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List of French inventions and discoveries

list of french inventions and discoveries in 1938, list of french inventions and discoveries that changed

Contents

  • 1 Arts and Entertainment
  • 2 Chemistry
  • 3 Physics, Mathematics & Measure
  • 4 Medicine & Biology
  • 5 Transportation
  • 6 Clothing
  • 7 Food and cooking
  • 8 Weapons and military
  • 9 Communication & Computers
  • 10 Sports
  • 11 Miscellaneous
  • 12 See also
  • 13 References

Arts and Entertainmentedit

  • Gothic art in the mid-12th century1
  • Oboe, or hautbois, in the mid-17th century France, probably by Jacques-Martin Hotteterre and his family or by the Philidor family2 Variants of the oboe like the graïle, the bombard and the piston were later created in Languedoc and Brittany
1800s engraving French Roulette
  • Many bagpipes were developed in France,34 including the Biniou, the bodega, the Boha, the Bousine, the Cabrette, the Chabrette, the Cornemuse du Centre, the loure, the Musette bechonnet, the Musette bressane and the Musette de cour
  • First mechanical metronome by Étienne Loulié in 1696 but the modern form of the metronome was patented only in 18155
  • Rococo in the early 18th century6
  • Clavecin électrique, earliest surviving electric-powered musical instrument, in 1759 by Jean-Baptiste Thillaie Delaborde7
  • The Roulette was developed in 18th century France8 from a primitive form created by Blaise Pascal 17th century9 In 1843, Louis and François Blanc introduced the single 0 style roulette wheel
  • Many other gambling games and card games including the French suits around 148010 were invented in France, some from earlier games :
    • From earlier Italian games : Basset, Biribi and Tarot see Tarot of Marseilles and French tarot
    • From earlier Spanish games : Quinze and, maybe, Piquet
    • Other : Faro from the Basset, Brelan, Bouillotte, Commerce, Trente et Quarante, Belote and maybe Blackjack11
  • Photography :
    • Photolithography and the first photographic image ever produced in 1822 by Nicéphore Niépce Saône-et-Loire12
    • Daguerreotype by Nicéphore Niépce and Louis Daguerre
    • Hércules Florence coined photographie in 1834, French word at the origin of the English word photography13
A scene from A Trip to the Moon 1902 by Georges Méliès
  • Collotype process by Alphonse Poitevin in 185614
  • The Praxinoscope of Charles-Émile Reynaud 1877 is an animation device intermediary between the zoetrope and the cinema
  • The Cabaret by Rodolphe Salis in 1881 in Paris15
  • The Chronophotography by Étienne-Jules Marey developed by himself, Eadweard Muybridge, Albert Londe, Georges Demeny and Ottomar Anschutz in 1882 in Paris16
  • The Cinema developed from chronophotography :
    • First motion picture camera and first projector by Louis Le Prince, Frenchman who worked in the United Kingdom and the United States171819
    • The Cinematograph by Léon Bouly 1892
    • first commercial, public screening of cinematographic films by Auguste and Louis Lumière in Paris on 28 December 189520
    • Georges Méliès : first filmmaker to use the stop trick, or substitution, multiple exposures, time-lapse photography, dissolves, and hand-painted color in his films His most famous film, A Trip to the Moon Le voyage dans la Lune, in 1902, was the first science fiction film and the most popular movie of its time another of his productions, Le Manoir du diable is also sometimes considered as the first horror movie21
  • Developments of the modern Piano invented by the Italian Bartolomeo Cristofori : Pleyel et Cie double piano, Sébastien Érard double escapement action, Jean-Louis Boisselot sostenuto pedal, Henri Fourneaux Player piano22
  • Ondes Martenot in 1928 by Maurice Martenot early electronic musical instrument 23
  • Gemmail in the 1930s by painter Jean Crotti24
  • Clavioline, an electronic keyboard instrument, by Constant Martin in 194725
  • Etch A Sketch by André Cassagnes in the late 1950s26272829
  • DivX around 1998 by Jérôme Rota at Montpellier30

Chemistryedit

Appert canning jar
  • Discovery of natural rubber/latex by Charles Marie de La Condamine in 173631
  • Oxygen by Antoine Lavoisier in 177832
  • Hydrogen by Antoine Lavoisier in 178332
  • Argand lamp by Swiss-born Aimé Argand and by Antoine Quinquet in 1783 in Paris33
  • The first extensive list of elements see periodic table by Antoine Lavoisier in 1787
  • Leblanc process by Nicolas Leblanc in 179134
  • Beryllium by Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin35
  • Chromium by Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin in 179732
  • Appertization or Canning by Nicolas Appert in 180936
  • Polyvinyl chloride in 1838 by Henri Victor Regnault but the PVC will only be plasticized industrially nearly a century later37
  • Photovoltaic effect by Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel in 18393839
  • Pasteurization by Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard in April 186240
  • Gallium by Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 187532
  • Production of Liquid oxygen by Louis Paul Cailletet in 1877 at the same time but with another method than Raoul Pictet41
  • Artificial silk by Hilaire de Chardonnet in 188442
  • Chamberland filter, also known as a Pasteur–Chamberland filter, a porcelain water filter invented by Charles Chamberland in 188443
  • Fluorine by Henri Moissan in 188632
  • Aluminium electrolysis in 1886 by Paul Héroult at the same time but independently from American Martin Hall44
  • Europium by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 189032
  • Viscose by Hilaire de Chardonnet in Échirolles in 189145
  • Chemical Bleach by Claude Berthollet and Antoine Germain Labarraque with the Swedish chemist Karl Wilhelm Scheele and Scottish chemist Charles Tennant46
Neon sign
  • Berthelot's reagent by Marcellin Berthelot in the late nineteenth century
  • Polonium by Pierre and Marie Curie in July 189832
  • Radium by Pierre and Marie Curie in December 189832
  • Boron carbide by Henri Moissan in 189947
  • Actinium by André-Louis Debierne in 18994849
  • Discovery of the Grignard reaction or Grignard reagent by Victor Grignard50 in 1900
  • Verneuil process method to manufacture synthetic gemstones by Auguste Verneuil in 1902
  • Laminated glass by the French chemist Edouard Benedictus in 1903
  • Moissanite by Henri Moissan in 19045152
  • Neon lighting by Georges Claude in 191053
  • Francium by Marguerite Perey in 193932

Physics, Mathematics & Measureedit

The Foucault pendulum in the Panthéon, Paris
  • Cartesian Coordinate System by René Descartes in 1637 and independently by Pierre de Fermat at the same period
  • The calculator by Blaise Pascal Pascaline in 164254 see also Adding machine
  • Probability theory by Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal in the seventeenth century with Gerolamo Cardano and Christiaan Huygens55
  • Vernier scale by Pierre Vernier in 16315657
  • Spirit level by Melchisédech Thévenot in 166158
  • Roberval Balance by Gilles de Roberval in 166959
  • Réaumur scale by René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur in 173060
  • Pitot tube by Henri Pitot in 173261 and modified to its modern form in the mid-19th century by Henry Darcy62
  • The conservation of mass by Antoine Lavoisier63 18th century
  • Modern hydrometer by Jacques Charles64
  • Metric system during the French Revolution6566 and several measures used in physics in the SI
  • Laplace's equation, Laplace operator, Laplace transform, Laplace distribution, Laplace's demon, Laplace expansion, Young–Laplace equation, Laplace number, Laplace limit, Laplace invariant, Laplace principle, proof that every equation of an even degree must have at least one real quadratic factor, solution of the linear partial differential equation of the second order and general proof of the Lagrange reversion theorem by Pierre-Simon Laplace in the late eighteenth and the early nineteenth century67
  • The Gay-lussac Scale used by hydrometers and alcoholometers by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac after an idea of Jacques Charles
Optical pumping of a laser rod bottom with an arc lamp top Red: hot Blue: cold Green: light Non-green arrows: water flow Solid colors: metal Light colors: fused quartz Refs: 5, 6,7
  • Polariscope and discovery of Rotary polarization by François Arago He invented the first polarization filter in 181268
  • Arithmometer by Thomas de Colmar in 182069
  • Dynamometer by Gaspard de Prony de Prony brake in 182170
  • Complex analysis and complex function theory by Augustin-Louis Cauchy, including Cauchy's integral theorem
  • Fourier analysis and Fourier transform by Joseph Fourier in 1822 71
  • Electrometer by Jean Peltier
  • Foucault pendulum by Léon Foucault who also developed and named the Gyroscope in February 1851 in the Meridian of the Paris Observatory
  • Ocean thermal energy conversion in 1881 by Jacques-Arsène d'Arsonval first OTEC plant in 1930 in Cuba by his student Georges Claude72
  • Radioactivity by Henri Becquerel in 189673
  • Theorical foundations and mathematical framework of Special relativity by Henri Poincaré, before Albert Einstein used his work in 1905 and later74
  • Integral imaging by Gabriel Lippmann on March 3, 190875
  • Darrieus wind turbine by Georges Jean Marie Darrieus in 193176
  • Optical pumping by Alfred Kastler in the early 1950s77
  • The multiwire proportional chamber by Georges Charpak78 in 1968

Medicine & Biologyedit

Modern stethoscope Insulin pump, showing an infusion set loaded into spring-loaded insertion device
  • Ligature of arteries in 1565 by Ambroise Paré79
  • Blood transfusion by Jean-Baptiste Denys on June 15, 166780 and first modern transfusion by Émile Jeanbrau on October 16, 1914 after the first non-direct transfusion performed on March 27, 1914 by the Belgian doctor Albert Hustin
  • Modern dentistry by Pierre Fauchard father of modern dentistry, early eighteenth century8182
  • Modern Cataract surgery by Jacques Daviel in 1748 even if early cataract surgery already existed in the antiquity
  • Discovery of Osmosis in 1748 by Jean-Antoine Nollet83 The word "osmosis" descends from the words "endosmose" and "exosmose", which were coined by French physician René Joachim Henri Dutrochet 1776–1847 from the Greek words ένδον endon : within, έξο exo : outside, and ωσμος osmos : push, impulsion
  • The first lifesize obstetrical mannequin, for teaching, by Angelique du Coudray in the 1750s84
  • Stethoscope in 1816 by René Laennec at the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital in Paris85
  • Medical Quinine in 1820 by Joseph Bienaimé Caventou86
  • Codeine first isolated in 1832 by Pierre Robiquet87
  • Aspirin in 1853 by Charles Frédéric Gerhardt88
  • Hypodermic needle in 1853 by Charles Pravaz89
  • Blind experiment by Claude Bernard nineteenth century90
  • Discovery of Plasmodium and its role in malaria by Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran on November 6, 18809192
  • Incubator or Neonatal intensive care unit in 1881 by Étienne Stéphane Tarnier93 His student, Pierre-Constant Budin, followed in Tarnier’s footsteps, creating perinatology in the late 1890s9495
  • Rabies vaccine by Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux in 188596
  • Antibiotics by Louis Pasteur and Jean Paul Vuillemin by means of natural antibiosis; modern artificial antibiotics were developed later by the British Alexander Fleming97
  • Mantoux test by Charles Mantoux in 19079899
  • Tuberculosis vaccine by Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin in 1921 BCG100
  • Antipsychotics in 1952 by Henri Laborit chlorpromazine101
  • Discovery of the cause of Down syndrome chromosome 21 trisomy by Jérôme Lejeune102 in 1958-1959 syndrome first described by Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol, Édouard Séguin and John Langdon Down
  • First bone marrow transplant by Georges Mathé, a French oncologist, in 1959 on five Yugoslavian nuclear workers whose own marrow had been damaged by irradiation caused by a Criticality accident at the Vinča Nuclear Institute103104105106
  • Insulin pump in 1981 by Jacques Mirouze first implantation in Montpellier107
  • Discovery of human immunodeficiency virus by Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier108 1983
  • Deep brain stimulation DBS by Alim-Louis Benabid in 1987109110
  • Mifepristone, the abortion pill, by Étienne-Émile Baulieu in 1988111112
  • Hand transplantation on September 23, 1998 in Lyon by a team assembled from different countries around the world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who, shortly thereafter, performed the first successful double hand transplant113
  • Telesurgery by Jacques Marescaux and his team on 7 September 2001 across the Atlantic Ocean New-York-Strasbourg, Lindbergh Operation114
  • Face transplant on November 27, 2005115116 by Dr Bernard Devauchelle

Transportationedit

A model of the Montgolfier brothers' balloon at the London Science Museum Air France Concorde in 1977
  • Taxi by Nicolas Sauvage in Paris in 1640117
  • Steamboat by Denis Papin118 A boat with the world's first internal combustion engine was developed in 1807 by fellow Frenchman Nicéphore Niépce
  • Automobile by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot in 1769119120
  • Hot Air Balloon later, Aerostat and Airship by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, François Laurent d'Arlandes, the Montgolfier brothers121122 and Jacques Charles who also invented the first hydrogen-filled balloon
  • Parachute in the late 18th century by Louis-Sébastien Lenormand123
  • Compressed air vehicle and Pneumatic motor by Andraud and Tessie of Motay in Chaillot on July 9, 1840,124 improved by Louis Mékarski in 1843 in Nantes see Mekarski system and Compressed air car
  • Airplane :
    • First glider to fly higher than its point of departure, by Jean-Marie Le Bris in 1856125
    • first manned, powered, heavier-than-air flight of a significant distance on October 9, 1890 by Clément Ader126
    • first aileron built by Robert Esnault-Pelterie in 1904127 Modern design of ailerons by Henri Farman128
    • first aircraft design with the modern monoplane tractor configuration of aircraft by Louis Bleriot in 1908129130
    • In 1909, he completed the first flight across a large body of water in a heavier-than-air craft, when he crossed the English Channel131132133 He also is credited as the first person to make a working monoplane
  • Injector by Henri Giffard in 1858134
  • Internal combustion engine between 1859 and 1861 by Alphonse Beau de Rochas and Belgian-born Étienne Lenoir in Paris135
  • Submarine : The first submarine not relying on human power was the French Plongeur meaning diver, launched in 1863, and using compressed air at 180 psi 1241 kPa136
  • Bicycle in 1864 by Pierre Michaux and Pierre Lallement endless power-transmitting chain invented by Jacques de Vaucanson in 1770 and applied to bicycles by J F Tretz137138139
  • Gunpowder powered ornithopter by Gustave Trouvé in 1870140
  • First manned balloon mail during the Siege of Paris 1871
  • First outboard motorboat by Gustave Trouvé around 1870,141 patented in May 1880142
  • Inflatable tyres for cars by Édouard Michelin in 1895143
  • Scooter144 1902 and Moped
  • V8 engine by Léon Levavasseur in 1902145
  • Modern automobile Drum brake in 1902 by Louis Renault146
  • Helicopter : in 1907, the two first flying helicopters were experimented independently by Louis Breguet147 and Paul Cornu148
  • Seaplane by Gabriel Voisin in June 1905 non-autonomous and by Henri Fabre in 1910 autonomous : Fabre Hydravion149
  • Ramjet by René Lorin in 1913150
  • Catalytic converter by Eugene Houdry in 1956151152
  • Concorde by Aérospatiale and the British Aircraft Corporation 1969
  • HDI diesel engine in 1998 by PSA Peugeot Citroën

Clothingedit

Polo shirt outline
  • Bliaut in the 12th century153
  • French hood in the early 16th century154
  • Attifet in the 16th century155
  • Jacquard loom, a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801, that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with complex patterns such as brocade, damask, and matelasse156157
  • Denim Textile French town of Nîmes, from which 'denim' de Nîmes gets its name 158
  • The Sewing machine by Barthélemy Thimonnier in 1830159
  • Modern bra by Herminie Cadolle in 1889160
  • Little black dress by Coco Chanel in the 1920s,161162
  • Polo shirt by René Lacoste in 1926163164165166
  • Modern Bikini by Louis Réard in 1946167
  • classic modern pencil skirt by Christian Dior in the late 1940s168169
  • A-line by Yves Saint Laurent in 1958 term first used in 1955 by Christian Dior170
  • Modern Raincoat not to confuse with the older British trench-coat by Guy Cotten in 1960171

Food and cookingedit

Denis Papin's steam digester
  • Steam digester by Denis Papin in 1679172
  • Cafetiere : Percolation method used by Coffee percolator by Jean-Baptiste de Belloy in 1800 and the French press another method to make coffee173
  • Canning see above in the chemistry section
  • Absorption refrigerator by Ferdinand Carré in 1858174
  • Margarine by Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès in 1869175 after the discovery of margaric acid by Michel Eugène Chevreul in 1813176
  • Clementine in 1902 by Clément Rodier177
  • Food processor by Pierre Verdun between 1963 and 1971178
  • Crêpe179 List of French dishes
  • Coq au vin180
Baguette
  • Champagne181 and other French wines
  • 350 to 400 distinct types of French cheese : List of French cheeses
  • Baguette182
  • Cassoulet183
  • Foie gras182
  • Escargot
  • Frog legs
  • Ratatouille182
  • Camembert by Marie Harel

Weapons and militaryedit

Early-19th century socket bayonet
  • Bec de corbin, a popular medieval weapon
  • Motte-and-bailey, a form of castle184
  • The Pot-de-fer, a primitive cannon during the Hundred Years' War185
  • Culverin, ancestor of the musket186
  • Flintlock by Marin le Bourgeoys in 1612187
  • Corvette, a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship that appeared in the 1670s
  • Bayonet from French baïonnette188
  • Modern military uniform in the mid 17th century189
  • Floating battery, first used during the Great Siege of Gibraltar in September 1782190191
  • Mass conscription or Levée en masse during the French Revolution192
  • Corps by Napoleon in 1805193
  • Carabine à tige by Louis-Étienne de Thouvenin improvement of an earlier invention by Henri-Gustave Delvigne before 1844194
  • Minié rifle by Claude-Étienne Minié, first reliable easy to load muzzle-loading rifle in 1849195196 In the artillery, from 1859, the La Hitte rifled guns were a considerable improvement over the previous smooth-bore guns which had been in use,197 able to shoot at 3,000 meters either regulars shells, ball-loaded shells or grapeshot They appear to have been the first case of usage of rifled cannons on a battlefield198
  • First naval periscope in 1854 by Hippolyte Marié-Davy199200201202
  • Canne de combat and Savate
  • Épée, the modern derivative of the dueling sword, used for fencing
  • Chassepot by Antoine Alphonse Chassepot in 1866203
  • Smokeless gunpowder modern nitrocellulose-based : Poudre B by Paul Marie Eugène Vieille in 1884204205 It was first used to load the Lebel Model 1886 rifle invented by Nicolas Lebel, making it the first military firearm to use smokeless powder ammunition It is also the first rifle to use full metal jacket bullets as its standard ammunition
  • First Air force in 1910206
  • Sonar, first ultrasonic submarine detector using an electrostatic method and first practical military sonar in 1916-1917 by Paul Langevin with Constantin Chilowsky207
  • Tanks : developed at the same time 1915-1916 in France and in Great Britain France was the second country to use tanks on the battlefield after Great Britain in 1916, the first practical light tank, the Renault FT with the first full 360° rotation turret became, for armour historian Steven Zaloga "the world's first modern tank"208

Communication & Computersedit

A Chappe semaphore tower near Saverne, France Minitel
  • Optical Telegraph by Claude Chappe in 1792209210
  • Modern pencil by Nicolas-Jacques Conté in 1795211
  • Paper machine by Louis-Nicolas Robert in 1799212
  • Fresnel lens by Augustin-Jean Fresnel213
  • Jean-François Champollion first deciphered the Rosetta Stone 1822 : modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphs
  • Braille in 1825 by Louis Braille, a blind Frenchman:214 first digital form of writing215
  • Pencil sharpener by Bernard Lassimone in 1828216 Therry des Estwaux created an improved mechanical sharpener in 1847216
  • Baudot code by Émile Baudot in 1870217 and a multiplexed printing telegraph system that used his code and allowed multiple transmissions over a single line218
  • Coherer by Édouard Branly around 1890219220221
  • Belinograph Wirephoto by Édouard Belin in 1913222
  • Bic Cristal in 1949223224
  • Bézier curves by Paul de Casteljau in 1959225
  • Computer-aided manufacturing by Pierre Bézier in 1971 as an engineer at Renault226227
  • Micral, earliest commercial, non-kit personal computer based on a microprocessor, by André Truong Trong Thi and François Gernelle in June 1972228
  • Datagrams and CYCLADES in 1972-1973 by Louis Pouzin which inspired Bob Kahn and Vinton Cerf when they invented the TCP/IP several years later229
  • Smart Card by Roland Moreno230231 in 1974 after the automated chip card
  • Minitel, the birth and precursor of the Internet in 1980232
  • Camera phone by Philippe Kahn in 1997233234235
  • Several Programming languages non-exhaustive list :
    • Prolog Logic programming by a group around Alain Colmerauer in 1972 in Marseille236237
    • LSE, Langage Symbolique d'Enseignement, a French, pedagogical, programming language designed in the 1970s at Supélec238
    • Ada multi-paradigm by Jean Ichbiah who also created LIS and Green in 1980239
    • Caml OCaml by Xavier Leroy, Damien Doligez developed at INRIA and formerly at ENS since 1985240
    • Eiffel object-oriented by Bertrand Meyer in 1986241
    • STOS BASIC on the Atari ST in 1988 and AMOS BASIC on the Amiga in 1990 by François Lionet and Constantin Sotiropoulos dialects of BASIC242
  • Several keyboards :
    • AZERTY in the last decade of the 19th century243244
    • FITALY by Jean Ichbiah in 1996245
    • BÉPO since 2003246

Sportsedit

The Olympic Rings, the symbol of the modern Olympic Games, inspired by Pierre de Coubertin Main article: Sport in France
  • Jeu de paume, precursor of tennis, in the 12th century
  • The first autonomous diving suit, the precursor to today's scuba gear, is developed by Paul Lemaire d'Augerville in 1824
  • First documented cycling race, a 1,200 metre race held on May 31, 1868 at the Parc of Saint-Cloud, Paris247 The first cycle race covering a distance between two cities was Paris–Rouen see History of cycling248
  • FIFA World Cup by Jules Rimet, FIFA former president
  • UEFA Euro Cup by Henri Delaunay
  • Summer Olympic Games by Pierre de Coubertin
  • International Olympic Committee by Pierre de Coubertin on 23 June 1894249
  • On 22 July 1894 the newspaper Le Petit Journal organised the world's first competitive motor race from Paris to Rouen The first finisher was Count Jules-Albert de Dion but his steamer was ineligible, so the 'official' victory was awarded to Albert Lemaître driving his 3 hp petrol engined Peugeot
  • Pétanque in 1907250
  • Triathlon in the 1920s near Paris Joinville-le-Pont, Meulan and Poissy251
  • The Aqua-lung, first Scuba Set in open-circuit by Emile Gagnan and Jacques-Yves Cousteau in 1943252
  • Parkour in the 1980s by the future Yamakasi, especially David Belle253254
  • Flyboard in 2012 by Franky Zapata255 Another version, the Flyboard Air, an air-propelled hoverboard,256 achieved a Guinness World Record for farthest flight by hoverboard in April 2016257
  • Kitesurf aka flysurf in the 1990s by Manu Bertin and ski mountain derivatives
  • Wingsuit in the 1990s by Patrick de Gayardon
  • Vendée Globe since 1989 by Philippe Jeantot the first round-the-world single-handed yacht race, sailed non-stop and without assistance
  • Paris–Dakar Rally since 1978 by Thierry Sabine
  • Trophée Jules Verne since 1985 by Yves Le Cornec the fastest circumnavigation of the world under 80 days by any type of sailing yacht with no restrictions on the size of the crew
  • 24 Heures du Mans translated 24 Hours Le Mans since 1923 the world's oldest active sports car race in endurance racing
  • FIA Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile in 1904 translated International Automobile Federation

Miscellaneousedit

  • Detent escapement by Pierre Le Roy in 1748258259260
  • Carcel burner in 1800261
  • developments of battery
    • Dry cell battery by Gaston Planté in 1859 first practical storage lead-acid battery262
    • in 1866, Georges Leclanché patented the carbon-zinc wet cell battery called the Leclanché cell263
  • Interchangeable parts by Honoré Blanc264
  • Binoculars using roof prisms in 1870 by Achille Victor Emile Daubresse265266
  • Artificial Cement by Louis Vicat267
  • Hairdryer in 1879 by Alexandre Godefroy268
  • Modern Dry cleaning in 1855 by Jean Baptiste Jolly269
  • Reinforced concrete by Joseph Monier in 1849 and patented in 1867270
  • Loppers by Bertrand de Molleville
  • Guillotinecitation needed
  • Hydraulic Shock absorbercitation needed
  • Letterboxcitation needed
  • Modern Safecitation needed
  • Photolithographycitation needed
  • Power transformercitation needed
  • Flax spinning framecitation needed
  • Waste container by Eugène Poubellecitation needed
  • Ball bearing by Jules Suriray, a Parisian bicycle mechanic, on 3 August 1869271
  • Coronagraph by Bernard Lyot in 1930272
  • Criminology by Eugène François Vidocq273274
  • Stapler

See alsoedit

  • List of Dutch inventions and discoveries
  • List of German inventions and discoveries
  • List of Irish inventions and discoveries
  • List of Italian inventions
  • Scottish inventions and discoveries
  • List of Swedish inventions
  • List of Welsh inventors
  • List of Portuguese inventions and discoveries
  • Science in the Middle Ages
  • Science in the Age of Enlightenment

Referencesedit

  1. ^ History of Architecture Fiske Kimball, George Harold Edgell p275
  2. ^
    • Burgess, Geoffrey, and Bruce Haynes: 2004, The Oboe, The Yale Musical Instrument Series, New Haven, Connecticut and London: Yale University Press pp 27, 28, 102 ISBN 0-300-09317-9
    • Carse, Adam: 1965, Musical Wind Instruments: A History of the Wind Instruments Used in European Orchestras and Wind-Bands from the Later Middle Ages up to the Present Time New York: Da Capo Press p 120 ISBN 0-306-80005-5
  3. ^ Le Gonidec, Marie-Barbara "Carte géographique/ map of the origins of different bagpipes" Cornemuses d'Europe et de Méditerranée in French Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication/French Ministry of Culture and Communication Retrieved 27 January 2012 
  4. ^ Seeler, Oliver "The Universe Of Bagpipes" Retrieved 27 January 2012 
  5. ^ "A Brief History of the Metronome" Franz Manufacturing Company, Inc Retrieved 2010-04-02 
  6. ^ Kleiner, Fred 2010 Gardner's art through the ages: the western perspective Cengage Learning pp 583–584 ISBN 978-0-495-57355-5 Retrieved 21 February 2011 
  7. ^ Schiffer, Michael; Hollenback, Kasy; and Bell, Carrie 2003 Draw the Lightning Down: Benjamin Franklin and Electrical Technology In the Age of Enlightenment University of California Press ISBN 978-0-520-23802-2
  8. ^ Roulette Wheel Study, Ron Shelley, 1988
  9. ^ MIT, "Inventor of the Week Archive: Pascal : Mechanical Calculator", May 2003 "Pascal worked on many versions of the devices, leading to his attempt to create a perpetual motion machine He has been credited with introducing the roulette machine, which was a by-product of these experiments"
  10. ^ Parlett, David 1990 The Oxford guide to card games: a historical survey Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-214165-1 
  11. ^ Blackjack History
  12. ^ "The First Photograph - Heliography" Retrieved 2009-09-29 from Helmut Gernsheim's article, "The 150th Anniversary of Photography," in History of Photography, Vol I, No 1, January 1977: In 1822, Niépce coated a glass plate The sunlight passing through This first permanent example was destroyed some years later 
  13. ^ Boris Kossoy 2004 Hercule Florence: El descubrimiento de la fotografía en Brasil Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia ISBN 968-03-0020-X 
  14. ^ The Poitevin patents and the importance of using primary sources
  15. ^ Vogel, Shane 2000 "WHERE ARE WE NOW: Queer World Making and Cabaret Performance" GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies 6 1: 29 doi:101215/10642684-6-1-29 
  16. ^ "Movements of Air, Etienne-Jules Marey, Photographer of Fluids" Musée d'Orsay Retrieved 5 May 2011 
  17. ^ Rausch, Andrew 2004 Turning Points In Film History Citadel Press ISBN 978-0-8065-2592-1 
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    Original text : Avant que de finir ce Mémoire, je crois devoir rendre compte d'un fait que je dois au hasard, & qui me parut d'abord singulier j'en avois rempli une fiole cylindrique, longue de cinq pouces, & d'un pouce de diamètre ou environ ; & l'ayant couverte d'un morceau de vessie mouillée & ficelée au col du vaisseau, je l'avois plongée dans un grand vase plein d'eau, afin d'être sûr qu'il ne rentrât aucun air dans l'esprit de vin Au bout de cinq ou six heures, je fus tout surpris de voir que la fiole étoit plus pleine qu'au moment de son immersion, quoiqu'elle le fût alors autant que ses bords pouvoient le permettre ; la vessie qui lui servoit de bouchon, étoit devenue convexe & si tendue, qu’en la piquant avec une épingle, il en sortit un jet de liqueur qui s'éleva à plus d'un pied de hauteur

    Translation : Before finishing this memoir, I think I should report an event that I owe to chance and which at first seemed to me strange I filled with alcohol a cylindrical vial, five inches long and about one inch in diameter; and after having covered it with piece of damp bladder which was tied to the neck of the vial, I immersed it in a large bowl full of water, in order to be sure that no air re-entered the alcohol At the end of 5 or 6 hours, I was very surprised to see that the vial was fuller than at the moment of its immersion, although it had been filled as far as its sides would allow ; the bladder that served as its cap, bulged and had become so stretched that on pricking it with a needle, there came from it a jet of alcohol that rose more than a foot high

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