List of national parks of Japan


National Parks 国立公園, Kokuritsu Kōen and Quasi-National Parks 国定公園, Kokutei Kōen in Japan are places of scenic beauty designated for protection and sustainable usage by the Minister of the Environment under the Natural Parks Law 自然公園法 of 19571 National Parks are designated and in principle managed by the Ministry of the Environment Quasi-National Parks, of a slightly lesser beauty, size, diversity, or state of preservation, are recommended for ministerial designation and managed by the Prefectures under the supervision of the Ministry2

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Protection status
  • 3 List of National Parks
    • 31 Hokkaidō
    • 32 Tōhoku
    • 33 Kantō
    • 34 Chūbu
    • 35 Kansai
    • 36 Chūgoku and Shikoku
    • 37 Kyūshū
  • 4 List of Quasi-National Parks
    • 41 Hokkaidō
    • 42 Tōhoku
    • 43 Kantō
    • 44 Chūbu
    • 45 Kansai
    • 46 Chūgoku and Shikoku
    • 47 Kyūshū
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Historyedit

Japan established its first kōen 公園 or public parks in 1873 Asakusa Park, Asukayama Park, Fukagawa Park, Shiba Park, and Ueno Park In 1911 local citizens petitioned that the shrines and forests of Nikkō be placed under public protection and in 1929 the National Parks Association was formed In 1931 the first National Parks Law 国立公園法 was passed and, after much study and survey, in March 1934 the first parks were established - Setonaikai, Unzen and Kirishima - with five more in December and a further four two years later Three further parks were established under the old National Parks Law, in colonial Taiwan in 1937: the Tatun National Park, the smallest in Japan; Tsugitaka-Taroko National Park, the largest; and Niitaka-Arisan National Park, with the highest mountain in then Japan3 Ise-Shima was the first to be created after the war, and a further seven had been added by 1955 In 1957 the Natural Parks Law replaced the earlier National Parks Law, allowing for three categories of park, the National, Quasi-National, and Prefectural Natural Parks With minor amendments this established the framework that operates today45

As of 1 April 2014, there were 31 National Parks and 56 Quasi-National Parks, with the National Parks covering 20,996 km² 56% of the land area and the Quasi-National Parks 13,592 km² 36% of the land area In addition, there were 314 Prefectural Parks covering 19,726 km² 52% of the land area6 On 27 March 2015, the 32nd National Park was established, Myōkō-Togakushi Renzan National Park,7 on 15 September 2016, the 33rd, Yanbaru National Park, and on 7 March 2017, the 34th, Amami Guntō National Park, subsuming Amami Guntō Quasi-National Park89 On 25 March 2016, a further Quasi-National Park was established, Kyoto Tamba Kogen Quasi-National Park10

Protection statusedit

The area of each National and Quasi-National Park is divided into ordinary, special and marine park zones Special zones are further subdivided into special protection and class I, II, and III special zones, restricting access and use for preservation purposes The state owns only approximately half of the land in the parks11

See alsoedit

  • Special Places of Scenic Beauty
  • Places of Scenic Beauty
  • National Government Parks
  • Wildlife Protection Areas in Japan
  • List of Ramsar sites in Japan

Referencesedit

  1. ^ "Natural Parks Act 1957" PDF Ministry of the Environment Retrieved 1 February 2012 
  2. ^ "Natural Park Systems in Japan" PDF Ministry of the Environment pp 4, 12 Retrieved 1 February 2012 
  3. ^ Kanda Koji "Landscapes of National Parks in Taiwan During the Japanese Colonial Period" PDF Osaka City University Retrieved 8 October 2016 
  4. ^ Sutherland, Mary; Britton, Dorothy 1995 National Parks of Japan Kodansha pp 6f ISBN 4-7700-1971-8 
  5. ^ "Natural Park Systems in Japan" PDF Ministry of the Environment pp 1f Retrieved 1 February 2012 
  6. ^ "Summary table of area figures for Natural Parks" PDF Ministry of the Environment 1 April 2014 Retrieved 29 November 2015 
  7. ^ "Birth of Myoko Togakushi Renzan National Park" Ministry of the Environment 10 June 2015 Retrieved 29 November 2015 
  8. ^ やんばる国立公園について About Yanbaru National Park - Summary in Japanese Ministry of the Environment Retrieved 8 October 2016 
  9. ^ 奄美群島国立公園(仮称)の指定及び公園計画の決定等に関する意見の募集について Consultation about the Establishment of Amami Guntō National Park in Japanese Ministry of the Environment 6 October 2016 Retrieved 11 March 2011 
  10. ^ "京都丹波高原国定公園の指定日について" in Japanese Ministry of the Environment 24 March 2016 Retrieved 12 June 2016 
  11. ^ "Natural Park Systems in Japan" PDF Ministry of the Environment pp 2f Retrieved 1 February 2012 

External linksedit

  • National Parks of Japan Ministry of the Environment


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