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List of Japanese Nobel laureates

list of japanese nobel laureates by country, list of japanese nobel laureates by university
Since 1949, there have been twenty-five Japanese including Japanese born winners of the Nobel Prize Swedish: Nobelpriset The Nobel Prize is a Sweden-based international monetary prize The award was established by the 1895 will and estate of Swedish chemist and inventor Alfred Nobel It was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901 An associated prize, The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, was instituted by Sweden's central bank in 1968 and first awarded in 1969

The Nobel Prizes in the above specific sciences disciplines and the Prize in Economics, which is commonly identified with them, are widely regarded as the most prestigious award one can receive in those fields12 Of Japanese winners, eleven have been physicists, seven chemists, two for literature, four for physiology or medicine and one for efforts towards peace2

In the 21st century, in the field of natural science, the number of Japanese winners of the Nobel Prize has been second behind the US

Contents

  • 1 Laureates
  • 2 Laureates with Japanese Lineage
  • 3 Nominations
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links

Laureatesedit

Year Laureate Category Life Rationale
1949 Hideki Yukawa Physics 1907–1981 "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"3
1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga Physics 1906–1979 "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles" – shared with Julian Schwinger and Richard Feynman4
1968 Yasunari Kawabata Literature 1899–1972 "for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind"5
1973 Leo Esaki Physics 1925– "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively" – shared with Ivar Giaever and Brian David Josephson6
1974 Eisaku Satō Peace 1901–1975 "Prime Minister of Japan," "for his renunciation of the nuclear option for Japan and his efforts to further regional reconciliation" – Shared with Seán MacBride7
1981 Kenichi Fukui Chemistry 1918–1998 "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions" – shared with Roald Hoffmann8
1987 Susumu Tonegawa Physiology or Medicine 1939– "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"9
1994 Kenzaburō Ōe Literature 1935– "who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today"10
2000 Hideki Shirakawa Chemistry 1936– "for the discovery and development of conductive polymers" – shared with Alan MacDiarmid and Alan Heeger11
2001 Ryōji Noyori Chemistry 1938– "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions" – shared with William Knowles and Barry Sharpless12
2002 Masatoshi Koshiba Physics 1926– "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos" – shared with Raymond Davis, Jr and Riccardo Giacconi13
Koichi Tanaka Chemistry 1959– "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules" and "for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules" – shared with John Fenn and Kurt Wüthrich14
2008 Yoichiro Nambu
USA citizen
Physics 1921–2015 "for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics" – held American nationality – shared with Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa15
Makoto Kobayashi Physics 1944– "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature" – shared with Yoichiro Nambu and Toshihide Maskawa15
Toshihide Maskawa Physics 1940– "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature" – shared with Yoichiro Nambu and Makoto Kobayashi15
Osamu Shimomura Chemistry 1928– "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP" – shared with Martin Chalfie and Roger Tsien16
2010 Ei-ichi Negishi Chemistry 1935– "for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis" – shared with Richard F Heck and Akira Suzuki17
Akira Suzuki Chemistry 1930– "for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis" – shared with Richard F Heck and Ei-ichi Negishi17
2012 Shinya Yamanaka Physiology or Medicine 1962– "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent" – shared with John B Gurdon18
2014 Isamu Akasaki Physics 1929– "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources" – shared with Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura19
Hiroshi Amano Physics 1960– "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources" – shared with Isamu Akasaki and Shuji Nakamura19
Shuji Nakamura
USA citizen
Physics 1954– "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources" – shared with Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano19
2015 Satoshi Ōmura Physiology or Medicine 1935– "for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites" – shared with William C Campbell and Tu Youyou20
Takaaki Kajita Physics 1959– "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass" – shared with Arthur B McDonald21
2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi Physiology or Medicine 1945- "for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy"22

Laureates with Japanese Lineageedit

Year Laureate Category Life Rationale Linkage
1986 Yuan T Lee Chemistry 1936– "for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes" – shared with Dudley R Herschbach and John C Polanyi23 Lee is a Taiwanese scientist of ancient Han Chinese descent and was born in Taiwan, which was then under World War II Japanese rule, he can speak fluently in Japanese, English, Taiwanese and Mandarin Chinese He was graduated from the National Taiwan University - one of former Japanese Imperial universities
In addition, Lee is also the Honorary Director of the Institute of Advanced Studies of Nagoya University in Japan
1987 Charles J Pedersen Chemistry 1904–1989 "for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity" – shared with Donald J Cram and Jean-Marie Lehn24 Pedersen has a Japanese mother, his Japanese first name was Yoshio 良男

In 1960s, Anthony James Leggett spent a year in the group of Professor Takeo Matsubara at Kyoto University in Japan, he can speak fluently in Japanese and English His wife is a Japanese researcher Haruko Kinase

Nominationsedit

Physics Shoichi Sakata reported the "Sakata model" - a model of hadrons in 1956, that inspired Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig's quark model Moreover, Kazuhiko Nishijima and Tadao Nakano originally given the Gell-Mann–Nishijima formula in 195325 However, 1969 physics prize was only awarded to Murray Gell-Mann Afterward, Ivar Waller, the member of Nobel Committee for Physics was sorry that Sakata had not received a prize26 Yoji Totsuka was leading the experiment that the first definitive evidence for neutrino oscillations was measured, via a high-statistics, high-precision measurement of the atmospheric neutrino flux His Super-K group also confirmed, along with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory SNO, the solution to the solar neutrino problem The Nobel Prize winning physicist Masatoshi Koshiba was told that if Totsuka could extend his lifespan by eighteen months, he would receive the physics prize27 Chemistry Eiji Osawa prediction of the C60 molecule at Hokkaido University in 19702829 He noticed that the structure of a corannulene molecule was a subset of an Association football shape, and he hypothesised that a full ball shape could also exist Japanese scientific journals reported his idea, but it did not reach Europe or the Americas3031 Because of this, he was not awarded the 1996 chemistry prize Physiology or Medicine Kitasato Shibasaburō and Emil von Behring working together in Berlin in 1890 announce the discovery of diphtheria antitoxin serum, Von Behring was awarded the 1901 prize because of this work, but Kitasato was not Meanwhile, Hideyo Noguchi32 and Sahachiro Hata,33 those who missed out on the early Nobel Prize for many times Katsusaburō Yamagiwa and his student Kōichi Ichikawa successfully induced squamous cell carcinoma by painting crude coal tar on the inner surface of rabbits' ears Yamagiwa's work has become the primary basis for research of cause of cancer34 However, Johannes Fibiger was awarded the 1926 prize because of his incorrect Spiroptera carcinoma theory, while the Yamagiwa group was snubbed by Nobel Committee In 1966, the former committee member Folke Henschen claimed "I was strongly advocate Dr Yamagiwa deserve the Nobel Prize, but unfortunate it did not realize"35 In 2010, the Encyclopædia Britannica 's guide to Nobel Prizes in cancer research mentions Yamagiwa's work as a milestone without mentioning Fibiger36 Umetaro Suzuki completed the first vitamin complex was isolated in 191037 When the article was translated into German, the translation failed to state that it was a newly discovered nutrient, a claim made in the original Japanese article, and hence his discovery failed to gain publicity Because of this, he was not awarded the 1929 prize Satoshi Mizutani38 and Howard Martin Temin jointly discovered that the Rous sarcoma virus particle contained the enzyme reverse transcriptase, and Mizutani was solely responsible for the original conception and design of the novel experiment that confirmed Temin's provirus hypothesis39 However, Mizutani was not awarded the 1975 prize along with Temin As of 2015, there have been seven Japanese who have received the Lasker Award and twelve Japanese who have received the Canada Gairdner International Award, but only three Japanese who have received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Others A number of important Japanese native scientists were not nominated for early Nobel Prizes, such as Yasuhiko Kojima and Yasuichi Nagano jointly discovered Interferon, Jokichi Takamine first isolated epinephrine,40 Kiyoshi Shiga discovered Shigella dysenteriae, Tomisaku Kawasaki Kawasaki disease is named after him, and Hakaru Hashimoto After World War II, Reiji Okazaki and his wife Tsuneko were known for describing the role of Okazaki fragments, but he died of leukemia sequelae of Atomic bombings of Hiroshima in 1975 at the age of 44

See alsoedit

  • List of Japanese people
  • List of Nobel Laureates
  • List of Nobel Laureates by country
  • List of Asian Nobel laureates
  • List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of Tokyo
  • List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Kyoto University

Referencesedit

  1. ^ "Nobel Prize" Encyclopædia Britannica Retrieved 19 December 2009 
  2. ^ a b "All Nobel Laureates" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 19 December 2009 
  3. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 19 December 2009 
  4. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 19 December 2009 
  5. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Literature 1968" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 19 December 2009 
  6. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 19 December 2009 
  7. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1974" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 19 December 2009 
  8. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 19 December 2009 
  9. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 19 December 2009 
  10. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Literature 1994" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 19 December 2009 
  11. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 19 December 2009 
  12. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 19 December 2009 
  13. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 19 December 2009 
  14. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 19 December 2009 
  15. ^ a b c "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 19 December 2009 
  16. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 24 August 2015 
  17. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 24 August 2015 
  18. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 24 August 2015 
  19. ^ a b c "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 24 August 2015 
  20. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Literature 2013" PDF Nobel Foundation Retrieved 2015-10-05 
  21. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 6 October 2015 
  22. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 2016-10-03 
  23. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 24 August 2015 
  24. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987" Nobel Foundation Retrieved 24 August 2015 
  25. ^ Nakano, T; Nishijima, N 1953 "Charge Independence for V-particles" Progress of Theoretical Physics 10 5: 581 Bibcode:1953PThPh10581N doi:101143/PTP10581 
  26. ^ Robert Marc Friedman, The Politics of Excellence: Behind the Nobel Prize in Science New York: Henry Holt & Company October 2001
  27. ^ 文藝春秋2008年9月号
  28. ^ Osawa, E 1970 "Superaromaticity" Kagaku 25: 854–863 
  29. ^ Halford, B 9 October 2006 "The World According to Rick" Chemical & Engineering News 84 41: 13 doi:101021/cen-v084n041p013 
  30. ^ Kagaku 25: 854–863 1970
  31. ^ Yoshida, Z; Osawa, E 1971 Aromaticity Chemical Monograph Series 22 Kyoto: Kagaku-dojin pp 174–8
  32. ^ Japanese Government Internet TV "Hideyo Noguchi Africa Prize," streaming video 2007/04/26
  33. ^ Sachachiro Hata - Nomination Database
  34. ^ "Katsusaburo Yamagiwa 1863–1930" CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 27 3: 172 1977 doi:103322/canjclin273172 Yamagiwa, then Director of the Department of Pathology at Tokyo Imperial University Medical School, had theorized that repetition or continuation of chronic irritation caused precancerous alterations in previously normal epithelium If the irritant continued its action, carcinoma could result These data, publicly presented at a special meeting of the Tokyo Medical Society and reprinted below, focused attention on chemical carcinogenesis Further more, his experimental method provided researchers with a means of producing cancer in the laboratory and anticipated investigation of specific carcinogenic agents and the precise way in which they acted Within a decade, Keller and associates extracted a highly potent carcinogenic hydrocarbon from coal tar Dr Yamagiwa had begun a new era in cancer research 
  35. ^ 「『ガンの山極博士』たたえる」読売新聞1966年10月25日15頁。
  36. ^ Guide to Nobel Prize Britannicacom Retrieved on 25 September 2010
  37. ^ Suzuki, U, Shimamura, T 1911 "Active constituent of rice grits preventing bird polyneuritis" Tokyo Kagaku Kaishi 32: 4–7; 144–146; 335–358
  38. ^ H M Temin and S Mizutani 1970 "Viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in virions of Rous sarcoma virus" PDF Nature 226 5252: 1211–3 Bibcode:1970Natur2261211T PMID 4316301 doi:101038/2261211a0 
  39. ^ Horace Freeland Judson, The Great Betrayal: Fraud in Science, 1st Ed, 2004
  40. ^ Wermuth, Camille Georges 2008 The practice of medicinal chemistry 3 ed Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press p 13 ISBN 9780080568775 

External linksedit

  • All Nobel Laureates from the Nobel Foundation
  • Japanese Nobel Laureates — Kyoto Universityin English
  • 日本人のノーベル賞受賞者一覧 — 京都大学in Japanese
  • Nominees from JAPAN - Nomination Databasein English

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List of Japanese Nobel laureates Information about

List of Japanese Nobel laureates


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