Fri . 18 Oct 2018

List of rulers of China

list of rulers of ancient china, list of great rulers of china
The list of rulers of China includes rulers of China with various titles From the Zhou dynasty to the Qin dynasty, rulers usually held the title "king" Chinese: 王; pinyin: wáng With the separation of China into different Warring States, this title had become so common that the unifier of China, the first Qin Emperor Qin Shihuang created a new title for himself, that of "emperor" pinyin: huángdì The title of emperor of China continued to be used for the remainder of China's imperial history, right down to the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912 While many other monarchs existed in and around China throughout its history, this list covers only those with a quasi-legitimate claim to the majority of China, or those who have traditionally been named in king-lists The following list of Chinese monarchs is in no way comprehensive Chinese sovereigns were known by many different names, and how they should be identified is often confusing Sometimes the same emperor is commonly known by two or three separate names, or the same name is used by emperors of different dynasties The tables below do not necessarily include all of an emperor's names – for example, posthumous names could run to more than twenty characters and were rarely used in historical writing – but, where possible, the most commonly used name or naming convention has been indicated

These tables may not necessarily represent the most recently updated information on Chinese monarchs; please check the page for the relevant dynasty for possible additional information

Follow these links to see how they are related:

Family tree of ancient Chinese emperors → Chinese emperors family tree early → Chinese emperors family tree middle → Chinese emperors family tree late

Contents

  • 1 Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors 三皇五帝
  • 2 Xia dynasty 夏朝 c 2070 – c 1600 BC
  • 3 Shang dynasty 商朝 c 1600 – c 1046 BC
  • 4 Zhou dynasty 周朝 c1046–256 BC
  • 5 Qin dynasty 秦朝 221–206 BC
  • 6 Han dynasty 漢朝 206 BC – 220 AD
    • 61 Xin dynasty 新朝 9–23 AD
  • 7 Three Kingdoms Period 三国时代 220–280
    • 71 Wei 魏 or Cao Wei 曹魏 220–265
    • 72 Shu 蜀 or Shu Han 蜀漢 221–263
    • 73 Wu 吳 or Dong Eastern Wu 東吳 222–280
  • 8 Jin dynasty 晉朝 265–420
  • 9 Sixteen Kingdoms 十六国 304–439
    • 91 Cheng Han 成漢 303–347
    • 92 Han Zhao 漢趙 304–329
    • 93 Liang 320–421
    • 94 Yan 燕 337–436
    • 95 Qin 秦 351–431
    • 96 Xia 夏 407–431
    • 97 Other sovereignties traditionally not counted in the Sixteen Kingdoms
      • 971 Ran Wei 冉魏 350–352
      • 972 Xi Western Yan 西燕 384–394
      • 973 Shu 蜀 405–413
      • 974 Chieftains of Tiefu Tribe 匈奴支系鐵弗部首領 mid 3rd century – 391
      • 975 Chieftains of Yuwen Tribe 宇文部鮮卑首領 late 3rd century – 345
      • 976 Dukes of Liaoxi 遼西公 303–338
      • 977 Chouchi 仇池 late 2nd century – 473
      • 978 Kings of Wuxing 武興王 473–506 and 534–555
      • 979 Kings of Yinping 陰平王 477 – mid-6th century
      • 9710 Chieftains of Tuoba Tribe 索頭部鮮卑族首領 219–377 as Kings of Dai 代王 305–377
  • 10 Northern and Southern Dynasties 南北朝 420–589
    • 101 Northern dynasties 北朝 386–581
      • 1011 Bei Northern Wei 北魏 386–550
      • 1012 Bei Northern Qi 北齊 550–577
      • 1013 Bei Northern Zhou 北周 557–581
    • 102 Southern dynasties 南朝 420–589
      • 1021 Liu Song 劉宋 420–479
      • 1022 Nán Southern Qi 南齊 479–502
      • 1023 Nán Southern Liang 南梁 502–557
      • 1024 Chen 陳 557–589:
  • 11 Sui dynasty 隋朝 581–618
  • 12 Tang dynasty 唐朝 608–907
    • 121 Zhou dynasty 周朝 690–705
    • 122 Kingdom of Qi 齊國 881–884
  • 13 Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 五代十国 907–960
    • 131 Five Dynasties 五代
      • 1311 Hou Later Liang dynasty 后梁 907–923
      • 1312 Hou Later Tang dynasty 后唐 923–936
      • 1313 Hou Later Jin dynasty 后晋 936–947
      • 1314 Hou Later Han dynasty 后汉 947–950
      • 1315 Hou Later Zhou dynasty 后周 951–960
    • 132 Ten Kingdoms 十國
      • 1321 Wu Yue 吳越 904–978
      • 1322 Min 閩 909–945 including Yin 殷 943–945
      • 1323 Jingnan 荆南 or Nanping 南平 906–963
      • 1324 Chu 楚 897–951
      • 1325 Wu 吳 904–937
      • 1326 Nan Southern Tang 南唐 937–975
      • 1327 Nan Southern Han 南漢 917–971
      • 1328 Bei Northern Han 北漢 951–979
      • 1329 Qian Former Shu 前蜀 907–925
      • 13210 Hou Later Shu 后蜀 934–965
    • 133 Independent regimes during Ten Kingdoms
      • 1331 Military Commissioner of Wuping/Hunan 武平/湖南節度使
      • 1332 Military Commissioner of Quanzhang 泉漳節度使
  • 14 Liao dynasty 辽朝 907–1125
    • 141 Western Liao 大遼 1124–1218
  • 15 Song dynasty 宋朝 960–1275
  • 16 Western Xia 西夏 1038–1277
  • 17 Jin dynasty 金朝 1115–1234
  • 18 Yuan dynasty 元朝 1271–1368
    • 181 Northern Yuan dynasty 北元朝 1368 – early 15th century
  • 19 Ming dynasty 明朝 1368–1644
    • 191 Shun dynasty 顺朝 1644
    • 192 Southern Ming 南明 1644–1662
  • 20 Qing dynasty 清朝 1644–1912
    • 201 Taiping Heavenly Kingdom 1851–1864
  • 21 Empire of China 中華帝國 1915–1916
  • 22 See also
  • 23 References
  • 24 External links

Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors 三皇五帝

Main article: Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors

Although it is ingrained in Chinese mythology that the earliest mythological rulers of China included three huáng 皇, generally translated "sovereign" or "august one", denoting demigod status and five dì 帝, generally translated "emperor", but denoting much more reverential status than the modern term "emperor", their identities have differed between different sources, with some individuals, such as the Yellow Emperor, being regarded as either sovereign or emperor, depending on the source The two characters would later be taken together by Qin Shi Huang to form the new title huángdì 皇帝, emperor, thus claiming legendary status for himself

Note: These figures are all legendary, not historical

"Sovereign" or "Emperor" Name by which most commonly known Reign according to tradition Regnal name Other names
Sovereign1,4,5 Empress3 Nüwa 180,000 Years Nǚwā 女媧
Sovereign Emperor3 Youchao 110,000 Years Yǒucháo 有巢
Sovereign4 Emperor3 Suiren 456,000 Years Suìrén 燧人
Sovereign1,4,5 Emperor2,3 Fuxi 2852–2737 BC Fúxī 伏羲
Sovereign1 Emperor2,3 Yan Emperor and/or Shennong 2737–2699 BC Yándi 炎帝 Shennong 神農
Sovereign5 Emperor1,2 Yellow Emperor 2699–2588 BC Huangdi 黃帝 Gongsun Xuanyuan 公孫軒轅
Emperor2 Shaohao 2587–2491 BC Shǎohào 少昊 Jintian Shi 金天氏
Emperor1,2 Zhuanxu 2490–2413 BC Zhuānxū 顓頊 Gaoyang 高陽
Emperor1 Emperor Ku 2412–2343 BC Dikù 帝嚳 Gaoxin Shi 高辛氏
Emperor1 Emperor Zhi 2343–2333 BC Dizhì 帝摯 Qingyang Shi 青陽氏
Emperor1 Emperor Yao 2333–2234 BC Diyáo or Tang Yao 帝堯 / 唐堯 Yi Qi Taotang Fangxun 伊祁陶唐放勳
Emperor1 Emperor Shun 2233–2184 BC Dishùn 帝舜 Yao Youyu Chonghua 姚有虞重華
1 — According to the Records of the Grand Historian
2 — According to the Chu Ci
3 — According to the Book of Rites
4 — According to the Shangshu dazhuan 尚書大傳 and Baihu tongyi 白虎通義
5 — According to the Diwang shiji 帝王世紀

Xia dynasty 夏朝 c 2070 – c 1600 BC

Main article: Xia dynasty

Chinese convention: use "Xia" + regnal name

Name by which most commonly known Reign according to tradition Regnal name1 Other names
Yu the Great
Qi of Xia
Tai Kang Kāng Tài Kāng 太康
Zhong Kang Kāng Zhòng Kāng 仲康
Xiang of Xia Xiāng
Interregnum about 40 years
Shao Kang Kāng Shào Kāng 少康
Zhu of Xia Zhù
Huai of Xia Huái
Mang of Xia Máng
Xie of Xia Xiè
Bu Jiang Jiàng
Jiong of Xia Jiōng
Jin of Xia Jǐn Yìn Jiǎ 胤甲
Kong Jia   Kǒng Jiǎ 孔甲
Gao of Xia Gāo
Fa of Xia Hou Jin 后敬
Jie of Xia Jié Lǚ Guǐ 履癸

Shang dynasty 商朝 c 1600 – c 1046 BC

Main article: Shang dynasty

Chinese convention: use "Shang" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign according to tradition1 Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號 Temple name Miao Hao 廟號
Tang of Shang Zi Lü 子湯 1600–1300 BC Tiān Yǐ 天乙 Tàizu 太祖
Bu Bing Zi Shèng 子勝 Wài Bǐng 外丙
Zhong Ren Zi Yōng 子庸 Zhòng Rén 仲壬
Tai Jia Zi Zhì 子至 Tài Jiǎ 太甲 Tàizōng 太宗
Wo Ding Zi Xuàn 子絢 Wò Dīng 沃丁
Tai Geng Zi Biàn 子辯 Tài Gēng 太庚
Xiao Jia Zi Gāo 子高 Xiǎo Jiǎ 小甲
Yong Ji Zi Zhòu 子伷 Yōng Jǐ 雍己
Tai Wu Zi Mì 子密 Tài Wù 太戊
Zhong Ding Zi Zhuāng 子莊 Zhòng Dīng 仲丁
Wai Ren Zi Fā 子發 Wài Rén 外壬
He Dan Jia Zi Zhěng 子整 Jiān Jiǎ 戔甲
Zu Yi Zi Téng 子滕 Zǔ Yǐ 祖乙 Zhōngzōng 中宗
Zu Xin Zi Dàn 子旦 Zǔ Xīn 祖辛
Wo Jia Zi Yú 子踰 Wò Jiǎ 沃甲
Zu Ding Zi Xīn 子新 Zǔ Dīng 祖丁
Nan Geng Zi Gēng 子更 Nán Gēng 南庚
Yang Jia of Shang Zi Hé 子和 Yáng Jiǎ 陽甲
Pan Geng Zi Xún 子旬 1300–1251 BC Pán Gēng2 盤庚
Xiao Xin Zi Sòng 子頌 Xiǎo Xīn 小辛
Xiao Yi of Shang Zi Liǎn 子斂 Xiǎo Yǐ 小乙
Wu Ding Zi Zhāo 子昭 1250–1192 BC Wǔ Dīng 武丁 Gāozōng 高宗
Zu Geng of Shang Zi Yuè 子躍 1191–1148 BC Zǔ Gēng 祖庚
Zu Jia Zi Zài 子載 Zǔ Jiǎ 祖甲
Lin Xin Zi Xiān 子先 Lǐn Xīn 廩辛
Geng Ding Zi Xiāo 子囂 Kāng Dīng 康丁
Wu Yi of Shang Zi Qú 子瞿 1147–1113 BC Wǔ Yǐ 武乙
Wen Ding Zi Tuō 子托 1112–1102 BC Wén Dīng3 文丁
Di Yi Zi Xiàn 子羡 1101–1076 BC Dì Yǐ 帝乙
King Zhou of Shang Zi Shòu 子受 1075–1046 BC Di Xin 帝辛
1 — The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000 They are given only as a guide

2 — The period of the Shang dynasty starting from Pan Geng is also frequently referred to as the Yin 殷 dynasty because he changed capital to Yin

3 — Also known as Tai Ding 太丁

Zhou dynasty 周朝 c1046–256 BC

Main article: Zhou dynasty

Chinese convention: use "Zhou" + posthumous name "Wang" is the chinese term for "King"

Note: The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC, the beginning of the Gonghe regency All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign1 Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Western Zhou dynasty c 1046–771 BC
King Wu of Zhou Jī Fā 姬發 1046–1043 BC1 King Wǔ 武王
King Cheng of Zhou Jī Sòng 姬誦 1042–1021 BC1 King Chéng 成王
King Kang of Zhou Jī Zhāo 姬釗 1020–996 BC1 King Kāng 康王
King Zhao of Zhou Jī Xiá 姬瑕 995–977 BC1 King Zhāo 昭王
King Mu of Zhou Jī Mǎn 姬滿 976–922 BC1 King Mù 穆王
King Gong of Zhou Jī Yīhù 姬繄扈 922–900 BC1 King Gōng 共王
King Yi of Zhou Jian Jī Jiān 姬囏 899–892 BC1 King Yì 懿王
King Xiao of Zhou Jī Bìfāng 姬辟方 891–886 BC1 King Xiào 孝王
King Yi of Zhou Xie Jī Xiè 姬燮 885–878 BC1 King Yí 夷王
King Li of Zhou Jī Hú 姬胡 877–841 BC1 King Lì 厲王
Gonghe Regency 共和 841BC - 827BC
King Xuan of Zhou Jī Jìng 姬靜 827–782 BC King Xuān 宣王
King You of Zhou Jī Gōngshēng 姬宮湦 781–771 BC King Yōu 幽王
Eastern Zhou dynasty 770–256 BC
Spring and Autumn period 770–476 BC
King Ping of Zhou Jī Yijiu 姬宜臼 770–720 BC King Ping 平王
King Huan of Zhou Jī Lin 姬林 719–697 BC King Huan 桓王
King Zhuang of Zhou Jī Tuo 姬佗 696–682 BC King Zhuang 莊王
King Xi of Zhou Jī Huqi 姬胡齊 681–677 BC King Xi 釐王
King Hui of Zhou Jī Lang 姬閬 676–652 BC King Hui 惠王
King Xiang of Zhou Jī Zheng 姬鄭 651–619 BC King Xiang 襄王
King Qing of Zhou Jī Renchen 姬壬臣 618–613 BC King Qing 頃王
King Kuang of Zhou Jī Ban 姬班 612–607 BC King Kuang 匡王
King Ding of Zhou Jī Yu 姬瑜 606–586 BC King Ding 定王
King Jian of Zhou Jī Yi 姬夷 585–572 BC King Jian 簡王
King Ling of Zhou Jī Xiexin 姬泄心 571–545 BC King Ling 靈王
King Jing of Zhou Gui Jī Gui 姬貴 544–521 BC King Jing 景王
King Dao of Zhou Jī Meng 姬猛 520 BC King Dao 悼王
King Jing of Zhou Gai Jī Gai 姬丐 519–476 BC King Jing 敬王
Warring States period 475–221 BC
King Yuan of Zhou Jī Ren 姬仁 475–469 BC King Yuan 元王
King Zhending of Zhou Jī Jie 姬介 468–442 BC King Zhending 貞定王
King Ai of Zhou Jī Quji 姬去疾 441 BC King Ai 哀王
King Si of Zhou Jī Shu 姬叔 441 BC King Si 思王
King Kao of Zhou Jī Wei 姬嵬 440–426 BC King Kao 考王
King Weilie of Zhou Jī Wu 姬午 425–402 BC King Weilie 威烈王
King An of Zhou Jī Jiao 姬驕 401–376 BC King An 安王
King Lie of Zhou Jī Xi 姬喜 375–369 BC King Lie 烈王
King Xian of Zhou Jī Bian 姬扁 368–321 BC King Xian 顯王
King Shenjing of Zhou Jī Ding 姬定 320–315 BC King Shenjing 慎靚王
King Nan of Zhou Jī Yan 姬延 314–256 BC King Nan 赧王
1 — The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000 They are given only as a guide

Qin dynasty 秦朝 221–206 BC

Main article: Qin dynasty See also: Qin emperors family tree

Chinese convention: use regnal name

Note: the establishment of the Qin dynasty is usually considered to be the beginning of imperial china, with Qin Shi Huang regarded the first Emperor of China

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Regnal name
Qin Shi Huang Ying Zhao Zhèng 嬴趙政 2211–210 BC Qin Shi Huang 秦始皇
Qin Er Shi Ying Zhao Húhài 嬴趙胡亥 209–207 BC Qin Er Shi 秦二世
Ziying2 Ying Zhao Ziyīng 嬴趙子嬰 207 BC Qin San Shi 秦三世
1 — Qin Shi Huang became king of the State of Qin in 246 BC, but did not unite China and proclaim himself "Emperor" until 221 BC

2 — Ziying is often referred to by his personal name and as king, rather than emperor, of Qin 秦王子嬰

Han dynasty 漢朝 206 BC – 220 AD

Main article: Han dynasty Main article: List of emperors of the Han dynasty

Chinese convention: use "Han" + posthumous name apart from Emperor Gaozu, who is known as "Han Gaozu"

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號 Temple name Miao Hao 廟號
Western Han 206 BC – 9 AD
Emperor Gaozu of Han Liu Bang 劉邦 206–195 BC Emperor Gaohuang 高皇帝 Taizu / Gaozu 太祖 / 高祖
Emperor Hui of Han Liu Ying 劉盈 195–188 BC Emperor Hui 惠帝
Emperor Quianshao of Han Liu Gong 劉恭 188–184 BC
Emperor Houshao of Han Liu Hong 劉弘 184–180 BC
Emperor Wen of Han Liu Heng 劉恆 179–157 BC Hòuyuán 後元 163–156 BC Emperor Wen 文帝 Taizong 太宗
Emperor Jing of Han Liu Qi 劉啟 156–141 BC Zhōngyuán 中元 149–143 BC Emperor Jing 景帝
Hòuyuán 後元 143–141 BC
Emperor Wu of Han Liu Che 劉徹 140–87 BC Jiànyuán 建元 140–135 BC Emperor Wu 武帝 Shizong 世宗
Yuánguāng 元光 134–129 BC
Yuánshuò 元朔 128–123 BC
Yuánshòu 元狩 122–117 BC
Yuándǐng 元鼎 116–111 BC
Yuánfēng 元封 110–105 BC
Tàichū 太初 104–101 BC
Tiānhàn 天漢 100–97 BC
Tàishǐ 太始 96–93 BC
Zhēnghé 征和 92–89 BC
Hòuyuán 後元 88–87 BC
Emperor Zhao of Han Liu Fuling 劉弗陵 86–74 BC Shǐyuán 始元 86–80 BC Emperor Zhao 昭帝 Zhōngzōng 中宗
Yuánfèng 元鳳 80–75 BC
Yuánpíng 元平 74 BC
Marquis of Haihun Liu He 劉賀 74 BC Marquis of Haihun 海昏侯
Emperor Xuan of Han Liu Xun 劉詢 73–49 BC Běnshǐ 本始 73–70 BC Emperor Xuan 宣帝 Zhōngzhōng 中宗
Dìjié 地節 69–66 BC
Yuánkāng 元康 65–61 BC
Shénjué 神爵 61–58 BC
Wǔfèng 五鳳 57–54 BC
Gānlù 甘露 53–50 BC
Huánglóng 黃龍 49 BC
Emperor Yuan of Han Liu Shi 劉奭 48–33 BC Chūyuán 初元 48–44 BC Emperor Yuan 元帝
Yǒngguāng 永光 43–39 BC
Jiànzhāo 建昭 38–34 BC
Jìngníng 竟寧 33 BC
Emperor Cheng of Han Liu Ao 劉驁 32–7 BC Jiànshǐ 建始 32–28 BC Emperor Cheng 成帝
Hépíng 河平 28–25 BC
Yángshuò 陽朔 24–21 BC
Hóngjiā 鴻嘉 20–17 BC
Yǒngshǐ 永始 16–13 BC
Yuányán 元延 12–9 BC
Suīhé 綏和 8–7 BC
Emperor Ai of Han Liu Xin 劉欣 6–1 BC Jiànpíng 建平 6–3 BC Emperor Ai 哀帝
Yuánshòu 元壽 2–1 BC
Emperor Ping of Han Liu Kan 劉衎 1 BC – 5 AD Yuánshǐ 元始 1 BC – 5 AD Emperor Ping 平帝
Ruzi Ying1 Liu Ying 劉嬰 6–8 Jùshè 居攝 6 – Oct 8 Ruzi Ying 孺子嬰
Chūshǐ 初始 Nov 8 – Dec 8
Interregnum 9 AD – 23 AD
Gengshi Emperor Liu Xuan 劉玄 23–25 Gēngshǐ 更始 23–25 Prince Wushun of Huaiyang 淮阳武順王
Eastern Han 25 – 220
Emperor Guangwu of Han Liu Xiu 劉秀 25–57 Jiànwǔ 建武 25–56 Emperor Guangwu 光武帝 Shizu 世祖
Jiànwǔzhōngyuán 建武中元 56–57
Emperor Ming of Han Liu Zhuang 劉莊 58–75 Yǒngpíng 永平 58–75 Emperor Ming 明帝 Xíanzōng 顯宗
Emperor Zhang of Han Liu Da 劉炟 76–88 Jiànchū 建初 76–84 Emperor Zhang 章帝 Suzong 肅宗
Yuánhé 元和 84–87
Zhānghé 章和 87–88
Emperor He of Han Liu Zhao 劉肇 89–105 Yǒngyuán 永元 89–105 Emperor He 和帝 Muzong 穆宗
Yuánxīng 元興 105
Emperor Shang of Han Liu Long 劉隆 106 Yánpíng 延平 9 months in 106 Emperor Shang 殤帝
Emperor An of Han Liu Hu 劉祜 106–125 Yǒngchū 永初 107–113 Emperor An 安帝 Gongzong 恭宗
Yuánchū 元初 114–120
Yǒngníng 永寧 120–121
Jiànguāng 建光 121–122
Yánguāng 延光 122–125
Marquess of Beixiang Liu Yi 劉懿 125 Emperor Shao 少帝
Emperor Shun of Han Liu Bao 劉保 125–144 Yǒngjiàn 永建 126–132 Emperor Shun 順帝 Jingzong 敬宗
Yángjiā 陽嘉 132–135
Yǒnghé 永和 136–141
Hàn'ān 漢安 142–144
Jiànkāng 建康 144
Emperor Chong of Han Liu Bing 劉炳 144–145 Yōngxī 永嘉 145 Emperor Chong 沖帝
Emperor Zhi of Han Liu Zuan 劉纘 145–146 Běnchū 本初 146 Emperor Zhi 質帝
Emperor Huan of Han Liu Zhi 劉志 146–168 Jiànhé 建和 147–149 Emperor Huan 桓帝 Weizong 威宗
Hépíng 和平 150
Yuánjiā 元嘉 151–153
Yǒngxīng 永興 153–154
Yǒngshòu 永壽 155–158
Yánxī 延熹 158–167
Yǒngkāng 永康 167
Emperor Ling of Han Liu Hong 劉宏 168–189 Jiànníng 建寧 168–172 Emperor Ling 靈帝
Xīpíng 熹平 172–178
Guānghé 光和 178–184
Zhōngpíng 中平 184–189
Prince of Hongnong Liu Bian 劉辯 189 Guīngxī 光熹 189 Emperor Shao 少帝
Zhàoníng 昭寧 189
Emperor Xian of Han Liu Xie 劉協 189–220 Yǒnghàn 永漢 189 Emperor Xian 獻帝
Chūpíng 初平 190–193
Xīngpíng 興平 194–195
Jiàn'ān 建安 196–220
Yánkāng 延康 220
1 — Ruzi was prince, rather than emperor of Han Officially, the throne of emperor of Han was vacant during 6AD to 9AD

Xin dynasty 新朝 9–23 AD

Chinese convention: use personal name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號 Temple name Miao Hao 廟號
Wang Mang Wang Mang 王莽 9–23 Shǐjiànguó 始建國 9–13
Tiānfēng 天鳳 14–19
Dìhuáng 地皇 20–23

Three Kingdoms Period 三国时代 220–280

Main article: Three Kingdoms

Chinese convention: use personal name

Wei 魏 or Cao Wei 曹魏 220–265

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Courtesy name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Cao Pi Cáo Pī 曹丕 Zihuan 子桓 220–226 Huángchū 黃初 220–226 Emperor Wen 文帝
Cao Rui Cáo Ruì 曹叡 Yuanzhong 元仲 226–239 Tàihé 太和 227–233 Emperor Ming 明帝
Qīnglóng 青龍 233–237
Jǐngchū 景初 237–239
Cao Fang Cáo Fāng 曹芳 Lanqing 蘭卿 239–254 Zhèngshǐ 正始 240–249 Duke Li of Shaoling 邵陵厲公
Jiāpíng 嘉平 249–254
Cao Mao Cáo Máo 曹髦 Yanshi 彥士 254–260 Zhèngyuán 正元 254–256
Gānlù 甘露 256–260
Cao Huan Cáo Huàn 曹奐 Jingming 景明 260–265 Jǐngyuán 景元 260–264 Emperor Yuan 元帝
Xiánxī 咸熙 264–265

Shu 蜀 or Shu Han 蜀漢 221–263

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Courtesy name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Liu Bei Liú Bèi 劉備 Xuande 玄德 221–223 Zhāngwǔ 章武 221–223 Emperor Zhaolie 昭烈帝
Liu Shan Liú Shàn 劉禪 Gongsi 公嗣 223–263 Jiànxīng 建興 223–237 Emperor Xiaohuai 後主
Yánxī 延熙 238–257
Jǐngyào 景耀 258–263
Yánxīng 炎興 263

Wu 吳 or Dong Eastern Wu 東吳 222–280

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Courtesy name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Sun Quan Sūn Quán 孫權 Zhongmou 仲謀 222–252 Huángwǔ 黃武 222–229 Emperor Wu the Great 吳大帝
Huánglóng 黃龍 229–231
Jiāhé 嘉禾 232–238
Chìwū 赤烏 238–251
Tàiyuán 太元 251–252
Shénfèng 神鳳 252
Sun Liang Sūn Liàng 孫亮 Ziming 子明 252–258 Jiànxīng 建興 252–253
Wǔfèng 五鳳 254–256
Tàipíng 太平 256–258
Sun Xiu Sūn Xiū 孫休 Zilie 子烈 258–264 Yǒngān 永安 258–264 Emperor Jing 景帝
Sun Hao Sūn Hào 孫皓 Yuanzong 元宗 264–280 Yuánxīng 元興 264–265
Gānlù 甘露 265–266
Bǎodǐng 寶鼎 266–269
Jiànhéng 建衡 269–271
Fènghuáng 鳳凰 272–274
Tiāncè 天冊 275–276
Tiānxǐ 天璽 276
Tiānjì 天紀 277–280

Jin dynasty 晉朝 265–420

Main article: Jin dynasty 265–420 See also: Jin emperors family tree

Chinese convention: Use "Jin" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號
and their corresponding range of years
Posthumous name
Shi Hao 諡號
Temple name Miao Hao 廟號
Western Jin 265–317
Emperor Wu of Jin Sīmǎ Yán 司馬炎 265–290 Tàishǐ 泰始 265–274 Emperor Wu 武帝 Shizu 世祖
Xiánníng 咸寧 275–280
Tàikāng 太康 280–289
Tàixī 太熙 290
Emperor Hui of Jin Sīmǎ Zhōng 司馬衷 290–306 Yǒngxī 永熙 290 Emperor Hui 惠帝
Yǒngpīng 永平 291
Yuánkāng 元康 291–299
Yǒngkāng 永康 300–301
Yǒngníng 永寧 301–302
Tàiān 太安 302–303
Yǒngān 永安 304
Jiànwǔ 建武 304
Yǒngān 永安 304
Yǒngxīng 永興 304–306
Guāngxī 光熙 306
Emperor Huai of Jin Sīmǎ Chì 司馬熾 307–313 Yǒngjiā 永嘉 307–313 Emperor Huai 懷帝
Emperor Min of Jin Sīmǎ Yè 司馬鄴 313–317 Jiànxīng 建興 313–317 Emperor Min 愍帝
Eastern Jin 317–420
Emperor Yuan of Jin Sīmǎ Ruì 司馬睿 317–322 Jiànwǔ 建武 317–318 Emperor Yuan 元帝 Zhōngzōng 中宗
Dàxīng 大興 318–321
Yǒngchāng 永昌 321–322
Emperor Míng of Jin Sīmǎ Shào 司馬紹 322–325 Yǒngchāng 永昌 322–323 Emperor Ming 明帝 Suzu 肅祖
Tàiníng 太寧 323–325
Emperor Cheng of Jin Sīmǎ Yǎn 司馬衍 325–342 Tàiníng 太寧 325 Emperor Cheng 成帝 Xianzong 顯宗
Xiánhé 咸和 326–334
Xiánkāng 咸康 335–342
Emperor Kang of Jin Sīmǎ Yuè 司馬岳 342–344 Jiànyuán 建元 343–344 Emperor Kang 康帝
Emperor Mu of Jin Sima Dān 司馬聃 345–361 Yǒnghé 永和 345–356 Emperor Mu 穆帝 Xianzong 顯宗
Shēngpíng 升平 357–361
Emperor Ai of Jin Sīmǎ Pī 司馬丕 361–365 Lónghé 隆和 362–363 Emperor Ai 哀帝
Xīngníng 興寧 363–365
Emperor Fei of Jin Sīmǎ Yì 司馬奕 365–371 Tàihé 太和 365–371 Emperor Fei 廢帝
Emperor Jianwen of Jin Sīmǎ Yù 司馬昱 371–372 Xiánān 咸安 371–372 Emperor Jianwen 簡文帝 Taizong 太宗
Emperor Xiaowu of Jin Sīmǎ Yào 司馬曜 372–396 Níngkāng 寧康 373–375 Emperor Xiaowu 孝武帝 Lièzōng 烈宗
Tàiyuán 太元 376–396
Emperor An of Jin Sīmǎ Dézōng 司馬德宗 396–418 Lóngān 隆安 397–401 Emperor An 安帝
Yuánxīng 元興 402–404
Yìxī 義熙 405–418
Emperor Gong of Jin Sīmǎ Déwén 司馬德文 419–420 Yuánxī 元熙 419–420 Emperor Gong 恭帝

Sixteen Kingdoms 十六国 304–439

Main article: Sixteen Kingdoms

Chinese convention: use personal name

Cheng Han 成漢 303–347

Note: addressed separately in traditional texts as Cheng 成 and Han 漢

Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號 Temple name Miao Hao 廟號
Cheng 成 303–338
Li Te 李特 303 Jiànchū

or

Jǐngchū

建初

or

景初

303 Emperor Jing 景帝 Shízu
or
Shìzu
始祖

or

世祖

Li Liu 李流 several months in 303 Prince Qin Wen 秦文王
Li Xiong 李雄 303–334 Emperor Wu 武帝 Taizong 太宗
Jiànxīng 建興 304–305
Yànpīng 晏平 306–310
Yùhéng 玉衡 311–334
Li Ban 李班 7 months in 334 Emperor Ai 哀帝
Li Qi 李期 334–338 Hànxīng 漢興 337–338 Duke You 幽公
Han 漢 338–347
Li Shou 李壽 338–343 Hànxīng 漢興 338–343 continuation 漢興 338–343 continuation Emperor Zhaowen 昭文帝 Zhongzong 中宗
Li Shi 李勢 343–347 Tàihé 太和 344–345 Marquis Guiyi 歸義侯
Jiāníng 嘉寧 346–347 until conquest by Jin

Han Zhao 漢趙 304–329

Note: addressed separately in traditional texts as Han 漢 and Qian Former Zhao 前趙

Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號 Temple name Miao Hao 廟號
Han 漢 304–318
Liu Yuan 劉淵 304–310 Jiànxīng 建興 304–307 Emperor Guangwen 光文帝 Gao Zu 高祖
Yǒngfèng 永鳳 308
Héruì 河瑞 309
Guāngxīng 光興 310
Liu He 劉和 7 days in 310 Prince Liang 梁王
Liu Cong 劉聰 310–318 Emperor Zhaowu 昭武帝 Lie Zong 烈宗
Jiāpíng 嘉平 311–315
Jiànyuán 建元 316
Línjiā 麟嘉 317–318
Liu Can 劉粲 a month and some days in 318 Hànchāng until renaming as Former Zhao 漢昌 318 Emperor Yin 隱帝
Qian Former Zhao 前趙 318–329
Liu Yao 劉曜 318–329 Guāngchū until conquest by Later Zhao 光初 318–329 Prince Hòu 後主
Hou Later Zhao 后趙 329–351
Shi Le 石勒 319–333 Prince Zhao 趙王 319–327 Emperor Ming 明帝 Gaozu 高祖
Tàihé 太和 328–329
Jiànpíng 建平 330–332
Yánxī 延熙 333
Shi Hong 石弘 333–334 Yánxī 延熙 333 Prince Haiyang 海陽王
Jiànwǔ 建武 334
Shi Hu 石虎 334–349 Jiànwǔ 建武 335–348 Emperor Wu 武帝 Taizu 太祖
Taìníng 太寧 349
Shi Shi 石世 73 days in 349 Prince Qiao 譙王
Shi Zun 石遵 183 days in 349 Prince Pangcheng 彭城王
Shi Jian 石鑒 103 days within 349–350 Qīnglóng 青龍 changed mid-year Prince Yiyang 義陽王
Shi Zhi 石祗 350–351 Yǒngníng 永寧 350–351 until Ran Min's coup Prince Xinxing 新興王

Liang 320–421

Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號 Temple name Miao Hao 廟號
Qian Former Liang 前凉 320–376
Zhang Mao 張茂 320–324 Jianxing 建興 320–354 Duke Cheng 成公
Zhang Jun 張駿 324–346 Duke Zhongcheng 忠成公
Zhang Chonghua 張重華 346–353 Duke Huan 桓公
Zhang Yaoling 張曜靈 3 months the ninth to the twelfth month in 353 Duke Ai 哀公
Zhang Zuo 張祚 353–355 Prince Wei 威王
Heping 和平 354–355
Zhang Xuanjing 張玄靚 355–363 Jianxing 建興 355–361 Duke Jingdao
or
Duke Chong
敬悼公

or

沖公

Shengping 升平 361–376
Zhang Tianxi 張天錫 364–376 Duke Dao 悼公
Hou Later Liang 后凉 386–403
Lü Guang 呂光 386–399 Taian 太安 386–389 Prince Yiwu 懿武王 Taizu 太祖
Linjia 麟嘉 389–396
Longfei 龍飛 396–399
Lü Shao 呂紹 399 Prince Yin 隱王
Lü Zuan 呂纂 399–401 Xianning 咸寧 399–401 Prince Ling 靈王
Lü Long 呂隆 401–403 Shending 神鼎 401–403 Duke Shangshu
or
Duke Jiankang
尚書公

or

建康公

Nan Southern Liang 南凉 397–414
Tufa Wugu 禿髮烏孤 397–399 Taichu 太初 397–399 Prince Wu 武王 Liezu 烈祖
Tufa Lilugu 禿髮利鹿孤 399–402 Jianhe 建和 399–402 Prince Kang 康王
Tufa Rutan 禿髮傉檀 402–414 Hongchang 弘昌 402–404 Prince Jǐng
or
Prince Jìng
景王

or

敬王

Jiaping 嘉平 409–414
Bei Northern Liang 北凉 397–439 as Kings of Gaochang 442–460
Duan Ye 段業 397–401 Shenxi 神璽 397–399
Tianxi 天璽 399–401
Juqu Mengxun 沮渠蒙遜 401–433 Yongan 永安 401–412 Prince Wuxuan 武宣王 Taizu 太祖
Xuanshi 玄始 412–428
Chengxuan 承玄 428–430
Yihe 義和 430–433
Juqu Mujian 沮渠牧犍 433–439 Yonghe 永和 433–439 Prince Ai 哀王
Juqu Wuhui 沮渠無諱 442–444 Chengping 承平 442–443
Qianshou 乾壽 443–444
Juqu Anzhou 沮渠安周 444–460 Chengping 承平 444–460
Xi Western Liang 西凉 400–421
Li Gao 李暠 400–417 Gengzi 庚子 400–405 Prince Wuzhao 武昭王 Taizu 太祖
Jianchu 建初 406–416
Li Xin 李歆 417–420 Jiaxing 嘉興 417–420 Prince Hòu 後主
Li Xun 李恂 420–421 Yongjian 永建 420–421 Prince Hòu 後主

Yan 燕 337–436

Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號 Temple name Miao Hao 廟號
Qian Former Yan 前燕 337–370
Murong Huang 慕容皝 337–348 Yànwáng 燕王 337–348 Emperor Wenming 文明帝 Taizu 太祖
Murong Jun 慕容俊 348–360 Yànyuán 燕元 349–351 Emperor Jingzhao 景昭帝 Liezong 烈宗
Yuánxǐ 元璽 352–357
Shēngpíng 升平 357 as vassal of Jin
Guāngshòu 光壽 357–359
Murong Wei 慕容暐 360–370 Jiànxī 建熙 359–365 Prince You 幽帝
Jiànyuán 建元 366–370
Hou Later Yan 后燕 384–407
Murong Chui 慕容垂 384–396 Yànwáng 燕王 384–385 Emperor Wucheng 武成帝 Shizu 世祖
Jianxing 建興 386–396
Murong Bao 慕容寶 396–398 Yongkang 永康 396–398 Emperor Huimin 惠愍帝 Liezong 烈宗
Murong Sheng 慕容盛 398–401 Jianping 建平 398 Emperor Zhaowu 昭武帝 Zhongzong 中宗
Changle 長樂 399–401
Murong Xi 慕容熙 401–407 Guangshi 光始 401–406 Emperor Zhaowen 昭文帝
Jianshi 建始 407
Nan Southern Yan 南燕 398–410
Murong De 慕容德 398–405 Yanwang 燕王 398–400 Emperor Xianwu 獻武帝 Shizong 世宗
Jianping 建平 400–405
Murong Chao 慕容超 405–410 Taishang 太上 405–410 Emperor Hòu 後主帝
Bei Northern Yan 北燕 407–436
Gao Yun 高雲/慕容雲 407–409 Zhengshi 正始 407–409 Emperor Huiyi 惠懿帝
Feng Ba 馮跋 409–430 Taiping 太平 409–430 Emperor Wencheng 文成帝 Taizu 太祖
Feng Hong 馮弘 430–436 Daxing 大興 430–436 Emperor Zhaocheng 昭成帝

Qin 秦 351–431

Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號 Temple name Miao Hao 廟號
Qian Former Qin 前秦 351–394
Fu Jian 苻健 351–355 Huangshi 皇始 351–355 皇始 351–355 Emperor Jingming 景明帝 Gaozu 高祖
Fu Sheng 苻生 355–357 Shouguang 壽光 355–357 壽光 355–357 Prince Li 厲王
Fu Jian 苻堅 357–385 Yongxing 永興 357–359 Emperor Xuanzhao 宣昭帝 Shizu 世祖
Ganlu 甘露 359–364
Jianyuan 建元 365–385
Fu Pi 苻丕 385–386 Taian 太安 385–386 Emperor Aiping 哀平帝
Fu Deng 苻登 386–394 Taichu 太初 385–394 Emperor Gao 高帝 Taizong 太宗
Fu Chong 苻崇 several months in 394 Yanchu 延初 394 Prince Hòu 後主
Hou Later Qin 后秦 384–417
Yao Chang 姚萇 384–393 Baique 白雀 384–386 Emperor Wuzhao 武昭帝 Taizu 太祖
Jianchu 建初 386–393
Yao Xing 姚興 394–416 Huangchu 皇初 394–399 Emperor Wenhuan 文桓帝 Gaozu 高祖
Hongshi 弘始 399–416
Yao Hong 姚泓 416–417 Yonghe 永和 416–417 Prince Hòu 後主
Xi Western Qin 西秦 385–400, 409–431
Qifu Guoren 乞伏國仁 385–388 Jianyi 建義 385–388 Prince Xuanlie 宣烈王 Liezu 烈祖
Qifu Gangui 乞伏乾歸 388–400 Taichu 太初 388–400 Prince Wuyuan 武元王 Gaozu 高祖
409–412 Gengshi 更始 409–412
Qifu Chipan 乞伏熾磐 412–428 Yongkang 永康 412–419 Prince Wenzhao 文昭王 Taizu 太祖
Jianhong 建弘 420–428
Qifu Mumo 乞伏暮末 428–431 Yonghong 永弘 428–431 Prince Hòu 後主

Xia 夏 407–431

Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號 Temple name Miao Hao 廟號
Helian Bobo 赫連勃勃 407–425 Longsheng 龍升 407–413 Emperor Wulie 武烈帝 Shizu 世祖
Fengxiang 鳳翔 413–418
Changwu 昌武 418–419
Zhenxing 真興 419–425
Helian Chang 赫連昌 425–428 Chengguang 承光 425–428 Prince Qin 秦王
Helian Ding 赫連定 428–431 Shengguang 勝光 425–428 Prince Pingyuan 平原王

Other sovereignties traditionally not counted in the Sixteen Kingdoms

Convention: use personal name

Ran Wei 冉魏 350–352

Note: addressed as Wei in traditional texts

Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Ran Min 冉閔 350–352 Yongxing 永興 350–352 Heavenly King Wudao 武悼天王

Xi Western Yan 西燕 384–394

Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Murong Hong 慕容泓 384 Yanxing 燕興 384–385 Emperor Wei 威帝
Murong Chong 慕容沖 384–386
Gengshi 更始 385–386
Duan Sui 段隨 386 Changping 昌平 386
Murong Yi 慕容顗 386 Jianming 建明 386
Murong Yao 慕容瑤 386 Jianping 建平 386
Murong Zhong 慕容忠 386 Jianwu 建武 386
Murong Yong 慕容永 386–394 Zhongxing 中興 386–394

Shu 蜀 405–413

Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Qiao Zong 譙縱 405–413 King Chengdu 成都王

Chieftains of Tiefu Tribe 匈奴支系鐵弗部首領 mid 3rd century – 391

Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Liu Qubei 劉去卑 mid-3rd century
Liu Gaoshengyuan 劉誥升爰 mid-3rd century – late 3rd century
Liu Hu 劉虎 early 4th century 309 – 341
Liu Wuheng 劉務恒 341–356
Liu Eloutou 劉閼陋頭 356–358
Liu Xiwuqi 劉悉勿祈 358–359
Liu Weichen 劉衛辰 359–391

Chieftains of Yuwen Tribe 宇文部鮮卑首領 late 3rd century – 345

Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Yuwen Mohuai 宇文莫槐 late 3rd century – 293
Yuwen Puhui
or
Yuwen Pubo
宇文普回

or

宇文普撥

293 – late 3rd century
Yuwen Qiubuqin 宇文丘不勤 late 3rd century
Yuwen Mogui 宇文莫圭 late 3rd century 299 – early 4th century 302
Yuwen Xiduguan 宇文悉獨官 early 3rd century
Yuwen Qidegui 宇文乞得歸 early 3rd century – 333
Yuwen Yidougui 宇文逸豆歸 333–345

Dukes of Liaoxi 遼西公 303–338

Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Duan Wuwuchen 段務勿塵 303 – 310 or 311
Duan Jilujuan 段疾陸眷 310 or 311 – 318
Duan Shefuchen 段涉復辰 318
Duan Pidi 段匹磾 318–321
Duan Mopei 段末柸 318–325
Duan Ya 段牙 325
Duan Liao 段遼 326–338

Chouchi 仇池 late 2nd century – 473

Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Qian Former Chouchi 前仇池 late 2nd century – 371
Yang Teng 楊騰 late 2nd century – early 3rd century
Yang Ju 楊駒 early 3rd century
Yang Qianwan 楊千萬 early 3rd century – mid-3rd century
Yang Feilong 楊飛龍 mid-3rd century – late 3rd century
Yang Maosou 楊茂搜 late 3rd century – 317
Yang Nandi 楊難敵 317–334
Yang Yi 楊毅 334–337
Yang Chu 楊初 337–355
Yang Guo 楊國 355–356
Yang Jun 楊俊 356–360
Yang Shi 楊世 360–370
Yang Cuan 楊篡 370–371
Hou Later Chouchi 后仇池 385–473
Yang Ding 楊定 385–394 King Wǔ 武王
Yang Sheng 楊盛 394–425 King Huìwén 惠文王
Yang Xuan 楊玄 425–429 King Xiàozhāo 孝昭王
Yang Baozong 楊保宗 429 and 443
Yang Nandang 楊難當 429–441 Jianyi 建義 436–440
Yang Baochi 楊保熾 442–443
Yang Wende 楊文德 443–454
Yang Yuanhe 楊元和 455–466
Yang Sengsi 楊僧嗣 466–473

Kings of Wuxing 武興王 473–506 and 534–555

Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Yang Wendu 楊文度 473–477
Yang Wenhong 楊文弘 477–482
Yang Houqi 楊後起 482–486
Yang Jishi 楊集始 482–503 King An 安王
Yang Shaoxian 楊紹先 503–506, 534–535
Yang Zhihui1 楊智慧 535–545
Yang Bixie1 楊辟邪 545–553
1 — Yang Zhihui and Yang Bixie could be the same person

Kings of Yinping 陰平王 477 – mid-6th century

Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Yang Guangxiang 楊廣香 477–483
Yang Jiong 楊炯 483–495
Yang Chongzu 楊崇祖 495-before 502
Yang Mengsun 楊孟孫 before 502–511
Yang Ding 楊定 511- 

Chieftains of Tuoba Tribe 索頭部鮮卑族首領 219–377 as Kings of Dai 代王 305–377

Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Tuoba Liwei3 拓拔力微 219–277 King Shényuán 神元王
Tuoba Xilu 拓拔悉鹿 277–286 King Zhāng 章王
Tuoba Chuo 拓拔綽 286–293 King Píng 平王
Tuoba Fu 拓拔弗 293–294 King Sī 思王
Tuoba Luguan 拓拔祿官 294–307 King Zhāo 昭王
Tuoba Yituo 拓拔猗㐌 295–305 Emperor Huán 桓帝
Tuoba Yilu 拓拔猗盧 295–316 King Mù 穆王
Tuoba Liugen 拓跋六根 316
Tuoba Pugen 拓拔普根 316
Tuoba Shisheng 拓跋始生 316
Tuoba Yulü 拓拔鬱律 316–321 King Píngwén 平文王
Tuoba Heru 拓拔賀傉 321–325 King Huì 惠王
Tuoba Hena 拓拔紇那 325–329 and 335–337 King Yáng 煬王
Tuoba Yihuai 拓拔翳槐 329–335 and 337–338 King Liè 烈王
Tuoba Shiyijian 拓拔什翼健 338–377 Jianguo 建國 338–377 King Zhāochéng 昭成王
1 — All chieftains were revered as emperors in Weishu and Beishi which they never were They were denoted here as king wáng 王 which was inherited by all successors of Tuoba Yi Lu

2 — The Tuoba clan was the ruling family of Northern Wei dynasty, founded by Tuoba Gui Hence the Table of Northern Wei dynasty will start with him, not as a continuation of this table

3 — Tuoba Liwei had the temple name Shizu 始祖 He was the only chieftain before Tuoba Gui revered with a temple name

Northern and Southern Dynasties 南北朝 420–589

Main article: Northern and Southern dynasties

Northern dynasties 北朝 386–581

Chinese convention: use dynasty name + posthumous name

Bei Northern Wei 北魏 386–550

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei Tuoba Gui 拓拔珪 386–409 Dengguo 登國 386–396 Emperor Daowu 道武帝
Huangsh 皇始 396–398
Tianxing 天興 398–404
Tianci 天賜 404–409
Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei Tuoba Si 拓拔嗣 409–423 Yongxing 永興 409–413 Emperor Mingyuan 明元帝
Shenrui 神瑞 414–416
Taichang 泰常 416–423
Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei Tuoba Tao 拓拔燾 424–452 Shiguang 始光 424–428 Emperor Taiwu 太武帝
Shenjia 神䴥 428–431
Yanhe 延和 432–434
Taiyan 太延 435–440
Taipingzhenjun 太平真君 440–451
Zhengping 正平 451–452
Tuoba Yu Tuoba Yu 拓拔余 452 Chengping 承平 452 Prince Nan'an 南安王
Emperor Wencheng of Northern Wei Tuoba Jun 拓拔濬 452–465 Xingan 興安 452–454 Emperor Wencheng 文成帝
Xingguang 興光 454–455
Tai'an 太安 455–459
Heping 和平 460–465
Emperor Xianwen of Northern Wei Tuoba Hong 拓拔弘 466–471 Tian'an 天安 466–467 Emperor Xianwen 獻文帝
Huangxing 皇興 467–471
Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei Yuan1 Hong Tuoba Hong 元宏 拓跋宏 471–499 Yanxing 延興 471–476 Emperor Xiaowen 孝文帝
Chengming 承明 476
Taihe 太和 477–499
Emperor Xuanwu of Northern Wei Yuan Ke 元恪 499–515 Jingming 景明 500–503 Emperor Xuanwu 宣武帝
Zhengshi 正始 504–508
Yongping 永平 508–512
Yanchang 延昌 512–515
Emperor Xiaoming of Northern Wei Yuan Xu 元詡 516–528 Xiping 熙平 516–518 Emperor Xiaoming 孝明帝
Shengui 神龜 518–520
Zhengguang 正光 520–525
Xiaochang 孝昌 525–527
Wutai 武泰 528
Yuan Zhao Yuan Zhao 元釗 528 Prince Yòu 幼主
Emperor Xiaozhuang of Northern Wei Yuan Ziyou 元子攸 528–530 Jianyi 建義 528 Emperor Xiaozhuang 孝莊帝
Yong'an 永安 528–530
Yuan Ye Yuan Ye 元曄 530–531 Jianming 建明 530–531 建明 530–531 Prince Changguang 長廣王
Emperor Jiemin of Northern Wei Yuan Gong 元恭 531–532 Putai 普泰 531–532 普泰 531–532 Emperor Jiemin 節閔帝
Yuan Lang Yuan Lang 元朗 531–532 Zhongxing 中興 531–532 中興 531–532 Prince Anding 安定王
Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei Yuan Xiu 元脩 532–535 Taichang 太昌 532 Emperor Xiaowu
or
Emperor Chu
孝武帝

or

出帝

Yongxing 永興 532
Yongxi 永熙 532–535
Dong Eastern Wei dynasty 東魏 534–550
Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei Yuan Shanjian 元善見 534–550 Tianping 天平 534–537 Emperor Xiaojing 孝靜帝
Yuanxiang 元象 538–539
Xinghe 興和 539–542
Wuding 武定 543–550
Xi Western Wei dynasty 西魏 535–556
Emperor Wen of Western Wei Yuan Baoju 元寶炬 535–551 Datong 大統 535–551 Emperor Wen 文帝
Emperor Fei of Western Wei Yuan Qin 元欽 552–554 Emperor Fei 廢帝
Emperor Gong of Western Wei Tuoba Kuo 拓拔廓 554–556 Emperor Gong 恭帝
1 – The Tuoba family changed their family name to 元 yuán during the reign of Xiaowen Di in 496 so that is reflected in the table as well

Bei Northern Qi 北齊 550–577

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reigns Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi Gao Yang 高洋 550–559 Tianbao 天保 550–559 Emperor Wenxuan 文宣帝
Emperor Fei of Northern Qi Gao Yin 高殷 559–560 Qianming 乾明 560 Emperor Fei 廢帝
Emperor Xiaozhao of Northern Qi Gao Yan 高演 560–561 Huangjian 皇建 560–561 Emperor Xiaozhao 孝昭帝
Emperor Wucheng of Northern Qi Gao Zhan 高湛 561–565 Taining 太寧 561–562 Emperor Wucheng 武成帝
Heqing 河清 562–565
Gao Wei Gao Wei 高緯 565–577 Tiantong 天統 565–569 Prince Hòu 後主
Wuping 武平 570–576
Longhua 隆化 576
Gao Heng Gao Heng 高恆 577 Chengguang 承光 577 Prince Yòu 幼主
Gao Shaoyi Gao Shaoyi 高紹義 577–579 Prince Fanyang 范陽王

Bei Northern Zhou 北周 557–581

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reigns Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou Yuwen Jue 宇文覺 557 Emperor Xiaomin 孝閔帝
Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yu 宇文毓 557–560 Wucheng 武成 559–560 Emperor Ming
or
Emperor Xiaoming
明帝

or

孝明帝

Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yong 宇文邕 561–578 Baoding 保定 560–565 Emperor Wu 武帝
Tianhe 天和 566–572
Jiande 建德 572–578
Xuanzheng 宣政 578
Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yun 宇文贇 578–579 Dacheng 大成 579 Emperor Xuan 宣帝
Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou Yuwen Chan 宇文闡 579–581 Daxiang 大象 579–581 Emperor Jing 靜帝
Dading 大定 581

Southern dynasties 南朝 420–589

Chinese convention: use dynasty name + posthumous name

Liu Song 劉宋 420–479

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Emperor Wu of Liu Song Liu Yu 劉裕 420–422 Yongchu 永初 420–422 Emperor Wu 武帝
Emperor Shao of Liu Song Liu Yifu 劉義符 423–424 Jingping 景平 423–424 Emperor Shao 少帝
Emperor Wen of Liu Song Liu Yilong 劉義隆 424–453 Yuanjia 元嘉 424–453 Emperor Wen 文帝
Emperor Xiaowu of Liu Song Liu Jun 劉駿 454–464 Xiaojian 元嘉 454–456 Emperor Xiaowu 孝武帝
Daming 大明 457–464
Emperor Qianfei of Liu Song Liu Ziye 劉子業 465 Yongguang 永光 465 Emperor Qianfei 前廢帝
Jinghe 景和 465
Emperor Ming of Liu Song Liu Yu 劉彧 465–472 Taishi 泰始 465–471 Emperor Ming
明帝
Taiyu 泰豫 472
Emperor Houfei of Liu Song Liu Yu 劉昱 473–477 Yuanhui 元徽 473–477 Emperor Houfei

or

Prince Cangwu

後廢帝

or

蒼梧王

Emperor Shun of Liu Song Liu Zhun 劉準 477–479 Shengming 昇明 477–479 Emperor Shun 順帝

Nán Southern Qi 南齊 479–502

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Emperor Gao of Southern Qi Xiao Daocheng 蕭道成 479–482 Jianyuan 建元 479–482 Emperor Gao 高帝
Emperor Wu of Southern Qi Xiao Ze 蕭賾 482–493 Yongming 永明 483–493 Emperor Wu 武帝
Xiao Zhaoye Xiao Zhaoye 蕭昭業 493–494 Longchang 隆昌 494 Prince of Yulin 鬱林王
Xiao Zhaowen Xiao Zhaowen 蕭昭文 494 Yanxing 延興 494 Prince of Hailing 海陵王
Emperor Ming of Southern Qi Xiao Luan 蕭鸞 494–498 Jianwu 建武 494–498 Emperor Ming 明帝
Yongtai 永泰 498
Xiao Baojuan Xiao Baojuan 蕭寶卷 499–501 Yongyuan 永元 499–501 Marquess of Donghun 東昏侯
Emperor He of Southern Qi Xiao Baorong 蕭寶融 501–502 Zhongxing 中興 501–502 Emperor He 和帝

Nán Southern Liang 南梁 502–557

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Emperor Wu of Liang Xiao Yan 蕭衍 502–549 Tianjian 天監 502–519 Emperor Wu 武帝
Putong 普通 520–527
Datong 大通 527–529
Zhongdatong 中大通 529–534
Datong 大同 535–546
Zhongdatong 中大同 546–547
Taiqing 太清 547–549
Emperor Jianwen of Liang Xiao Gang 蕭綱 549–551 Dabao 大寶 550–551 Emperor Jianwen 簡文帝
Xiao Dong Xiao Dong 蕭棟 551–552 Tianzheng 天正 551–552 Prince of Yuzhang 豫章王
Emperor Yuan of Liang Xiao Yi 蕭繹 552–555 Chengsheng 承聖 552–555 Emperor Yuan 元帝
Xiao Yuanming Xiao Yuanming 蕭淵明 555 Tiancheng 天成 555 Emperor Zhengyang 貞陽侯
Emperor Jing of Liang Xiao Fangzhi 蕭方智 555–557 Shaotai 紹泰 555–556 Emperor Jing 敬帝
Taiping 太平 556–557
Xi Western Liang 西梁 555–587
Emperor Xuan of Western Liang Xiao Cha 蕭詧 555–562 Dading 大定 555–562 Emperor Xuan 宣帝
Emperor Ming of Western Lian Xiao Kui 蕭巋 562–585 Tianbao 天保 562–585 Emperor Xiaoming 孝明帝
Emperor Jing of Western Liang Xiao Cong 蕭琮 585–587 Guangyun 廣運 562–585 Emperor Xiaojing

or

Duke Ju

孝靖帝

or

莒公

Chen 陳 557–589:

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號
Emperor Wu of Chen Chen Baxian 陳霸先 557–559 Yongding 永定 557–559 Emperor Wu 武帝
Emperor Wen of Chen Chen Qian 陳蒨 559–566 Tianjia 天嘉 560–566 Emperor Wen 文帝
Tiankang 天康 566
Emperor Fei of Chen Chen Bozong 陳伯宗 566–568 Guangda 光大 566–568 Emperor Fei 廢帝
Emperor Xuan of Chen Chen Xu 陳頊 569–582 Taijian 太建 569–582 Emperor Xuan 宣帝
Chen Shubao Chen Shubao 陳叔寶 583–589 Zhide 至德 583–586 Prince Hou 後主
Zhenming 禎明 587–589

Sui dynasty 隋朝 581–618

Main article: Sui dynasty See also: Sui emperors family tree

Chinese convention: use "Sui" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and the corresponding range of years Posthumous names Shi Hao 諡號
Emperor Wen of Sui Yáng Jiān 楊堅 581–604 Kāihuáng 開皇 581–600 Emperor Wen 文帝
Rénshòu 仁壽 601–604
Emperor Yang of Sui Yáng Guǎng 楊廣 605–617 Dàyè 大業 605–617 Emperor Yang 煬帝
Emperor Gong of Sui1 Yáng Yòu 楊侑 617–618 Yìníng 義寧 617–618 Emperor Gong 恭帝
Prince Qin2 Yáng Hào 楊浩 618 Huángtài 皇泰 618–619 Prince Qin 秦王
Yang Tong3 Yáng Tóng 楊侗 618–619 Emperor Gong Prince Huangtai 恭帝 皇泰主

1 — Declared emperor by Li Yuan the later Emperor Gaozu of Tang, implying a retirement for Emperor Yang whom he "honoured" as Taishang Huang, or retired emperor at the western capital Daxing Chang'an, but only the commanderies under Li's control recognized this change; for the other commanderies under Sui control, Emperor Yang was still regarded as emperor, not as retired emperor Now generally regarded as a legitimate emperor, due to his recognition by Li Yuan

2 — Declared emperor by Yuwen Huaji, the general under whose leadership the plot to kill Emperor Yang was carried out, but killed by him later in 618; Yuwen Huaji then declared himself emperor of a brief Xu 許 state As Yang Hao was completely under Yuwen's control and only "reigned" briefly, he is not usually regarded as a legitimate emperor

3 — After news of Emperor Yang's death in 618 reached Daxing and the eastern capital Luoyang, Li Yuan deposed Emperor Gong and took the throne himself, establishing Tang dynasty, but the Sui officials at Luoyang declared Emperor Gong's brother Yang Tong later also known as Emperor Gong emperor The legitimacy of his reign is disputed

Tang dynasty 唐朝 608–907

Main article: Tang dynasty

Chinese convention: use "Tang" + temple name except for Emperor Shang and Emperor Ai; Emperor Xuanzong 唐玄宗 is sometimes referred as Emperor Ming of Tang Dynasty 唐明皇

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Era Names Nian Hao 年号 and their corresponding range of years Temple Name Miao Hao 庙号
Emperor Gaozu of Tang Lǐ Yuān 李渊 618–626 Wude 武德 618–626 Gaozu 高祖
Emperor Taizong of Tang Lǐ Shìmín 李世民 627–649 Zhenguan 貞觀 627–649 Taizong 太宗
Emperor Gaozong of Tang Lǐ Zhì 李治 650–683 Yonghui 永徽 650–655 Gaozong 高宗
Xianqing 顯慶 656–661
Longshuo 龍朔 661–663
Linde 麟德 664–665
Qianfeng 乾封 666–668
Zongzhang 總章 668–670
Xianheng 咸亨 670–674
Shangyuan 上元 674–676
Yifeng 儀鳳 676–679
Tiaolu 調露 679–680
Yonglong 永隆 680–681
Kaiyao 開耀 681–682
Yongchun 永淳 682–683
Hongdao 弘道 683
Emperor Zhongzong of China Li Xian

or

Li Zhe

李显

or

李哲

684

and

705–710

Sisheng 嗣聖 684 Zhongzong 中宗
Shenlong 神龍 705–707
Jinglong 景龍 707–710
Emperor Ruizong of Tang Li Dan 李旦 684–690

and

710–712

Wenming 文明 684–690 Ruizong 睿宗
Jingyun 景雲 710–711
Taiji 太極 712
Yanhe 延和 712
Interregnum 690 – 705
Emperor Shang of Tang Li Chongmao 李重茂 710 Tanglong 唐隆 710
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Li Longji 李隆基 712–756 Xiantian 先天 712–713 Xuanzong 玄宗
Kaiyuan 開元 713–741
Tianbao 天寶 742–756
Emperor Suzong of Tang Li Heng 李亨 756–762 Jide 至德 756–758 Suzong 肅宗
Qianyuan 乾元 758–760
Shangyuan 上元 760–761
Emperor Daizong of Tang Li Yu 李豫 762–779 Baoying 寶應 762–763 Daizong 代宗
Guangde 廣德 763–764
Yongtai 永泰 765–766
Dali 大曆 766–779
Emperor Dezong of Tang Li Gua 李适 780–805 Jianzhong 建中 780–783 Dezong 德宗
Xingyuan 興元 784
Zhenyuan 貞元 785–805
Emperor Shunzong of Tang Li Song 李誦 805 Yongzhen 永貞 805 Shunzong 順宗
Emperor Xianzong of Tang Li Chun 李純 806–820 Yuanhe 元和 806–820 Xianzong 憲宗
Emperor Muzong of Tang Li Heng 李恆 821–824 Changqing 長慶 821–824 Muzong 穆宗
Emperor Jingzong of Tang Li Zhan 李湛 824–826 Baoli 寶曆 824–826 Jingzong 敬宗
Emperor Wenzong of Tang Li Ang 李昂 826–840 Wenzong 文宗
Dahe

or

Taihe

大和

or

太和

827–835
Kaicheng 開成 836–840
Emperor Wuzong of Tang Li Yan 李炎 840–846 Huichang 會昌 841–846 Wuzong 武宗
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Li Chen 李忱 846–859 Dachong 大中 847–859 Xuanzong 宣宗
Emperor Yizong of Tang Li Cui 李漼 859–873 Yizong 懿宗
Xiantong 咸通 860–874
Emperor Xizong of Tang Li Xuan 李儇 873–888 Xizong 僖宗
Qianfu 乾符 874–879
Guangming 廣明 880–881
Zhonghe 中和 881–885
Guangqi 光啟 885–888
Wende 文德 888
Emperor Zhaozong of Tang Li Ye 李曄 888–904 Longji 龍紀 889 Zhaozong 昭宗
Dashun 大順 890–891
Jingfu 景福 892–893
Qianning 乾寧 894–898
Guanghua 光化 898–901
Tianfu 天復 901–904
Tianyou 天佑 904
Emperor Ai of Tang Li Zhu 李柷 904–907 Tianyou 天佑 904–907 天佑 904–907 Zhaoxuan 昭宣帝
1 — Emperor Shao 少帝, Emperor Ai 哀帝, and Emperor Zhaoxuan 昭宣帝 are posthumous names, not temple names

Zhou dynasty 周朝 690–705

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Era Names Nian Hao 年号 and their corresponding range of years Temple Name Miao Hao 庙号
Wu Zetian Wǔ Zhào 武曌 690–705 Tianshou 天授 690–692
Ruyi 如意 692
Changshou 長壽 692–694
Yanzai 延載 694
Zhengsheng 證聖 695
Tiancewansui 天冊萬歲 695–696
Wansuidengfeng 萬歲登封 696
Wansuitongtian 萬歲通天 696–697
Shengong 神功 697
Shengli 聖曆 698–700
Jiushi 久視 700
Dazu 大足 701
Chang'an 長安 701–705

Kingdom of Qi 齊國 881–884

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Era Names Nian Hao 年号 and their corresponding range of years Temple Name Miao Hao 庙号
Huang Chao Huang Chao 黃巢帝 881-884 Wángbà 王霸 878-880
Jīntǒng 金統 881-884

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 五代十国 907–960

Main article: Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

Five Dynasties 五代

Chinese convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name

Hou Later Liang dynasty 后梁 907–923

Personal Name Reign Posthumous Names Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Zhū Wēn 朱溫 907–912 Emperor Xianwu 獻武 Kaīpíng 開平 907–911 Taizu 太祖
Qiánhuà 乾化 911–912
Zhu Yougui 朱友珪 912–913 Qiánhuà 乾化 912–913
Fengli 913
Zhū Zhèn 朱瑱 913–923 Emperor Mo 末帝 Qiánhuà 乾化 913–915
Zhēnmíng 貞明 915–921
Lóngdé 龍德 921–923

Hou Later Tang dynasty 后唐 923–936

Personal Name Reign Posthumous Names Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Lǐ Cúnxù 李存勗 923–926 Tongguang 同光 923–926 Zhuangzong 莊宗
Lǐ Sìyuán

or

Lǐ Dǎn

李嗣源

or

李亶

926–933 Tiancheng 天成 926–930 Mingzong 明宗
Changxing 長興 930–933
Lǐ Cónghòu 李從厚 933–934 Emperor Min 閔帝 Yingshun 應順 933–934
Lǐ Cóngkē 李從珂 934–936 Emperor Mo 末帝 Qingtai 清泰 934–936

Hou Later Jin dynasty 后晋 936–947

Personal Name Reign Posthumous Names Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Shi Jingtang 石敬瑭 936–942 Tianfu 天福 936–944 Gaozu 高祖
Shi Chonggui 石重貴 942–947 Emperor Chu 出帝
Kaiyun 開運 944–947

Hou Later Han dynasty 后汉 947–950

Personal Name Reign Posthumous Names Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Liu Zhiyuan 劉知遠 947–948 Tianfu 天福 947 Gaozu 高祖
Liu Chengyou 劉承祐 948–950 Emperor Yin 隱帝 Qianyou 乾祐 948–950

Hou Later Zhou dynasty 后周 951–960

Personal Name Reign Posthumous Names Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Guo Wei 郭威 951–954 Guangshun 廣順 951–954 Taizu 太祖
Chai Rong 柴榮 954–959 Xiande 顯德 954–960 Shizong 世宗
Chai Zongxun 柴宗訓 959–960 Emperor Gong 恭帝

Ten Kingdoms 十國

Chinese convention: use personal names, noted otherwise

Wu Yue 吳越 904–978

Personal Name Reign Posthumous Names Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Qian Liu 錢鏐 904–932 King Wusu 武肅王 Tianbao 天寶 908–923 Taizu 太祖
Baoda 寶大 923–925
Baozheng 寶正 925–932
Qian Yuanguan 錢元瓘 932–941 King Wenmu 文穆王 Shizong 世宗
Qian Hongzuo 錢弘佐 941–947 King Zhongxian 忠獻王 Chengzong 成宗
Qian Hongzong 錢弘倧 947 King Zhongxun 忠遜王
Qian Chu Qian Hongchu 錢俶 錢弘俶 947–978 King Zhongyi 忠懿王

Min 閩 909–945 including Yin 殷 943–945

Personal Name Reign Posthumous Names Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Wang Shenzhi 王審知 909–925 King Zhongyi 忠懿王 Taizu 太祖
Wang Yanhan 王延翰 925–926
Wang Yanjun 王延鈞 926–935 Emperor Hui 惠帝 Longqi 龍啟 933–935 Taizong 太宗
Yonghe 永和 935
Wang Jipeng 王繼鵬 935–939 Tongwen 通文 936–939 Kangzong 康宗
Wang Yanxi 王延羲 939–944 Yonglong 永隆 939–944 Jingzong 景宗
Wang Yanzheng 王延政 943–945 Emperor Tiande
as Emperor of Yin
天德帝 Tiande 天德 943–945

Jingnan 荆南 or Nanping 南平 906–963

Personal Name Reign Posthumous Names Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Gao Jixing 高季興 909–928 King Wuxin 武信王
Gao Conghui 高從誨 928–948 King Wenxian 文獻王
Gao Baorong 高寶融 948–960 King Zhenyi 貞懿王
Gao Baoxu 高寶勗 960–962 Emperor Shizhong 侍中
Gao Jichong 高繼沖 962–963

Chu 楚 897–951

Personal Name Reign Posthumous Names Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Ma Yin 馬殷 897–930 King Wumu 武穆王
Ma Xisheng 馬希聲 930–932 King Hengyang 衡陽王
Ma Xifan 馬希範 932–947 King Wenzhao 文昭王
Ma Xiguang 馬希廣 947–950 King Fei 廢王
Ma Xi'e 馬希萼 950 King Gongxiao 恭孝王
Ma Xichong 馬希崇 950–951

Wu 吳 904–937

Personal Name Reign Posthumous Names Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Yang Xingmi 楊行密 904–905 Emperor Xiaowu 孝武帝 Tianyou 天祐 904–919 Taizu 太祖
Yang Wo 楊渥 905–908 Emperor Jing 景帝 Liezong 烈宗
Yang Longyan 楊隆演 908–921 Emperor Xuan 宣帝 Gaozu 高祖
Wuyi 武義 919–921
Yang Pu 楊溥 921–937 Emperor Rui 睿帝 Shunyi 順義 921–927
Qianzhen 乾貞 927–929
Dahe 大和 929–935
Tianzuo 天祚 935–937

Nan Southern Tang 南唐 937–975

Chinese convention for this kingdom only: Use Nan Southern Tang + posthumous names

Personal Name Reign Posthumous Names Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Li Bian 李昪 937–943 Shengyuan 昇元 937–943 Xianzhu

or Liezu

先主

or

烈祖

Li Jing 李璟 943–961 Baoda 保大 943–958 Zhongzhu

or Yuanzong

中主

or

元宗

Jiaotai 交泰 958
Zhongxing 中興 958
Li Yu Li Houzhu 李煜 961–975 King Wu 武王 Houzhu 後主

Nan Southern Han 南漢 917–971

Personal Name Reign Posthumous Names Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Liú Yán
or
Liú Yǎn
劉巖

or

劉龑

917–925 Emperor Tianhuang the Great 天皇大帝 Qiánhēng 乾亨 917–925 Gaozu 高祖
Báilóng 白龍 925–928
Dàyǒu 大有 928–941
Liú Bīn 劉玢 941–943 Emperor Shang 殤帝 Guāngtiān 光天 941–943
Liú Shèng 劉晟 943–958 Yìngqián 應乾 943 Zhongzong 中宗
Qiánhé 乾和 943–958
Liú Chǎng 劉鋹 958–971 Dàbǎo 大寶 958–971 Houzhu 後主

Bei Northern Han 北漢 951–979

Personal Name Reign Posthumous Names Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Liu Min 劉旻 951–954 Emperor Shenwu 神武帝 Qianyou 乾祐 951–957 Shizu 世祖
Liu Chengjun 劉承鈞 954–970 Emperor Xiaohe 孝和帝 Ruizong 睿宗
Tianhui 天會 957–970
Liu Jien 劉繼恩 970 Shaozhu 少主
Liu Jiyuan 劉繼元 970–982 Emperor Yingwu 英武帝 Guangyun 廣運 970–982

Qian Former Shu 前蜀 907–925

Personal Name Reign Posthumous Names Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Wang Jian 王建 907–918 Tianfu 天復 907 Gaozu 高祖
Wucheng 武成 908–910
Yongping 永平 911–915
Tongzheng 通正 916
Tianhan 天漢 917
Guangtian 光天 918
Wang Zongyan 王宗衍 918–925 Qiande 乾德 918–925 Houzhu 後主
Xiankang 咸康 925

Hou Later Shu 后蜀 934–965

Personal Name Reign Posthumous Names Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Meng Zhixiang 孟知祥 934 Mingde 明德 934 明德 934–938 Gaozu 高祖
Meng Chang 孟昶 938–965 Guangzheng 廣政 938–965 Houzhu 後主

Independent regimes during Ten Kingdoms

local independent regimes during Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period traditionally not counted in the Ten Kingdoms

Military Commissioner of Wuping/Hunan 武平/湖南節度使

Personal Names Name of Posts Period on post
Liu Yan 劉言 Military Commissioner of Wuping 武平節度使 950–953
Wang Kui

or

Wang Jinkui

王逵

or

王進逵

953–956
Zhou Xingfeng 周行逢 Military Commissioner of Hunan 湖南節度使 956–962
Zhou Baoquan 周保權 962–963

Military Commissioner of Quanzhang 泉漳節度使

Personal Names Name of Posts Period on post
Liu Congxiao 留從效 Commander-in-Chief of Quanzhang 泉漳都指揮使 945–962
Liu Shaozi 留紹鎡 Regent of Quanzhang 泉漳留守 962
Zhang Hansi 張漢思 Military Commissioner of Quanzhang 泉漳節度使 962–963
Chen Hongjin 陳洪進 963–978

Liao dynasty 辽朝 907–1125

Main article: Liao dynasty Main article: List of emperors of the Liao dynasty

Chinese convention: use "Liao" + temple name except Liao Tianzuodi who is referred using "Liao" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Posthumous Name Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Emperor Taizu of Liao Yēlǜ Ābǎojī 耶律阿保機 907–926 Shence 神冊 916–922 Taizu 太祖
Tianzan 天贊 922–926
Tianxian 天顯 926
Emperor Taizong of Liao Yēlǜ Déguāng 耶律德光 926–947 Tianxian 天顯 927–938 Taizong 太宗
Huitong 會同 938–947
Datong 大同 947
Emperor Shizong of Liao Yēlǜ Ruǎn 耶律阮 947–951 Tianlu 天祿 947–951 天祿 947–951 Shizong 世宗
Emperor Muzong of Liao Yēlǜ Jǐng 耶律璟 951–969 Yingli 應曆 951–969 應曆 951–969 Muzong 穆宗
Emperor Jingzong of Liao Yēlǜ Xián 耶律賢 969–982 Baoning 保寧 969–979 Jingzong 景宗
Qianheng 乾亨 979–982
Emperor Shengzong of Liao Yēlǜ Lóngxù 耶律隆緒 982–1031 Qianheng 乾亨 982 Shengzong 聖宗
Tonghe 統和 983–1012
Kaitai 開泰 1012–1021
Taiping 太平 1021–1031
Emperor Xingzong Liao Yēlǜ Zōngzhēn 耶律宗真 1031–1055 Jingfu 景福 1031–1032 Xingzong 興宗
Chongxi 重熙 1032–1055
Emperor Daozong of Liao Yēlǜ Hóngjī 耶律洪基 1055–1101 Qingning 清寧 1055–1064 Daozong 道宗
Xianyong 咸雍 1065–1074
Taikang

or

Dakang

太康

or

大康

1075–1084
Da'an 大安 1085–1094
Shouchang

or

Shoulong

壽昌

or

壽隆

1095–1101
Emperor Tianzuo of Liao Yēlǜ Yánxǐ 耶律延禧 1101–1125 Emperor Tianzuo Qiantong 乾統 1101–1110
Tianqing 天慶 1111–1120
Baoda 保大 1121–1125

Continued as Western Liao in Central Asia

Western Liao 大遼 1124–1218

See also: Qara Khitai

Chinese convention: use personal name or "Western Liao" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly know Personal name Reign Posthumous Name Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Yelü Dashi Yēlǜ Dàshí

or

Yēlǜ Dáshí1

耶律大石

or

耶律達實

1124–1144 Emperor Tianyou Wulie 天祐武烈帝 Yanqing 延慶 1124 or 1125–1134 Dezong 德宗
Kangguo 康國 1134–1144
Xiao Tabuyan Xiāo Tǎbùyān 蕭塔不煙 1144–1150 Empress Gantian 感天皇后 Xianqing 咸清 1144–1150
Yelü Yilie Yēlǜ Yíliè 耶律夷列 1150–1164 Shaoxing

or

Xuxing2

紹興

or

續興

1150–1164 Renzong 仁宗
Yelü Pusuwan Yēlǜ Pǔsùwán 耶律普速完 1164–1178 Empress Dowager Chengtian 承天太后 Chongfu 崇福 Chóngfú 1164–1178 崇福 1164–1178
Yelü Zhilugu Yēlǜ Zhílǔgǔ 耶律直魯古 1178–1211 Lord Mo

or

Emperor Mo

末主

or

末帝

Tianxi 天禧 Tiānxī 1178–1218 天禧 1178–1218
Kuchlug Qūchūlǜ 屈出律 1211–1218
1 — "Dashi" might be the Chinese title "Taishi", meaning "vizier"; or, it could mean "Stone" in Turkish, as the Chinese transliteration suggests

2 — Recently discovered Western Liao coins have the era name "Xuxing", suggesting that the era name "Shaoxing" recorded in Chinese sources may be incorrect

Song dynasty 宋朝 960–1275

Main article: Song dynasty

Chinese convention: use "Song" + temple name or posthumous name except last emperor who was revered as Song Di Bing 宋帝昺 Sòng Dì Bǐng

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Posthumous Name Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Bei Northern Song 北宋 960–1127
Emperor Taizu of Song Zhao Kuangyin 趙匡胤 960–976 Emperor Xiao 孝帝 Jianlong 建隆 960–963 Taizu 太祖
Qiande 乾德 963–968
Kaibao 開寶 968–976
Emperor Taizong of Song Zhao Kuangyi

or Zhao Guangyi

or

Zhao Jiong

趙匡義

or

趙光義

or

趙炅

976–997 Emperor De 德帝 Taipingxingguo 太平興國 976–984 Taizong 太宗
Yongxi 雍熙 984–987
Duangong 端拱 988–989
Chunhua 淳化 990–994
Zhidao 至道 995–997
Emperor Zhenzong of Song Zhao Heng 趙恆 997–1022 Emperor Zhang 章帝 Xianping 咸平 998–1003 Zhenzong 真宗
Jingde 景德 1004–1007
Dazhongxiangfu 大中祥符 1008–1016
Tianxi 天禧 1017–1021
Qianxing 乾興 1022
Emperor Renzong of Song Zhao Zhen 趙禎 1022–1063 Emperor Wen 文帝 Tiansheng 天聖 1023–1032 Renzong 仁宗
Mingdao 明道 1032–1033
Jingyou 景祐 1034–1038
Baoyuan 寶元 1038–1040
Kangding 康定 1040–1041
Qingli 慶曆 1041–1048
Huangyou 皇祐 1049–1054
Zhihe 至和 1054–1056
Jiayou 嘉祐 1056–1063
Emperor Yingzong of Song Zhao Shu 趙曙 1063–1067 Emperor Xuan 宣帝 Zhiping 治平 1064–1067 Yingzong 英宗
Emperor Shenzong of Song Zhao Xu 趙頊 1067–1085 Emperor Qin 欽帝 Xining 熙寧 1068–1077 Shenzong 神宗
Yuanfeng 元豐 1078–1085
Emperor Zhezong of Song Zhao Xu 趙煦 1085–1100 Emperor Zhao 昭帝 Yuanyou 元祐 1086–1094 Zhezong 哲宗
Shaosheng 紹聖 1094–1098
Yuanfu 元符 1098–1100
Emperor Huizong of Song Zhao Ji 趙佶 1100–1125 Emperor Xian 顯帝 Jianzhongjingguo 建中靖國 1101 Huizong 徽宗
Chongning 崇寧 1102–1106
Daguan 大觀 1107–1110
Zhenghe 政和 1111–1118
Chonghe 重和 1118–1119
Xuanhe 宣和 1119–1125
Emperor Qinzong of Song Zhao Huan 趙桓 1126–1127 Emperor Ren 仁帝 Jingkang 靖康 1125–1127 Qinzong 欽宗
Nan Southern Song 南宋 1127–1279
Emperor Gaozong of Song Zhao Gou 趙構 1127–1162 Emperor Xian 憲帝 Jianyan 建炎 1127–1130 Gaozong 高宗
Shaoxing 紹興 1131–1162
Emperor Xiaozong of Song Zhao Shen 趙昚 1162–1189 Emperor Cheng 成帝 Longxing 隆興 1163–1164 Xiaozong 孝宗
Qiandao 乾道 1165–1173
Chunxi 淳熙 1174–1189
Emperor Guangzong of Song Zhao Dun 趙惇 1189–1194 Emperor Ci 慈帝 Shaoxi 紹熙 1190–1194 Guangzong 光宗
Emperor Ningzong of Song Zhao Kuo 趙擴 1194–1224 Emperor Gong 恭帝 Qingyuan 慶元 1195–1200 Ningzong 寧宗
Jiatai 嘉泰 1201–1204
Kaixi 開禧 1205–1207
Jiading 嘉定 1208–1224
Emperor Lizong of Song Zhao Yun 趙昀 1224–1264 Emperor An 安帝 Baoqing 寶慶 1225–1227 Lizong 理宗
Shaoding 紹定 1228–1233
Duanping 端平 1234–1236
Jiaxi 嘉熙 1237–1240
Chunyou 淳祐 1241–1252
Baoyou 開慶 1253–1258
Kaiqing 開慶 1259
Jingding 景定 1260–1264
Emperor Duzong of Song Zhao Qi 趙禥 1264–1274 Emperor Jing 景帝 Xianchun 咸淳 1265–1274 Duzong 度宗
Emperor Gongzong of Song Zhao Xian 趙顯 1274–1276 Emperor Gong 恭帝 Deyou 德祐 1275–1276 Gongzong 恭宗
Emperor Duanzong of Song Zhao Shi 趙昰 1276–1278 Jingyan 景炎 1276–1278 Duanzong 端宗
Zhao Bing Zhao Bing 趙昺 1278–1279 Prince Wei 衛王 Xiangxing 祥興 1278–1279

Western Xia 西夏 1038–1277

Main article: Western Xia

Chinese convention: use "Western Xia" + temple name or use personal name

Name by which most commonly known Personal Name Reign Posthumous Name Shi Hao 諡號 Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple Names Miao Hao 廟號
Emperor Jǐngzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Yuánhào 李元昊 1032–1048 Emperor Wǔliè 武烈帝 Xiǎndào 顯道 1032–1034 Jǐngzōng 景宗
Kāiyùn 開運 1034
Guǎngpíng 廣平 1035–1036
Dàqìng 大慶 1036–1038
Tiānshòulǐfǎyánzuò 天授禮法延祚 1038–1048
Emperor Yìzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Liàngzuò 李諒祚 1048–1067 Emperor Zhāoyīng 昭英帝 Yánsìníngguó 延嗣寧國 1048–1049 Yìzōng 毅宗
Tiānyòuchuíshèng 天祐垂聖 1050–1052
Fúshèngchéngdào 福聖承道 1053–1056
Duǒdū 奲都 1036–1038
Gǒnghuà 拱化 1063–1067
Emperor Huìzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Bǐngcháng 李秉常 1067–1086 Emperor Kāngjìng 康靖帝 Qiándào 乾道 1067–1069 Huìzōng 惠宗
Tiāncìlǐshèngguóqìng 天賜禮盛國慶 1070–1074
Dà'ān 大安 1075–1085
Tiān'ānlǐdìng 天安禮定 1085–1086
Emperor Chóngzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Qiánshùn 李乾順 1086–1139 Emperor Shèngwén 聖文帝 Tiānyízhìpíng 天儀治平 1086–1089 Chóngzōng 崇宗
Tiānyòumín'ān 天祐民安 1090–1097
Yǒng'ān 永安 1098–1100
Zhēnguān 貞觀 1101–1113
Yōngníng 雍寧 1114–1118
Yuándé 元德 1119–1127
Zhèngdé 正德 1127–1134
Dàdé 大德 1135–1139
Emperor Rénzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Rénxiào 李仁孝 1139–1193 Emperor Shèngzhēn 聖禎帝 Dàqìng 大慶 1139–1143 Rénzōng 仁宗
Rénqìng 人慶 1144–1148
Tiānshèng 天盛 1149–1170
Qiányòu 乾祐 1170–1193
Emperor Huánzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Chúnyòu 李純佑 1193–1206 Emperor Zhāojiǎn 昭簡帝 Tiānqìng 天慶 1193–1206 Huánzōng 桓宗
Emperor Xiāngzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Ānquán 李安全 1206–1211 Emperor Jǐngwǔ 景武帝 Qìngtiān 慶天 1206–1209 Xiāngzōng 襄宗
Huángjiàn 皇建 1210–1211
Emperor Shénzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Zūnxū 李遵頊 1211–1223 Emperor Yīngwén 英文帝 Guāngdìng 光定 1211–1223 Shénzōng 神宗
Emperor Xiànzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Déwàng 李德旺 1223–1226 Qiándìng 乾定 1223–1226 Xiànzōng 獻宗
Emperor Mòzhǔ of Western Xia Lǐ Xiàn 李晛 1226–1227 Bǎoyì 寶義 1226–1227 Mòzhǔ 末主

Jin dynasty 金朝 1115–1234

Main article: Jin dynasty 1115–1234

Chinese convention: use "Jin" + temple name or posthumous name in Chinese

Jin dynasty 1115–1234
Name by which most commonly known Birth Name Reign Era Names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous Name Shi Hao 諡號 Temple Name Miao Hao 廟號
Emperor Taizu of Jin Āgǔdǎ
or
Wányán Mǐn
阿骨打
or
完顏旻
1115–1123 Shōuguó 收國 1115–1116 Tàizǔ 太祖
Tiānfǔ 天輔 1117–1123
Emperor Taizong of Jin Wúqǐmǎi
or
Wányán Shèng
吳乞買
or
完顏晟
1123–1134 Tiānhuì 天會 1123–1134 Tàizōng 太宗
Emperor Xizong of Jin Hélá
or
Wányán Dǎn
合剌
or
完顏亶
1135–1149 Tiānhuì 天會 1135–1138 Xīzōng 熙宗
Tiānjuàn 天眷 1138–1141
Huángtǒng 皇統 1141–1149
Wanyan Liang Dígǔnǎi
or
Wányán Liàng
迪古乃
or
完顏亮
1149–1161 Tiāndé 天德 1149–1153 Prince Yáng of Hǎilíng
or
Prince of Hǎilíng
海陵煬王
or
海陵王
Zhènyuán 貞元 1153–1156
Zhènglóng 正隆 1156–1161
Emperor Shizong of Jin Wūlù
or
Wányán Yōng
烏祿
or
完顏雍
1161–1189 Dàdìng 大定 1161–1189 Shìzōng 世宗
Emperor Zhangzong of Jin Mádágě
or
Wányán Jǐng
麻達葛
or
完顏璟
1190–1208 Míngchāng 明昌 1190–1196 Zhāngzōng 章宗
Chéng'ān 承安 1196–1200
Tàihé 泰和 1200–1208
Wanyan Yongji Wányán Yǒngjì 完顏永濟 1209–1213 Dà'ān 大安 1209–1212 Prince Shào of Weì
or
Prince of Weì
衛紹王
or
衛王
Chóngqìng 崇慶 1212–1213
Zhìníng 至寧 1213
Emperor Xuanzong of Jin Wúdúbǔ
or
Wányán Xú
吾睹補
or
完顏珣
1213–1223 Zhēnyòu 貞祐 1213–1217 Xuānzōng 宣宗
Xīngdìng 興定 1217–1222
Yuánguāng 元光 1222–1223
Emperor Aizong of Jin Níngjiǎsù
or
Wányán Shǒuxù
寧甲速
or
完顏守緒
1224–1234 Zhèngdà 正大 1224–1232 Āizōng 哀宗
Kāixīng 開興 1232
Tiānxīng 天興 1232–1234
Emperor Mo of Jin Hūdūn
or
Wányán Chénglín
呼敦
or
完顏承麟
1234 Emperor Mò 末帝

Yuan dynasty 元朝 1271–1368

Main article: Yuan dynasty

Chinese convention: for rulers before Kublai Khan use given name eg Temüjin or Khan names, use "Yuan" + temple name or posthumous name after

Note:
1 The Mongol Great Khans before Khublai were only declared Yuan emperors after the creation of Yuan dynasty in 1271
2 To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names
3 Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with Timur the lame Tamerlane

Khan Name Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號 Temple name Miao Hao 廟號
Genghis Khan Borjigin Temüjin 孛兒只斤鐵木真 1206–1227 Tàizǔ 太祖
Tolui Borjigin Tolui 孛兒只斤拖雷 1228 Ruìzōng 睿宗
Ögedei Khan Borjigin Ögedei 孛兒只斤窩闊台 1229–1241 Tàizōng 太宗
Güyük Khan Borjigin Güyük 孛兒只斤貴由 1246–1248 Dìngzōng 定宗
Möngke Khan Borjigin Möngke 孛兒只斤蒙哥 1251–1259 Xiànzōng 憲宗
Kublai Khan Borjigin Kublai 孛兒只斤忽必烈 1260–1294 Zhōngtǒng 中統 1260–1264 Shìzǔ 世祖
Zhìyuán 至元 1264–1294
Temür Khan Borjigin Temür 孛兒只斤鐵穆耳 1294–1307 Yuánzhēn 元貞 1295–1297 Chéngzōng 成宗
1307–1308 Dàdé 大德 1297–1307
Külüg Khan Borjigin Qayshan 孛兒只斤海山 1308–1311 Zhìdà 至大 1308–1311 Wǔzōng 武宗
Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan Borjigin Ayurparibhadra 孛兒只斤愛育黎拔力八達 1311–1320 Huángqìng 皇慶 1312–1313 Rénzōng 仁宗
1320–1321 Yányòu 延祐 1314–1320
Gegeen Khan Borjigin Suddhipala 孛兒只斤碩德八剌 1321–1323 Zhìzhì 至治 1321–1323 Yīngzōng 英宗
Yesün Temür1 Borjigin Yesün-Temür 孛兒只斤也孫鐵木兒 1323–1328 Tàidìng 泰定 1324–1328 Emperor Tàidìng2 泰定帝
Zhìhé 致和 1328
Ragibagh Khan1 Borjigin Arigaba 孛兒只斤阿速吉八 1328 Tiānshùn 天順 1328 Emperor Tiānshùn2 天順帝
Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür Borjigin Toq-Temür 孛兒只斤圖帖睦爾 1328–1329 and 1329–1332 Tiānlì 天曆 1328–1330 Wénzōng 文宗
Zhìshùn 至順 1330–1332
Khutughtu Khan Kusala Borjigin Qoshila 孛兒只斤和世剌 1329 Míngzōng 明宗
Rinchinbal Khan Borjigin Irinchibal 孛兒只斤懿璘質班 1332 Níngzōng 寧宗
Toghon Temür1 Borjigin Toghan-Temür 孛兒只斤妥懽帖睦爾 1333–1368 1333 Emperor Shundi 順帝 Huìzōng 惠宗
Yuántǒng 元統 1333–1335
Zhìyuán 至元 1335–1340
Zhìzhèng 至正 1341–1368
Zhìyuán 至元 1368–1370
1 — Chinese convention: for these sovereigns only, use "yuan" + posthumous name eg 元泰定帝 Yuán Tàidìng Dì2 — Not actually a posthumous name, but adopted from era name

Note:

1 To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names

2 Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with the Timur Timurlane or Tamerlane who attempted to restore the Mongolian Empire in Central Asia

Convention: for the following sovereign only, use "yuan" + posthumous name

Northern Yuan dynasty 北元朝 1368 – early 15th century

after being overthrown by the Ming dynasty in China in 1368 1368 – early 15th century

Convention: use khan names or birth names

Khan Names Personal Name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name Shi Hao 諡號 Temple name Miao Hao 廟號
Toghon Temür

same person as the last Yuan emperor

Borjigin Toghan-Temür 孛兒只斤妥懽帖睦爾 1368–1370 Zhìshùn 至順 1333 Emperor Shundi 順帝 Huìzōng 惠宗
Yuántǒng 元統 1333–1335
Zhìyuán 至元 1335–1340
Zhìzhèng 至正 1341–1368
Zhìyuán 至元 1368–1370
Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara Borjigin Ayushiridara 孛兒只斤愛猷識里達臘 1370–1378 Xuānguāng 宣光 1371–1378 Zhàozōng 昭宗
Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür Borjigin Tögüs Temür 孛兒只斤脫古思鐵木兒 1378–1387 Tiānguāng 天光 1378–1387

Ming dynasty 明朝 1368–1644

Main article: Ming dynasty Main article: List of emperors of the Ming dynasty
Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Posthumous name1 Shi Hao 諡號 Temple name1 Miao Hao 廟號 Capital city
Hongwu Emperor Zhū Yuánzhāng 朱元璋 1368–1398 Hóngwǔ 洪武 1368–1398 Gāodì 高帝 Tàizǔ 太祖 Nanjing 南京
Jianwen Emperor Zhū Yǔnwén 朱允炆 1398–1402 Jiànwén 建文 1398–1402 Huìdì 惠帝 Huizong² 惠宗
Yongle Emperor Zhū Dì 朱棣 1402–1424 Yǒnglè 永樂 1402–1424 Wēndì 文帝 Chéngzǔ or Tàizōng 成祖 / 太宗
Hongxi Emperor Zhū Gāochì 朱高熾 1424–1425 Hóngxī 洪熙 1424–1425 Zhāodì 昭帝 Rénzōng 仁宗 Beijing 北京
Xuande Emperor Zhū Zhānjī 朱瞻基 1425–1435 Xuāndé 宣德 1425–1435 Zhāngdì 章帝 Xuānzōng 宣宗
Zhengtong Emperor Zhū Qízhèn 朱祁鎮 1435–1449

and

1457–1464³

Zhèngtǒng

and

Tiānshùn

正統

and

天順

1435–1449

and

1457–1464

Ruìdì 睿帝 Yīngzōng 宣宗
Jingtai Emperor Zhū Qíyù 朱祁鈺 1449–1457 Jǐngtài 景泰 1449–1457 Jǐngdì 景帝 Dàizōng 代宗
Chenghua Emperor Zhū Jiànshēn 朱見深 1464–1487 Chénghuà 成化 1464–1487 Chúndì 純帝 Xiànzōng 憲宗
Hongzhi Emperor Zhū Yòutáng 朱祐樘 1487–1505 Hóngzhì 弘治 1487–1505 Jìngdì 敬帝 Xiàozōng 孝宗
Zhengde Emperor Zhū Hòuzhào 朱厚照 1505–1521 Zhèngdé 正德 1505–1521 Yìdì 毅帝 Wǔzōng 武宗
Jiajing Emperor Zhū Hòucōng 朱厚熜 1521–1566 Jiājìng 嘉靖 1521–1566 Sùdì 肅帝 Shìzōng 世宗
Longqing Emperor Zhū Zǎihòu 朱載垕 1566–1572 Lóngqìng 隆慶 1566–1572 Zhuāngdì 莊帝 Mùzōng 穆宗
Wanli Emperor Zhū Yìjūn 朱翊鈞 1572–1620 Wànlì 萬曆 1572–1620 Xiǎndì 顯帝 Shénzōng 神宗
Taichang Emperor Zhū Chángluò 朱常洛 1620 Tàichāng 泰昌 1620 Zhēndì 貞帝 Guāngzōng 光宗
Tianqi Emperor Zhū Yóujiào 朱由校 1620–1627 Tiānqǐ 天啓 1620–1627 Zhédì 悊帝 Xīzōng 熹宗
Chongzhen Emperor Zhū Yóujiǎn 朱由檢 1627–1644 Chóngzhēn 崇禎 1627–1644 Zhuānglièmǐnhuángdì 莊烈愍皇帝 Sīzōng or Yìzōng 思宗 / 毅宗
1 — As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Ming, to avoid confusion For example, the Hongwu emperor is frequently referred to as Ming Taizu

2 — The Yongle emperor assumed the throne of his nephew the Jianwen emperor, who was officially said to have died in a palace fire but who was suspected of escaping to live as a recluse The Yongle emperor wiped out the record of his nephew's reign and no temple name was given him In 1644 the Prince of Fu 福王, the new self-proclaimed emperor of the Southern Ming, conferred on Emperor Jianwen the temple name Huizong

3 — After listening to the poor advice of his eunuch advisers , the Zhengtong Emperor personally led a campaign in 1449 against the mongols and was captured His brother the Jingtai Emperor assumed the throne and as a hostage no longer of any value, the mongols released the Zhengtong Emperor who returned to live in seclusion However the Zhengtong Emperor was able to regain his position, choosing the reign name Tianshun

Shun dynasty 顺朝 1644

The Shun dynasty was an imperial dynasty created in the brief lapse from Ming to Qing rule in China It was a state set up by the peasants' rebellion, in which they defeated the Ming forces, but former Ming general Wu Sangui led the Qing forces into Beijing and the Qing forces defeated the rebels

Name most commonly known by Personal name Reign years Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple name Miao Hao 廟號 Capital city
Li Zicheng Li Zicheng 李自成 1644 Yongchang 永昌 1644 Chuǎng Wáng The Dashing King 闖王 Xi'an 西安

Southern Ming 南明 1644–1662

The Southern Ming dynasty refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662 The regime was established by the princes of the already destroyed Ming dynasty All of these monarchs had their regimes crushed by the Qing forces very quickly Koxinga Zheng Chenggong used the Ming dynasty's name and gathered forces before fleeing to Taiwan

Name by which most commonly known Personal name Reign Era names Nian Hao 年號 and their corresponding range of years Temple name Miao Hao 廟號 Capital city
Zhu Yousong Zhū Yóusōng 朱由崧 1644–1645 Hóngguāng 弘光 1644–1645 Ānzōng 安宗 Nanjing 南京
Zhu Yujian Zhū Yùjiàn 朱聿鍵 1645–1646 Lóngwǔ 隆武 1645–1646 Shàozōng 紹宗 Fuzhou 福州
Zhu Changfang Zhū Chángfāng 朱常淓 1645 None given, but sometimes referred to as the "Regency of the Prince of Lu/Luh"
Lù Wáng Lín Guó
潞王臨國 1646
Zhu Yihai Zhū Yǐhǎi 朱以海 1645–1653 Zhaoqing 肇慶
Zhu Yuyue Zhū Yùyuè 朱聿

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