gaskets etc

Brand namesedit

These polymers are often better known through their brand names, for instance:

Brand Name Polymer Characteristic properties Uses
Bakelite Phenol-formaldehyde resin High electric, heat and chemical resistance Insulation of wires, manufacturing sockets, electrical devices, brake pads, etc
Kevlar Para-aramid fibre High tensile strength Manufacturing armour, sports and musical equipment Used in the field of cryogenics
Twaron Para-aramid Heat resistant and strong fibre Bullet-proof body armor, helmets, brake pads, ropes, cables and optical fibre cables, etc and as an asbestos substitute
Mylar Polyethylene terephthalate film High strength and stiffness, less permeable to gases, almost reflects light completely Food packaging, transparent covering over paper, reflector for rollsigns and solar cooking stoves
Neoprene Polychloroprene Chemically inert Manufacturing gaskets, corrosion resistant coatings, waterproof seat covers, substitute for corks and latex
Nylon Polyamide Silky, thermoplastic and resistant to biological and chemical agents Stockings, fabrics, toothbrushes Molded nylon is used in making machine screws, gears etc
Nomex Meta-aramid polymer Excellent thermal, chemical, and radiation resistance, rigid, durable and fireproof Hood of firefighter's mask, electrical lamination of circuit boards and transformer cores and in Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment
Orlon Polyacrylonitrile PAN Wool-like, resistant to chemicals, oils, moths and sunlight Used for making clothes and fabrics like sweaters, hats, yarns, rugs, etc, and as a precursor of carbon fibres
Rilsan Polyamide 11 & 12 Bioplastic Used in high-performance applications such as sports shoes, electronic device components, automotive fuel lines, pneumatic airbrake tubing, oil and gas flexible pipes and control fluid umbilicals, and catheters
Technora Copolyamid High tensile strength, resistance to corrosion, heat, chemicals and saltwater Used for manufacturing optical fiber cables, umbilical cables, drumheads, automotive industry, ropes, wire ropes and cables
Teflon Polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE Very low coefficient of friction, excellent dielectric properties, high melting, chemically inert Plain bearings, gears, non-stick pans, etc due to its low friction Used as a tubing for highly corrosive chemicals
Ultem Polyimide Heat,flame and solvent resistant Has high dielectric strength Used in medical and chemical instrumentation, also in guitar picks
Vectran aromatic polyester High thermal and chemical stability Golden color Has high strength, low creep, and is moisture resistant Used as reinforcing fibres for ropes, cables, sailcloth Also used in manufacturing badminton strings, bike tires and in electronics applications Is the key component of a line of inflatable spacecraft developed by Bigelow Aerospace
Viton Polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE Elastomer Depends on the grade of the polymer Viton B is used in chemical process plants and gaskets
Zylon poly-p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole PBO Very high tensile strength and thermal stability Used in tennis racquets, table tennis blades, body armor, etc

See alsoedit

  • Polymerization
  • Radical polymerization
  • RAFT chemistry

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Andrew J Peacock; Allison R Calhoun 30 June 2006 Polymer Chemistry: Properties and Applications Hanser Verlag pp 1– ISBN 978-1-56990-397-1 Retrieved 15 July 2012 
  2. ^ Srikanth Pilla 15 September 2011 Handbook of Bioplastics and Biocomposites Engineering Applications John Wiley & Sons p 154 ISBN 978-1-118-17704-4 Retrieved 15 July 2012 
  3. ^ "Glossary of Basic Terms in Polymer Science" Pure and Applied Chemistry 68 12: 2287–2301 1996 doi:101351/goldbookA00250 

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