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List of Medal of Honor recipients

list of medal of honor recipients, list of medal of honor recipients by state
The Medal of Honor was created during the American Civil War and is the highest military decoration presented by the United States government to a member of its armed forces The recipient must have distinguished themselves at the risk of their own life above and beyond the call of duty in action against an enemy of the United States Due to the nature of this medal, it is commonly presented posthumously1

The President of the United States, in the name of the United States Congress, has awarded more than 3500 Medals of Honor including 19 second awards to the nation's soldiers, sailors, airmen, Marines, and coast guardsmen since the decoration's creation in 18612

The citations highlighting acts of gallantry that received the Medal of Honor have been and continue to be regularly released by book publishers After the Second World War both the Army and Navy produced hardbound Medal of Honor compilations3 Between 1964 and 1979, the United States Senate Subcommittee on Veterans' Affairs of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare and later the Committee on Veterans' Affairs produced a number of consolidated compilations of all Medal of Honor citations to date4 Additions and changes to the list of recipients of the medal since the 1979 have been regularly published by the Congressional research Service5

The first Army Medal of Honor was awarded to Private Jacob Parrott during the American Civil War for his role in the Great Locomotive Chase The first African American recipient for this award was William Harvey Carney who, despite being shot in the face, shoulders, arms, and legs, refused to let the American flag touch the ground The only female Medal of Honor recipient is Mary Edwards Walker, a Civil War surgeon Her medal was rescinded in 1917 along with many other non-combat awards, but it was restored by President Jimmy Carter in 19776

While current law, 10 USC § 6241, beginning in 1918, explicitly states that recipients must be serving in the US Armed Forces at the time of performing a valorous act that warrants the award, exceptions have been made For example, Charles Lindbergh, while a reserve member of the US Army Air Corps, received his Medal of Honor as a civilian pilot Although Medals of Honor can only be awarded to members of the US armed forces, being a US citizen is not a prerequisite for eligibility to receive the medal Sixty-one Canadians who were serving in the United States armed forces have received the Medal of Honor; most received it for actions in the American Civil War Since 1900, only four have been awarded to Canadians7 In the Vietnam War, Peter C Lemon was the only Canadian born recipient of the Medal of Honor However, he was a US citizen8

Contents

  • 1 19th century
    • 11 American Civil War
    • 12 Indian Wars
    • 13 Korean Expedition
    • 14 Spanish–American War
    • 15 Samoan Civil War
    • 16 Philippine–American War
    • 17 Boxer Rebellion
  • 2 20th century
    • 21 United States occupation of Veracruz, 1914
    • 22 Invasion and occupation of Haiti
    • 23 Occupation of the Dominican Republic
    • 24 World War I
    • 25 Occupation of Nicaragua
    • 26 World War II
    • 27 Korean War
    • 28 Vietnam War
    • 29 USS Liberty incident
    • 210 Post-Vietnam
    • 211 Somalia
  • 3 21st century
    • 31 Afghanistan
    • 32 Iraq
  • 4 Peacetime
  • 5 Foreign
  • 6 Notes
  • 7 References
  • 8 Further reading
  • 9 External links

19th centuryedit

American Civil Waredit

Main articles: Lists of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: A–F, G–L, M–P, Q–S and T–Z

The American Civil War 1861–1865 was a war between the United States the Union and the Southern states of the newly formed Confederate States of America under Jefferson Davis The Medal of Honor was established during this conflict; 1523 were awarded 33 posthumously for acts of bravery and gallantry in combat9 Most awards were granted after the end of the Civil War with two late awards to Andrew Jackson Smith and Alonzo Cushing in 2001 and 201410

Indian Warsedit

Main article: List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Indian Wars

The term Indian Wars is the name generally used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between colonial or federal governments and the American Indian population resident in North America before the arrival of white settlers11 During this conflict the Medal of Honor was presented to 426 soldiers, 13 posthumously for acts of bravery and gallantry in combat12 Some 20 Medal of Honor recipients were involved in the Wounded Knee Massacre

Korean Expeditionedit

The United States expedition to Korea in 1871, also known as Sinmiyangyo Western Disturbance of the Year Sinmi year, was the first American military action in Korea It took place predominantly on and around the Korean island of Ganghwa The reason for the presence of the American military expeditionary force in Korea was to support an American diplomatic delegation sent to establish trade and diplomatic relations with Korea and to ascertain the fate of the General Sherman merchant ship The isolationist nature of the Joseon Dynasty government and the assertiveness of the Americans led to an armed conflict between the two parties Eventually, the United States failed to secure its objectives13

Image Name Service Rank Place of action Date of action Unit Notes14
Andrews, JohnJohn Andrews Navy E-2 !Ordinary Seaman USS Benicia !aboard the USS Benicia 000000001871-06-09-0000Jun 9, 1871 – 000000001871-06-10-0000Jun 10, 1871 USS Benicia Stood on the gunwale on the Benicia's launch, lashed to the ridgerope and remained unflinchingly in this dangerous position and gave his soundings with coolness and accuracy under a heavy fire
Brown at right Brown, CharlesCharles Brown Marine Corps E-4 !Corporal USS Colorado !aboard the USS Colorado 000000001871-06-11-0000June 11, 1871 USS Colorado Assisted in capturing the Korean flag from the citadel of the fort
Coleman, JohnJohn Coleman Marine Corps E-1 !Private USS Colorado !aboard the USS Colorado 000000001871-06-11-0000June 11, 1871 USS Colorado For hand-to-hand combat and saving the life of Alexander McKenzie
Dougherty, JamesJames Dougherty Marine Corps E-1 !Private USS Carondelet !aboard the USS Carondelet 000000001871-06-11-0000June 11, 1871 USS Carondelet Returned to duty after being wounded several times
Franklin, FrederickFrederick Franklin Navy E-4 !Quartermaster USS Colorado !aboard the USS Colorado 000000001871-06-11-0000June 11, 1871 USS Colorado For assuming command of Company D, after Lt McKee was wounded, and handling the company until relieved
Grace, Patrick HPatrick H Grace Navy E-7 !Chief Quartermaster USS Benicia !aboard the USS Benicia 000000001871-06-10-0000Jun 10, 1871 – 000000001871-06-11-0000Jun 11, 1871 USS Benicia Carrying out his duties with coolness, Grace set forth gallant and meritorious conduct throughout this action
Hayden at left Hayden, CyrusCyrus Hayden Navy N-1 !Carpenter USS Colorado !aboard the USS Colorado 000000001871-06-11-0000June 11, 1871 USS Colorado Serving as color bearer of the battalion, Hayden planted his flag and protected it under heavy fire
Lukes, William FWilliam F Lukes Navy E-1 !Landsman Ganghwa Island 000000001871-06-09-0000Jun 9, 1871 – 000000001871-06-10-0000Jun 10, 1871 USS Colorado Fighting the enemy inside the fort, Lukes received a severe cut over the head
McKenzie, AlexanderAlexander McKenzie Navy E-6 !Boatswain's Mate USS Colorado !aboard the USS Colorado 000000001871-06-11-0000June 11, 1871 USS Colorado Fighting at the side of Lt McKee during this action, McKenzie was struck by a sword and received a severe cut in the head from the blow
McNamara, MichaelMichael McNamara Marine Corps E-1 !Private USS Benicia !aboard the USS Benicia 000000001871-06-11-0000June 11, 1871 USS Benicia For taking a match-lock from the hands of the enemy while advancing to the parapet
Merton, James FJames F Merton Navy E-1 !Landsman Ganghwa Island 000000001871-06-09-0000Jun 9, 1871 – 000000001871-06-10-0000Jun 10, 1871 USS Colorado Merton was severely wounded in the arm while trying to force his way into the fort
Owens, MichaelMichael Owens Marine Corps E-1 !Private USS Colorado !aboard the USS Colorado 000000001871-06-11-0000June 11, 1871 USS Colorado Fighting courageously in hand-to-hand combat, Owens was badly wounded by the enemy during this action
Purvis in center Purvis, HughHugh Purvis Marine Corps E-1 !Private USS Alaska !aboard the USS Alaska 000000001871-06-11-0000June 11, 1871 USS Alaska Braving the enemy fire, Purvis was the first to scale the walls of the fort and capture their flag
Rogers, Samuel FSamuel F Rogers Navy E-4 !Quartermaster USS Colorado !aboard the USS Colorado 000000001871-06-11-0000June 11, 1871 USS Colorado Fighting courageously at the side of Lt McKee during this action, Rogers was wounded by the enemy
Troy, WilliamWilliam Troy Navy E-2 !Ordinary Seaman USS Colorado !aboard the USS Colorado 000000001871-06-11-0000June 11, 1871 USS Colorado Fighting at the side of Lt McKee, by whom he was especially commended, Troy was badly wounded by the enemy

Spanish–American Waredit

Main article: List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Spanish–American War

The Spanish–American War Spanish: Guerra Hispano-Estadounidense, desastre del 98, Guerra Hispano-Cubana-Norteamericana or Guerra de Cuba was a military conflict between Spain and the United States that began in April 1898 Hostilities halted in August of that year, and the Treaty of Paris was signed in December The war began after the American demand for Spain's peacefully resolving the Cuban fight for independence was rejected, though strong expansionist sentiment in the United States may have motivated the government to target Spain's remaining overseas territories: Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Guam and the Caroline Islands15

Riots in Havana by pro-Spanish "Voluntarios" gave the United States reason to send in the warship USS Maine This action by the US indicated high national interest Tension among the American people was raised because of the explosion of the USS Maine, and "yellow journalism" that accused Spain of extensive atrocities, agitating American public opinion The war ended after decisive naval victories for the United States in the Philippines and Cuba The Treaty of Paris ended the conflict 109 days after the outbreak of war giving the United States ownership of the former Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam16 111 people received the Medal of Honor from the Spanish–American War

Samoan Civil Waredit

The Samoan Civil War is a Western definition of political activity in the Samoa Islands of the South Pacific in the late 19th century By this non-Samoan definition, the Samoan Civil Wars were a series of wars between Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States, ending in the partitioning of the island chain in 1899 The concluding event was the Second Samoan Civil War The first Samoan Civil War lasted for eight years The warring Samoan parties were supplied arms, training and sometimes even combat troops by Germany, Britain and the United States These three powers valued Samoa as a refueling station for coal fired shipping In addition, these countries sought to gain more power in Europe and wanted Samoa due to the scarcity of unclaimed territory from 1870 onwards17

Image Name Service Rank Place of action Date of action Unit Notes18
Fisher, Frederick TFrederick T Fisher Navy E-6 !Gunner's Mate First Class USS Philadelphia !aboard the USS Philadelphia, Samoa 000000001899-04-01-0000April 1, 1899 USS Philadelphia For distinguishing himself by his conduct in the presence of the enemy
Forsterer, Bruno ABruno A Forsterer Marine Corps E-5 !Sergeant Samoa 000000001899-04-01-0000April 1, 1899 Unknown For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy
Hulbert, Henry LHenry L Hulbert Marine Corps E-1 !Private Samoa 000000001899-04-01-0000April 1, 1899 Unknown For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy Subsequently, awarded the Navy Cross and the Distinguished Service Cross for actions during World War I
McNally, Michael JMichael J McNally Marine Corps E-5 !Sergeant Samoa 000000001899-04-01-0000April 1, 1899 Unknown For distinguished conduct in the presence of the enemy

Philippine–American Waredit

Main article: List of Philippine–American War Medal of Honor recipients

The Philippine–American Warn 1 was an armed military conflict between the United States and the First Philippine Republic, fought between 1899 and at least 1902, which arose from a Filipino political struggle against US occupation of the Philippines While the conflict was officially declared over on July 4, 1902,192021 American troops continued hostilities against remnants of the Philippine Army and other resistance groups until 1913, and some historians consider these unofficial extensions part of the war21

Eighty-six men were awarded the Medal of Honor for their actions in the Philippine–American War: 70 from the Army, 10 from the Navy, and 6 from the Marine Corps Four of the awards were posthumous Among the recipients were Webb Hayes, the son of former US President Rutherford B Hayes, and two prominent Marine Corps officers, Hiram I Bearss and David Dixon Porter Bearss became known for leading long-range reconnaissance patrols behind enemy lines and was later wounded as a colonel in World War I Porter was from a distinguished military family and rose to become a major general José B Nísperos, a member of the Philippine Scouts who was honored for continuing to fight after being wounded, was the first Asian recipient of the Medal of Honor22

Boxer Rebellionedit

Main article: List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Boxer Rebellion

The Boxer Movement or Boxer Rebellion, which occurred in China from November 1899 to September 7, 1901, was an uprising by members of the Chinese Society of Right and Harmonious Fists against foreign influence in areas such as trade, politics, religion and technology that occurred in China during the final years of the Manchu rule Qing Dynasty The members of the Society of Right and Harmonious Fists were simply called boxers by the Westerners due to the martial arts and calisthenics they practiced The uprising began as an anti-foreign, anti-imperialist peasant-based movement in northern China They attacked foreigners who were building railroads and violating Feng shui, as well as Christians, who were held responsible for the foreign domination of China In June 1900, the Boxers invaded Beijing and killed 230 non-Chinese Tens of thousands of Chinese Christians, Catholic and Protestant alike, were killed mostly in Shandong and Shanxi Provinces as part of the uprising The government of Empress Dowager Cixi was not helpful, and diplomats, foreign civilians, soldiers and some Chinese Christians retreated to the legation quarter where they held out for fifty-five days until a multinational coalition rushed 20,000 troops to their rescue The Chinese government was forced to indemnify the victims and make many additional concessions Subsequent reforms implemented after the crisis of 1900 laid the foundation for the end of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of the modern Chinese Republic23

During the Boxer rebellion, 59 American servicemen received the Medal of Honor for their actions Four of these were for Army personnel, twenty-two went to navy sailors and the remaining thirty-three went to Marines Harry Fisher was the first Marine to receive the medal posthumously and the only posthumous recipient for this conflict24

20th centuryedit

United States occupation of Veracruz, 1914edit

Main article: List of Medal of Honor recipients Veracruz

The United States occupation of the Mexican port of Veracruz lasted for six months in response to the Tampico Affair of April 9, 1914 The incident came in the midst of poor diplomatic relations between Mexico and the United States, related to the ongoing Mexican Revolution25

Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels ordered that 56 Medals of Honor be awarded to participants in the occupation of Veracruz, the most for any single action before or since In total 63 Medals of Honor were received for actions during the occupation; 1 Army, 9 to members of the United States Marine Corps and 53 to Navy personnel24

Invasion and occupation of Haitiedit

The first United States occupation of Haiti began on July 28, 1915 and ended in mid-August 1934

Image Name Service Rank Place of action Date of action Unit Notes2627
Butler, SmedleySmedley Butler Marine Corps O-04 !Major Fort Riviere, Haiti 000000001915-11-17-0000November 17, 1915 2nd Marines Second award – previously awarded a Medal of Honor for action in the Mexican Campaign
Button, William RWilliam R Button Marine Corps E-4 !Corporal Grande Riviere, Haiti !near Grande Riviere, Haiti 000000001919-10-31-0000Oct 31, 1919 – 000000001919-11-01-0000Nov 1, 1919 7th Marines For the assassination of rebel leader Charlemagne Péralte and the routing of his followers
Daly, DanielDaniel Daly Marine Corps E-7 !Gunnery Sergeant Fort Liberte, Haiti !near Fort-Liberté, Haiti 000000001915-10-24-0000October 24, 1915 15th Company, 2nd Marines Second award – previously awarded a Medal of Honor for action in the Boxer Rebellion
Hanneken, Herman HHerman H Hanneken Marine Corps E-5 !Sergeant Grande Riviere, Haiti !near Grande Riviere, Haiti 000000001919-10-31-0000Oct 31, 1919 – 000000001919-11-01-0000Nov 1, 1919 7th Marines For the assassination of rebel leader Charlemagne Péralte and the routing of his followers
Iams, Ross LRoss L Iams Marine Corps E-5 !Sergeant Fort Riviere, Haiti 000000001915-11-17-0000November 17, 1915 5th Company, 2nd Marines Approaching a breach in the wall which was the only entrance to the fort, Sergeant Iams unhesitatingly jumped through the breach despite constant fire from the Cacos and engaged the enemy in a desperate hand-to-hand combat until the bastion was captured and Caco resistance neutralized
Marguiles, SamuelSamuel Marguiles Marine Corps E-1 !Private Fort Riviere, Haiti 000000001915-11-17-0000November 17, 1915 23rd Company, 2nd Marines Served under the name Samuel Gross
Ostermann, Edward AEdward A Ostermann Marine Corps O-02 !First Lieutenant Fort Liberte, Haiti !near Fort-Liberté, Haiti 000000001915-10-24-0000October 24, 1915 15th Company, 2nd Marines In command of one of the three squads which advanced in three different directions, led his men forward, surprising and scattering the Cacos, and aiding in the capture of Fort Dipitie
Upshur, William PWilliam P Upshur Marine Corps O-03 !Captain Fort Liberte, Haiti !near Fort-Liberté, Haiti 000000001915-10-24-0000October 24, 1915 15th Company, 2nd Marines In command of the three squads which advanced in three different directions, led his men forward, surprising and scattering the Cacos, and aiding the capture of Fort Dipitie

Occupation of the Dominican Republicedit

The United States occupied the Dominican Republic from 1916 to 1924 In May 1917, Rear Admiral William Caperton forced Arias to leave Santo Domingo by threatening the city with naval bombardment US Marines invaded and took control of the country within two months; in November that same year, the US imposed a military government The Marines restored order throughout most of the republic with the exception of the eastern region; the country's budget was balanced, its debt was diminished, and economic growth resumed; infrastructure projects produced new roads that linked all the country's regions for the first time in its history; a professional military organization, the Dominican Constabulary Guard, replaced the partisan forces that had waged a seemingly endless struggle for power28

Image Name Service Rank Place of action Date of action Unit Notes29
Glowin, Joseph AJoseph A Glowin Marine Corps E-4 !Corporal Guayacanes, Dominican Republic 000000001916-07-03-0000July 3, 1916 13th Company, Artillery Battalion, 1st Brigade For action against a considerable force of rebels
Williams, Ernest CErnest C Williams Marine Corps O-02 !First Lieutenant San Francisco de Macorís, Dominican Republic 000000001916-11-29-0000November 29, 1916 1st Brigade For leading the capture of a fort
Winans, RoswellRoswell Winans Marine Corps E-8 !First Sergeant Guayacanes, Dominican Republic 000000001916-07-03-0000July 3, 1916 1st Brigade For action against a considerable force of rebels

World War Iedit

Main article: List of Medal of Honor recipients for World War I

World War I, also known as the First World War and the Great War, was a global military conflict which took place primarily in Europe from 1914–1918 Over 40 million casualties resulted, including approximately 20 million military and civilian deaths30 Over 60 million European soldiers were mobilized from 1914–191831 The immediate cause of the war was the June 28, 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb citizen of Austria-Hungary and member of the Black Hand The retaliation by Austria-Hungary against Serbia activated a series of alliances that set off a chain reaction of war declarations Within a month, much of Europe was in a state of open warfare32

During this War, 126 men received the Medal of Honor for their actions with five Marines receiving both the Army and Navy versions of the medal for the same action24

Occupation of Nicaraguaedit

The United States occupied Nicaragua from 1909 to 1933 and intervened in the country several times before that The American interventions in Nicaragua were designed to prevent the construction of a trans-isthmian canal by any nation but the USA Nicaragua assumed a quasi-protectorate status under the 1916 Chamorro-Bryan Treaty The occupation ended as Augusto César Sandino, a Nicaraguan revolutionary, led guerrilla armies against US troops Furthermore, the onset of the Great Depression made it costly for the USA to maintain occupation33

Image Name Service Rank Place of action Date of action Unit Notes34
Schilt, Christian FChristian F Schilt Marine Corps O-02 !First Lieutenant Quilali, Nicaragua 000000001928-01-06-0000Jan 6, 1928 – 000000001928-01-08-0000Jan 8, 1928 Observation Squadron 7-M For evacuating wounded Marines by plane while under fire
Truesdale, Donald LDonald L Truesdale Marine Corps E-4 !Corporal Constancia !near Constancia, near Coco River, northern Nicaragua 000000001932-04-24-0000April 24, 1932 a Guardia Nacional Patrol Served under the name "Truesdale" before officially changing name to "Truesdell" on 25 July 194235 Lost his hand while attempting to save his patrol from an accidentally activated grenade

World War IIedit

Main article: List of Medal of Honor recipients for World War II See also: List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Battle of Iwo Jima

World War II, or the Second World War, was a global military conflict The conflicts joined from two separate conflicts The first began in Asia in 1937 as the Second Sino-Japanese War; the other began in Europe in 1939 with the German and Russian invasion of Polandn 2 This global conflict split the majority of the world's nations into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis powers It involved the mobilization of over 100 million military personnel, making it the most widespread war in history, and placed the participants in a state of "total war", erasing the distinction between civil and military resources This resulted in the complete activation of a nation's economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities for the purposes of the war effort Over 60 million people, the majority of them civilians, were killed, making it the deadliest conflict in human history36 The worldwide financial cost of the war is estimated at a trillion 1944 US dollars,3738 making it the most costly war both in capital expenditures as well as loss of lives

During this conflict 471 United States military personnel received the Medal of Honor, 273 of them posthumously A total of 42 Medals of Honor, representing 9% of all awarded during World War II, were presented for action in just two battles – 15 for actions during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and 27 for actions during the Battle of Iwo Jima Also a total of 21 45% of all World War II Medals of Honor were awarded to members of the all-Japanese American 100th Infantry Battalion of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, for actions in numerous battles across six different campaigns39 Additionally, the only Medal of Honor ever presented to a member of the United States Coast Guard was received for actions during this war24

Korean Waredit

Main article: List of Korean War Medal of Honor recipients

The Korean War was ignited by the 1950 invasion of South Korea when the North Korean Army moved south on June 25, 1950 to attempt to reunite the Korean peninsula, which had been formally divided since 1948 The conflict was then expanded by the United States, China's and the Soviet Union's involvement The main hostilities were during the period from June 25, 1950, until the Korean Armistice Agreement was signed on July 27, 1953

In South Korea, the war is often called "625", or the 625 War Korean: 625 전쟁, from the date of the start of the conflict or, more formally, Hanguk Jeonjaeng literally “Korean War” In North Korea, while commonly known as the Korean War, it is formally called the Fatherland Liberation War In the early days of the war, United States President Harry Truman called the United Nations response a "police action"40 The war is sometimes called "The Forgotten War" because it is a major conflict of the 20th century that gets less attention than World War II, which preceded it, and the controversial Vietnam War, which succeeded it41 In China, the conflict was known as the War to Resist America and Aid Korea, but is today commonly called the "Korean War"42

During this war, 145 Medals of Honor were presented for bravery in action, 107 of them posthumously24

Vietnam Waredit

Main article: List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Vietnam War

The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the American War, occurred from 1959 to April 30, 1975 The term "Vietnam Conflict" is often used to refer to events which took place between 1959 and April 30, 1975 The war was fought between the Communist-supported Democratic Republic of Vietnam North Vietnam and the United States supported Republic of Vietnam South Vietnam During the Vietnam War and in the following twelve months, 234 Medals of Honor were received and since 1978 a further 26 awards have been presented Of the total of 260 awards, 174 were to the US Army, 15 to the US Navy, 57 to the USMC and 14 to the USAF2424 The first medal of the war was presented to Roger Donlon for rescuing and administering first aid to several wounded soldiers and leading a group against an enemy force43 The first African American recipient of the war was Milton L Olive, III who sacrificed himself to save others by smothering a grenade with his body44 Riley L Pitts was killed after attacking an enemy force with rifle fire and grenades and was the first African American commissioned officer of the war to receive the medal45 Thomas Bennett was a conscientious objector who received the medal for his actions as a medic;46 three chaplains received the medal, including Vincent R Capodanno, who served with the Marine Corps and was known as the Grunt Padre47

USS Liberty incidentedit

The USS Liberty incident was an attack on a neutral United States Navy technical research ship, USS Liberty, by Israeli jet fighter planes and motor torpedo boats on June 8, 1967, during the Six-Day War The combined air and sea attack killed 34 and wounded more than 170 crew members, and damaged the ship severely48

Image Name Service Rank Place of action Date of action Unit Notes49
William L McGonagle Navy Commander Eastern Mediterranean Sea June 8 - 9, 1967 USS Liberty AGTR-5 Continued to lead his ship despite being severely wounded

Post-Vietnamedit

Since the end of the Vietnam War, also known as the Vietnam Conflict and Second Indochina War,5051 the United States was involved in a number of smaller conflicts during the end of the Cold War, including in Grenada, Panama, and elsewhere52 In the Post-Cold War, the United States was involved in conflicts in the Middle East, Africa, the Caribbean, and in the Balkans53 No Medals of Honor have been awarded for any of the aforementioned conflicts so far either proactively or retroactively54

Somaliaedit

On October 3, 1993, during the Battle of Mogadishu, members of the US Army Rangers and SOCOM's Delta Force executed a mission to capture members of Gen Mohamed Farrah Aidid's forces In the ensuing battle, two UH-60 Blackhawk helicopters were shot down As the second Blackhawk, containing Chief Warrant Officer Michael Durant, was hit and crashed, Master Sergeant Gary I Gordon and Sergeant First Class Randall D Shughart were in a nearby Blackhawk monitoring radio traffic Gordon and Shughart were part of a sniper team for Delta Force that was assigned to watch over the operation, engaging targets from their position in the Blackhawk As they monitored the downing of the second Blackhawk, it became evident that ground forces would not be available to secure the crash site and protect the critically injured crew of four, all of whom survived the crash Gordon, the sniper team leader, requested that they be inserted at the 2nd crash site His request was denied twice before finally being approved on the third request The snipers were armed only with their sniper rifles and pistols

Upon reaching the downed Blackhawk, which was under intense enemy fire, Gordon and Shughart pulled the crew from the wreckage and proceeded to set up a defensive perimeter The snipers, assisted by the severely injured Durant, began to engage the attacking Somalis from the opposite side of the wreckage using assault rifles stored on the Blackhawk Shughart and Gordon were eventually mortally wounded after nearly exhausting all available ammunition; Durant, the only survivor, was taken hostage According to Durant's account, 25 Somalis were killed and many more were wounded

On Monday, May 23, 1994, President Clinton presented the Medal of Honor to the widows of Gordon and Shughart55 They are the only snipers to have received the Medal of Honor56 The film Black Hawk Down, based on the book of the same name, includes a narrative of the events

21st centuryedit

Main article: List of post-Vietnam War Medal of Honor recipients

Afghanistanedit

The War in Afghanistan, which began on October 7, 2001, was launched by the United States, the United Kingdom, and NATO allies in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks It was the beginning of the War on Terrorism The stated purpose of the invasion was to capture Osama bin Laden, destroy al-Qaeda, and remove the Taliban regime which had provided support and safe harbor to al-Qaeda57 Since 2001, 13 American service-members have received the Medal of Honor for actions in Afghanistan, three of them posthumously Army Sergeant First Class Jared C Monti received his medal for attempting to rescue a wounded soldier at the cost of his own life Navy Lieutenant Michael P Murphy received his for actions against insurgent forces and for sacrificing his life to call for help when his team had been overwhelmed by a much larger enemy force58 Army Staff Sergeant Robert James Miller's surviving family was presented with his medal on October 6, 201059 The fourth recipient, Salvatore Giunta received his for his actions in 2007 when he risked his life to save a wounded comrade He is the first living recipient since the Vietnam War A second living recipient, Sergeant First Class Leroy Petry, received the medal from President Obama during a July 12, 2011, ceremony60 Marine Corps Corporal Dakota Meyer became the third living recipient awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Battle of Ganjgal6162 An additional seven living individuals have been awarded the Medal since Meyer

Iraqedit

The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War,63 Operation Iraqi Freedom US,64 Operation TELIC UK65 or the occupation of Iraq,66 was a conflict which began on March 20, 2003 with the United States-led invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition composed of US and UK troops supported by smaller contingents from Australia, Poland, and other nations67 Four service members have received the Medal of Honor for actions in Iraq; two from the Army, one from the Marine Corps and one from the Navy Paul R Smith was the first to receive it for his actions on April 4, 2003 when he held enemy forces back, allowing other wounded soldiers to be evacuated to safety The other three, Corporal Jason Dunham of the Marine Corps, Specialist Ross A McGinnis of the Army and Master-at-Arms Second Class Michael A Monsoor of the Navy received it after being killed while using their own bodies to smother grenades to protect their comrades68

Peacetimeedit

Main article: List of Medal of Honor recipients during peacetime

Before World War II, the Medal of Honor could be received for actions not involving direct combat with the enemy and 193 men earned the medal in this way24 Most of these medals were presented to members of the United States Navy for rescuing or attempting to rescue someone from drowning24 One of those awarded the Medal of Honor for rescuing others was Fireman Second Class Telesforo Trinidad, who as of 2010 has been the only Asian American Sailor to be awarded the Medal of Honor69 In addition to the medals that were presented for lifesaving acts, one Medal of Honor was presented to William Halford who sailed in a small boat for 31 days to get help for the other members of the USS Saginaw who had been stranded on an island70 Three explorers were also presented with the medal by special acts of Congress Charles Lindbergh received the medal for flying the first solo non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean as well as Floyd Bennett and Richard Evelyn Byrd who received it for their participation in what was thought to be the first successful heavier-than-air flight to the North Pole and back One recipient, Adolphus W Greely received his for a lifetime of military service71

Foreignedit

No individual serving as a member of a foreign force has been awarded the Medal of Honor Current law,10 USC § 6241 explicitly states that recipients must be serving in the US Armed Forces at the time of performing a valorous act that warrants the award However, the Medal of Honor has been presented to five First World War unknown soldiers of allied countries: the British Unknown Warrior in the United Kingdom by General Pershing on October 17, 1921; the Romanian Unknown Soldier, the French Unknown Soldier entombed under the Arc de Triomphe, the Belgian Unknown Soldier, and the Italian Unknown Soldier entombed in the Monument of Vittorio Emanuele II Each of the countries reciprocally awarded medals to the US Unknown Soldier72

Notesedit

  1. ^ This conflict is also known as the Philippine Insurrection This name was historically the most commonly used in the US, but Filipinos and some American historians refer to these hostilities as the Philippine-American War, and, in 1999, the US Library of Congress reclassified its references to use this term
  2. ^ Official military histories in Commonwealth nations refer to the conflict as the Second World War, while the United States' official histories refer to the conflict as World War II English translations of the official histories of other nations tend to resolve into English as Second World War also, for example zweite weltkrieg in German See CP Stacey Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War, for example "Official" usage of these terms is giving way to popular usage and the two terms are becoming interchangeable even in formal military history

Referencesedit

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History
  1. ^ "A Brief History—The Medal of Honor" Frequently Asked Questions FAQ Department of Defense August 8, 2006 Archived from the original on June 15, 2009 Retrieved February 9, 2010 
  2. ^ see http://wwwmohhsuscom/medal-of-honor which is updated when new awards are presented The exact number is included in the main Medal of Honor article
  3. ^ The Medal of Honor of the United States Army, United States Department of the Army Public Information Division, Washington, US Govt Print Off, 1948 and Medal of Honor, 1861-1949, the Navy United States Bureau of Naval Personnel Washington, 1950
  4. ^ Medal of Honor recipients, 1863-1963 Prepared for the Subcommittee on Veterans' Affairs of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate 1964 was the first of these publications
  5. ^ Medal of Honor Recipients: 1979-2014, Anne Leland, Information Research Specialist, Congressional research Service, December 2, 2014
  6. ^ "Mary Edwards Walker" Women in History Retrieved July 23, 2006 
  7. ^ "Canada honours winners of top US medal" CBC News July 1, 2005 Retrieved July 20, 2006 
  8. ^ "Thousands of Canadians, including a Medal of Honor recipient, served with the US military in Vietnam" Veterans With a Mission July 1, 2005 Retrieved July 20, 2006 
  9. ^ http://wwwmohhsuscom/medal-of-honor
  10. ^ Medal of Honor Recipients: 1979-2014, Anne Leland, Information Research Specialist, Congressional research Service, December 2, 2014
  11. ^ "Winning the west the Army in the Indian Wars, 1865–1890" United States Army Center of Military History April 27, 2001 Retrieved February 15, 2010 
  12. ^ http://wwwmohhsuscom/medal-of-honor
  13. ^ Tyson, Carolyn A March 5, 2007 "Marine Amphibious Landing in Korea, 1871" Naval Historical Foundation Retrieved February 15, 2010 
  14. ^ "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the 1871 Korean Campaign United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
  15. ^ "The Price of Freedom: Americans at War—Spanish American War" National Museum of American History 2005 
  16. ^ Dolan, Edward F April 27, 2001 The Spanish-American War The Millbrook Press, Inc ISBN 0-7613-1453-9 Retrieved February 15, 2010 
  17. ^ Stevenson, Robert Louis A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa Retrieved February 15, 2010 
  18. ^ "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the Philippine Insurrection United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
  19. ^ Delmendo, Sharon 2004 The Star-Entangled Banner: One Hundred Years of America in the Philippines Rutgers University Press p 47 ISBN 0-8135-3411-9 Retrieved December 3, 2007 
  20. ^ Agoncillo, Teodoro 1960 History of the Filipino People 1990 eighth ed Quezon City: Garcia ISBN 971-10-2415-2 
  21. ^ a b Constantino, Renato 1975 The Philippines: A Past Revisited ISBN 971-8958-00-2 
  22. ^ Owens, Ron 2004 Medal of Honor: Historical Facts & Figures Paducah, Kentucky: Turner Publishing Company pp 71–73, 80–81 ISBN 978-1-56311-995-8 
  23. ^ Esherick, Joseph W 1987 The Origins of the Boxer Uprising University of California Press p 154 ISBN 0-520-06459-3 Retrieved February 6, 2010 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Medal of Honor recipients" Statistics of Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines, and Coast Guardsmen who received the Medal of Honor United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved March 18, 2008 
  25. ^ Yockelson, Mitchell 1997 "The United States Armed Forces and the Mexican Punitive Expedition: Part 1" Prologue Magazine 29 
  26. ^ "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the 1915 Haiti Campaign United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
  27. ^ "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the 1919–1920 Haiti Campaign United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
  28. ^ Haggerty, Richard A 1989 "Dominican Republic: A Country Study" Retrieved February 16, 2010 
  29. ^ "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the Dominican Campaign United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
  30. ^ "Military Casualties of World War One" Retrieved February 11, 2010 
  31. ^ "The Treaty of Versailles and its Consequences" Archived from the original on February 27, 2009 Retrieved February 12, 2010 
  32. ^ Keegan, John 1998 The First World War Hutchinson ISBN 0-09-180178-8 
  33. ^ Merrill, Tim 1993 "Nicaragua: A Country Study" Retrieved February 15, 2010 
  34. ^ "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the Second Nicaraguan Campaign United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
  35. ^ "CWO Donald L Truesdell" US Marine Corps History Division Retrieved 28 November 2012 
  36. ^ Dunnigan, James; Albert Nofi Dirty Little Secrets of World War II: Military Information No One Told You About the Greatest, Most Terrible War in History, William Morrow & Company, 1994 ISBN 0-688-12235-3
  37. ^ Mayer, E 2000 "World War II" course lecture notes on Emayzinecom Victorville, California: Victor Valley College
  38. ^ Coleman, P 1999 "Cost of the War," World War II Resource Guide Gardena, California: The American War Library
  39. ^ Congressional Medal of Honor Society
  40. ^ The President's News Conference of June 29, 1950
  41. ^ "Remembering the Forgotten War: Korea, 1950–1953" Naval History & Heritage Command Archived from the original on August 19, 2007 Retrieved August 16, 2007 
  42. ^ "War to Resist US Aggression And Aid Korea Marked in DPRK" China's Peoples Daily English version Retrieved August 16, 2007 
  43. ^ Murphy, 1987, pp 13–23
  44. ^ Murphy, 1987, pp 36–38
  45. ^ Murphy, 1987, p 97
  46. ^ Murphy, 1987, pp 156–158
  47. ^ Murphy, 1987, pp 150–151
  48. ^ "USS Liberty AGTR-5, 1964–1970" Navy Historical Center January 14, 2001 Retrieved February 16, 2010 
  49. ^ "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the Vietnam War M—Z United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
  50. ^ Lacouture, Jean July 1970 "From the Vietnam War to an Indochina War" Foreign Affairs Council on Foreign Affairs Retrieved 31 January 2013 
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  52. ^ Stewart, Richard W 23 May 2006 "Rebuilding the Army Vietnam to Desert Storm" Center of Military History United States Army Retrieved 31 January 2013 
  53. ^ Bullington, James R September 1999 "The Coming American Retreat from Global Military Interventions" American Diplomacy University of North Carolina Retrieved 31 January 2013 
  54. ^ "Medal of Honor Recipients" Center of Military History Retrieved 15 July 2017 
  55. ^ Clinton awards Medal of Honor to 2 killed in Somalia, New York Daily News, May 25, 1994, p 16
  56. ^ "Shughart and Gordon" Snipercentralcom October 3, 1993 Retrieved April 9, 2013 
  57. ^ "The United States Army in Afghanistan" Operation Enduring Freedom United States Army March 17, 2006 Archived from the original on February 1, 2010 Retrieved February 15, 2010 
  58. ^ "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the Afghanistan War United States Army Center of Military History January 7, 2010 Retrieved February 15, 2010 
  59. ^ "President Obama to Award Medal of Honor" White House Office of the Press Secretary September 9, 2010 Retrieved September 9, 2010 
  60. ^ "Army Ranger to be awarded Medal of Honor" Stars and Stripes Washington, DC May 31, 2011 Archived from the original on June 1, 2011 
  61. ^ "Soldiers' selfless acts should inspire at holidays" CNN December 6, 2010 
  62. ^ Lamothe, Dan July 19, 2011 "Obama OKs Medal of Honor for living Marine" Marine Corps Times Springfield, Virginia Archived from the original on July 22, 2011 
  63. ^ "Rescue Operations in the Second Gulf War" Air & Space Power Journal Spring 2005 
  64. ^ "Operation Iraqi Freedom" Retrieved August 2, 2007 
  65. ^ Ministry of Defence "Operations in Iraq: History of the military campaign in Iraq" Retrieved February 11, 2010 
  66. ^ Fattah, Hassan M March 2007 "Saudi King Condemns US Occupation of Iraq" New York Times Retrieved May 8, 2010 
  67. ^ Schifferes, Steve March 18, 2003 "US Names Coalition of the Willing" BBC News Retrieved November 3, 2007 
  68. ^ "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the Iraq War United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
  69. ^ Rodney Jaleco 19 October 2010 "Pinoy WWII vets still top Fil-Am concern" ABS-CBN Retrieved 23 September 2011 
  70. ^ "Lieutenant William Halford, USN, 1841–1919" Naval Historical Center March 20, 2006 Retrieved April 9, 2010 
  71. ^ "Medal of Honor recipients" Interim 1920–1940 United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved April 9, 2010 
  72. ^ "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients by Special Legislation United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 

Further readingedit

  • Murphy, Edward F July 1987 Vietnam Medal of Honor Heroes New York: Ballantine Books ISBN 0-345-33890-1 

External linksedit

  • "Who's Who list of Marines" Who's Who in Marine Corps History History Division, United States Marine Corps Retrieved March 17, 2008 
  • "Medal of Honor recipients" Listing of Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines, and Coast Guardsmen who received the Medal of Honor during World War II United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the American Civil War A-L United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the American Civil War M-Z United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Archived from the original on February 23, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the Indian Wars United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for Interim period 1866–1870 United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the Interim period 1871–1898 United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the Spanish-American War United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the Boxer Rebellion United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the Interim period 1901–1911 United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for Outlaws—Philippines 1911 United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the Mexican-American War Vera Cruz United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the Interim period 1915–1916 United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for World War I United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for World War II A–F United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Archived from the original on June 16, 2008 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for World War II G–L United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for World War II M–S United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for World War II T–Z United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Archived from the original on December 31, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the Korean War United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" American Medal of Honor recipients for the Vietnam War A–L United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
    • "Medal of Honor recipients" World War II African American Medal of Honor recipients United States Army Center of Military History June 8, 2009 Retrieved June 8, 2009 
  • "Medal of Honor recipients of Charley Company First Battalion Seventh Marines" Honor Recipients of Charley Company SuicideCharleycom Retrieved March 17, 2009 

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