List of film formats
list of photographic film formats, list of film formatsThis list of film formats catalogues formats developed for shooting or viewing motion pictures, ranging from the Chronophotographe format from 1888, to mid20th century formats such as the 1953 CinemaScope format, to more recent formats such as the 1992 IMAX HD format To be included in this list, the formats must all have been used in the field or for test shooting, and they must all use photochemical images that are formed or projected on a film base, a transparent substrate which supports the photosensitive emulsion
As well, the formats must have been used to make more than just a few test frames The camera must be fast enough in frames per second to create an illusion of motion consistent with the persistence of vision phenomenon The format must be significantly unique from other listed formats in regard to its image capture or image projection The format characteristics should be clearly definable in several listed parameters e g, film gauge, aspect ratio, etc
Contents
 1 Legend
 2 Film formats
 3 See also
 4 Notes
 5 References
 6 Further reading
Legendedit
 Format is the name of the process; some formats may have multiple names in common usage
 Creator is the individual or company most directly attributable as the developer of the system
 Year created usually refers to the earliest date that the system was used to completion ie projection, but may refer to when it was developed if no known film was made
 First known film is the first film not including tests made with the format and intended for release
 Negative gauge is the film gauge width used for the original camera negative
 Negative aspect ratio is the image ratio determined by the ratio of the gate dimensions multiplied by the anamorphic power of the camera lenses 1x in the case of spherical lenses1
 Gate dimensions are the width and height of the camera gate aperture, and by extension the film negative frame
 Negative pulldown describes the film perforations per frame, the direction of film transport, and standard frame speed Film transport is assumed to be vertical unless otherwise noted, and standard frame speed is assumed to be 24 frames per second unless the film is otherwise noted or has no standard Silent film has no standard speed; many amateur formats have several common speeds, but no standard
 Negative lenses indicates whether spherical normal or anamorphic lenses are used on the original camera negative, and if anamorphic lenses, what anamorphic power is used
 Projection gauge is the film gauge width used for the release print
 Projection aspect ratio is the image ratio determined by the ratio of the projection dimensions multiplied by the anamorphic power of the projection lenses 1x in the case of spherical lenses This is also known as the intended theatrical aspect ratio1
 Projection dimensions are the width and height of the projector aperture plate, and by extension the film frame area which is projected The aperture plate always very slightly crops the frame
 Projection lenses indicates whether spherical normal or anamorphic lenses are used on the projector, and if anamorphic lenses, what anamorphic power is used
Formats are listed in chronological order and by release date in the case of multiple formats within one year, if this can be determined Undated formats are listed at the bottom in alphabetical order
Film formatsedit
The table does not cover 3D film systems or color film systems, nor is it wellsuited to emphasize the differences between those systemsFormat  Creator  Est  First known work  Negative gauge  Negative A/R1  Gate dims  Negative pulldown  Negative lenses  Projection gauge  Projection A/R1  Projection dims  Projection lenses 

Chronophotographe 2  ÉtienneJules Marey  1888  motion analysis studies  90 mm  100  3543" x 3543"  unperforated  spherical 


Paperfilm3  Louis Le Prince  1888  Roundhay Garden Scene  54 mm or 635 mm  100  perforated  spherical  54 mm or 635 mm  100  spherical


Chronophotographic  Wm FrieseGreene  1889  54 mm  irregular perfs  spherical 


Kinesigraph  Wordsworth Donisthorpe  1889  view of Trafalgar Square  68 mm  100  unperforated  spherical 


Kinetoscope cylinder  Wm Dickson & T Edison  1889 or 1890  Monkeyshines, No 1  strip rolled around a cylinder  unperforated  spherical  strip rolled around a cylinder  spherical


Kinetoscope horizontal  Wm Dickson & William Heise  1891  Dickson Greeting  19 mm  1 perf, 1 side, horizontal  spherical  19 mm, horizontal  spherical


Silent film standard  Wm Dickson & T Edison  1892  Blacksmith Scene  35 mm  133  0980" x 0735"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm  133  0931" x 0698"  spherical

Bioscop  Max Skladanowsky  1892  footage of Emil Skladanowsky  54 mm  unperforated camera; 4 perf, 2 sides projection  spherical  54 mm two strips interleaved  spherical


Acres 704  Birt Acres  1894  The Henley Royal Regatta of 1894  70 mm  138  2750" x 2000"  spherical  70 mm  spherical


Eidoloscope5  Woodville Latham  1895  GriffoBarnett Prize Fight  51 mm  185  1457" x 0787"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  51 mm  185  spherical


Cinematographe  Lumière Brothers  1895  La Sortie des Usines Lumiere  35 mm  133  0980" x 0735"  1 perf, 2 sides rounded  spherical  35 mm  133  spherical


Biograph  Herman Casler  1895  Sparring Contest at Canastota  68 mm  135  2625" x 1938"  1 perf, 2 sides punched incamera  spherical  68 mm  spherical


JolyNormandin  Henri Joly  1895  60 mm  5 perf, 2 sides  spherical  60 mm  spherical


Biographe  DemenyGaumont  1896  60 mm  140  1750" x 1250"  unperforated  spherical  60 mm  140  spherical


Chronophotographe  DemenyGaumont  1896  60 mm  140  1750" x 1250"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  60 mm  140  spherical


SivanDalphin  Casimir Sivan and E Dalphin  1896  38 mm  2 perf, 2 sides  spherical  38 mm  spherical


Veriscope  Enoch Rector  1897  The CorbettFitzsimmons Fight  63 mm  166  1875" x 1125"  5 perf, 2 sides  spherical  63 mm  spherical


Viventoscope  Thomas Henry Blair  1897  48 mm  150  1500" x 1000"  1 perf  spherical  48 mm  spherical


Birtac  Birt Acres  1898  unknown amateur format  175 mm  2 perf, 1 side  spherical  175 mm  spherical


Biokam  T C Hepworth  1899  unknown amateur format  175 mm  160  0630" x 0394"  1 perf, center  spherical  175 mm  spherical


Prestwich 13 mm  John Alfred Prestwich  1899  unknown amateur format  13 mm  spherical  13 mm  spherical


Mirograph  Reulos, Goudeau & Co  1900  unknown amateur format  21 mm  1 notch, 2 sides  spherical  21 mm  spherical


Lumiere Wide  Lumière Brothers  1900  75 mm  133  2362" x 1772"  8 perf, 2 sides  spherical  75 mm  133  spherical


Cinéorama  R GrimoinSanson  1900  Cinéorama  70 mm x 10 cameras 360°  4 perf  spherical  70 mm x 10 projectors 360°  spherical


La Petite Hughes  WC Hughes  1900  unknown amateur format  175 mm  160  0630" x 0394"  1 perf, center smaller and less rectangular than Biokam  spherical  175 mm  spherical


Pocket Chrono  Gaumont Demeny  1900  unknown amateur format  15 mm  1 perf, center  spherical  15 mm  spherical


Vitak  William Wardell  1902  unknown amateur format  no standard  no standard  no standard  1 perf, center  spherical  11 mm  spherical


Home Kinetoscope  Edison  1912  unknown amateur format  no standard  no standard  no standard  no standard  spherical  22 mm, 2 perf on frameline between frame rows  15  0236" x 0157" three frames across width  spherical

Pathe Kok  Pathé  1912  unknown amateur format  28 mm  136  0748" x 0551"  3 perf on one side, 1 perf on the other  spherical  28 mm  spherical


Duoscope  Alexander F Victor  1912  unknown amateur format  175 mm  2 perfs, center  spherical  175 mm  spherical


Panoramico4  Filoteo Alberini  1914  Il sacco di Roma  70 mm  252  5 perf, 2 sides  spherical  70 mm  spherical


Split Duplex  Duplex Corporation  1915  35 mm  133  0980" x 0735"  4 perf, 2 sides shooting  spherical  35 mm  187  0735" x 0394"  spherical split image 90° rotated


11 mm  American  1916  unknown amateur format  11 mm  1 perf, center  spherical  11 mm  spherical


Movette  Movette Camera Company  1917  unknown amateur format  175 mm  2 perfs, 2 sides rounded  spherical  175 mm  spherical


28 mm safety standard  Alexander F Victor  1918  unknown amateur format  28 mm  136  0748" x 0551"  3 perf, 2 sides  spherical  28 mm  spherical


Clou  Austrian  1920  unknown amateur format  175 mm  2 perf, 2 sides  spherical  175 mm  spherical


26 mm  French  1920  unknown amateur format  26 mm  1 perf, 1 side  spherical  26 mm  spherical


95 mm  Pathé  1922  unknown amateur format  95 mm  131  0335" x 0256"  1 perf, center  spherical  95 mm  131  0315" x 0242"  spherical

Phonofilm  Lee De Forest  1922  Barking Dog and Flying Jenny Airplane  35 mm  133  0980" x 0735"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm  117  0826" x 0708"  spherical

Widescope6  John D Elms & George W Bingham  1922  35 mm x 2 both in same camera  0980" x 0735"  133 x 2 negatives  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical one lens per strip  35 mm x 2 projectors  266  0931" x 0698"  spherical


Cinebloc  Ozaphan  1922  unknown amateur format  22 mm  2 perf, 2 sides  spherical  22 mm  spherical


TriErgon soundfilm6  TriErgon  1922  35 mm  133  0980" x 0735"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  42 mm  133  0931" x 0698"  spherical


16 mm7  Eastman Kodak  1923  unknown amateur format  16 mm  137  0404" x 0295"  1 perf, 1 or 2 sides  spherical  16 mm  137  0378" x 0276"  spherical

Duplex  GJ Bradley  1923  unknown amateur format  11 mm  2 perf, 2 sides rounded  spherical  115 mm  spherical


AlberiniHill  Corrado Cerqua  1924  35 mm  166  1575" x 0945" curved  10 perf, 2 sides, horizontal  spherical, on 65° revolving drum  35 mm  spherical


Cinelux  Ozaphan  1924  unknown amateur format  24 mm  spherical  24 mm  spherical


48 mm  JH Powrie  1924  48 mm  132  1969" x 1496"  horizontal  spherical  35 mm  133  0931" x 0698"  spherical


Natural Vision8  George K Spoor & P John Berggren  1925  Niagara Falls and Rollercoaster Ride  635 mm  184  2060" x 1120"  6 perf, 2 sides, 20 frame/s  spherical  635 mm  200  spherical


13 mm  French  1925  unknown amateur format  13 mm  4 perf, center  spherical  13 mm  spherical


18 mm  Russian  1925  unknown amateur format  18 mm  1 perf, 2 sides  spherical  18 mm  spherical


Pathe Rural  Pathé  1926  unknown amateur format  175 mm  135 silent; 130 sound  0516" x 0382" silent; 0445" x 0343" sound  1 perf, 2 sides  spherical  175 mm  133 silent; 126 sound  0472" x 0354" silent; 0445" x 0343" sound  spherical

Widevision6  John D Elms & George W Bingham  1926  Natural Vision Pictures  57 mm  5 perf, 2 sides  spherical  57 mm  spherical


Magnascope4  Lorenzo del Riccio  1926  Old Ironsides  35 mm  133  0980" x 0735"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm  133  0931" x 0698"  spherical selected scenes projected using a wider lens for larger picture

Fox Movietone  F H Owens, T Case, TriErgon  1927  Sunrise  35 mm  133  0980" x 0735"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm  117  0826" x 0708"  spherical

Polyvision9  Abel Gance  1927  Napoléon  35 mm x 3 cameras  133 x 3 negatives  0980" x 0735"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm x 3 projectors  400  0931" x 0698"  spherical

Hypergonar  Henri Chrétien  1927  Pour construire un feu  35 mm  266  0980" x 0735"  4 perf, 2 sides  2x anamorphic  35 mm  266  0931" x 0698"  2x anamorphic

Magnafilm10  Lorenzo del Riccio  1929  You're in the Army Now  56 mm  219  1620" x 0740"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  56 mm  200  spherical


Fox Grandeur10  Fox Film Corporation  1929  Fox Grandeur News and Fox Movietone Follies of 1929  70 mm  207  1890" x 0913"  4 perf, 2 sides, 20 frame/s before 1930  spherical  70 mm  200  1768" x 0885"  spherical

Fearless Super Pictures11  Ralph G Fear  1929  35 mm  227  1813" x 0800"  10 perfs, 2 sides, horizontal  spherical  35 mm, horizontal  spherical


Fearless SuperFilm / Magnifilm / Fox Vitascope12  Ralph G Fear  1930  Kismet  65 mm  200  1811" x 0906"  5 perf, 2 sides  spherical  65 mm  205  1772" x 0866"  spherical

Realife11  MGM  1930  Billy the Kid  70 mm  207  1890" x 0913"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm  175  0904" x 0517"  spherical

50 mm13  Fox Film Corporation & SMPE  1930  50 mm  180  1325" x 0735"  spherical  50 mm  180  1305" x 0725"  spherical


17 mm sound  French  1930  unknown amateur format  17 mm  1 perf, 1 side  spherical  17 mm  spherical


Giant Expanding Pictures  George Palmer  1930  35 mm  133  0980" x 0735"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm  117  0826" x 0708"  spherical with a special projection zoom lens zooming wider and opening masking for key sequences


Kodel Kemco Homovie  Clarence Ogden  1931  unknown amateur format  16 mm  4 sequential images per frame  1 perf, 2 sides  spherical  16 mm  spherical


Academy format14  AMPAS  1932  35 mm  1375 commonly abbreviated to 137  0868″ × 0631″  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm  137  0825″ × 0600″  spherical


8 mm  Eastman Kodak  1932  unknown amateur format  16 mm  132  0192" x 0145"  1 perf, 1 side using 16 mm film with twice as many perfs  spherical  8 mm  133  0172" x 0129"  spherical

Straight 8  Bell & Howell  1935  unknown amateur format  8 mm  132  0192" x 0145"  1 perf, 1 side  spherical  8 mm  133  0172" x 0129"  spherical

Vitarama  Fred Waller  1939  16 mm x 11 cameras  137 x 11 negatives  0404" x 0295"  1 perf, 2 sides  spherical  16 mm x 11 projectors  hemispherical view  0378" x 0276"  spherical


Waller Flexible Gunnery Trainer  Fred Waller  1943  US Air Force interactive training exercise  35 mm x 5 cameras  137 x 5 negatives  0866" x 0630"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm x 5 projectors  hemispherical view  0825" x 0602"  spherical

Cinerama15  Fred Waller  1952  This is Cinerama  35 mm x 3 cameras  259 3 x negatives  0996" x 1116"  6 perf, 2 sides at 26 frame/s  spherical  35 mm x 3 projectors, with 6 perf pulldown  259, with 146° curved screen  0985" x 1088"  spherical

Matted 16614  Paramount  1953  Shane  35 mm  137  0866" x 0630"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm  166  0825" x 0497"  spherical

Matted 18514  Universal  1953  Thunder Bay  35 mm  137  0866" x 0630"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm  185  0825" x 0446"  spherical

Matted 175  MGM  1953  Arena  35 mm  137  0866" x 0630"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm  175  0825" x 0471"  spherical

Cinemascope16  20th Century Fox  1953  The Robe  35 mm  255 1953–57; 235 1957–67  0937" x 0735" 1953–57; 0868" x 0735" 1957–67  4 perf, 2 sides  2x anamorphic  35 mm  255 1953–57; 235 1957–67  0912" x 0715" 1953–57; 0839" x 0715" 1957–67  2x anamorphic

Arnoldscope17  John Arnold  1953  35 mm  10 perf, 2 sides, horizontal  spherical 


VistaVision18  Paramount  1954  White Christmas  35 mm  151  1495" x 0991"  8 perf, 2 sides, horizontal  spherical  35 mm, 4 perf, vertical  185  0825" x 0446"  spherical

VistaVision Large Area1819  Paramount  1954  White Christmas  35 mm  151  1495" x 0991"  8 perf, 2 sides, horizontal  spherical  35 mm, 8 perf, horizontal  196  1418" x 0723"  spherical

Superscope20  Tushinsky Brothers  1954  Vera Cruz  35 mm  133  0980" x 0735"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm  200  0715" x 0715"  2x anamorphic

Circarama21  Disney  1955  A Tour of the West  16 mm x 11 cameras  137 x 11 negatives  0404" x 0295"  1 perf, 2 sides  spherical  16 mm x 11 projectors  360°  0378" x 0276"  spherical

ToddAO2223  Michael Todd  1955  Oklahoma  65 mm  229  2072" x 0906"  5 perfs, 2 sides, at 30 frame/s  spherical  70 mm  221, with 120° curved screen  1912" x 0870"  spherical

CinemaScope 5524  20th Century Fox  1955  Carousel  55 mm  255  1824" x 1430"  8 perfs, 2 sides  2x anamorphic  35 mm  255  0912" x 0715"  2x anamorphic

95 Duplex25  Pathé Fréres  1955  95 mm  151  41 mm x 62 mm  2 central perforations in a 95mm film  spherical  475 mm  spherical, rotated 90°


8 mm Panoramic26  Dimaphot, Paris  1955  16 mm  15  5 mm x 75 mm  1 perf, 2 sides  spherical  8 mm  spherical, rotated 90°


Emel Panoscope27  Emel, Paris  1955  16 mm  27  35 mm x 96 mm  2 perf, 2 sides  spherical  16 mm  spherical


Technirama28  Technicolor  1956  The Monte Carlo Story  35 mm  226  1496" x 0992"  8 perf, 2 sides, horizontally  15x anamorphic  35 mm, 4 perf vertical  235  0839" x 0715"  2x anamorphic

Technirama Large Area28  Technicolor  1956  The Monte Carlo Story  35 mm  226  1496" x 0992"  8 perf, 2 sides, horizontally  15x anamorphic  35 mm, 8 perf horizontal  242  1421" x 0881"  15x anamorphic

Dynamic Frame29  Glenn Alvey  1956  The Door in the Wall  35 mm  13, 16, and 25  variable aperture plates  8 perf, 2 sides, horizontally  spherical  35 mm, 4 perf, vertical  13, 15, and 25  spherical


Superscope 23520  Superscope Inc  1956  Run for the Sun  35 mm  133  0980" x 0735"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm  235  0839" x 0715"  2x anamorphic

Thrillarama30  Albert H Reynolds  1956  Thrillarama Adventure  35 mm x 2 cameras  178 x 2 negatives  3 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm x 2 projectors  355, with a curved screen  spherical


Magirama9  Abel Gance  1956  Magirama  35 mm x 3 cameras sides bounced off mirrors  133 x 3 negatives  0980" x 0735"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm x 3 projectors sides bounced off mirrors  400  0931" x 0698"  spherical

MGM Camera 65  Panavision  1957  Raintree County  65 mm  276  2072" x 0906"  5 perf, 2 sides  125x anamorphic  70 mm  276  1912" x 0870"  125x anamorphic

Ultra Panavision31  Panavision  1962  Mutiny on the Bounty  65 mm  276  2072" x 0906"  5 perf, 2 sides  125x anamorphic  70 mm  276  1912" x 0870"  125x anamorphic

Cinestage32  Mike Todd  1957  Around the World in 80 Days  65 mm  229  2072" x 0906"  5 perfs, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm 1 mm shaved off for UK prints  212  0912" x 0675"  1567x anamorphic

Rank VistaVision  J Arthur Rank Organization  1957  35 mm  151  1495" x 0991"  8 perf, 2 sides, horizontally  spherical  35 mm, 4 perf, vertical  182  0825" x 0602"  133x anamorphic


Modern anamorphic33  Panavision  1958  The Female Animal  35 mm  237  0866" x 0732"  4 perf, 2 sides  2x anamorphic  35 mm  235 1957–70; 239 1970–present  0839" x 0715" 1957–70; 0838" x 07" 1970–93; 0825" x 0690" 1993–present  2x anamorphic

Kinopanorama34  NIKFI  1958  Great Is My Country  35 mm x 3 cameras  091 x 3 negatives  1014" x 1116"  6 perf, 2 sides, at 25 frame/s  spherical  35 mm x 3 projectors  272  0985" x 1088"  spherical

70 mm2235  American Optical Company  1958  South Pacific  65 mm  228  2066" x 0906"  5 perfs, 2 sides  spherical  70 mm  221  1912" x 087"  spherical

Cinemiracle36  National Theatres  1958  Windjammer  35 mm x 3 cameras sides bounced off mirrors  089 x 3 negatives  0996" x 1116"  6 perf, 2 sides at 26 frame/s  spherical  35 mm x 3 projectors sides bounced off mirrors, with 6 perf pulldown  259, with 120° curved screen  0985" x 1088"  spherical

Super Technirama28  Technicolor  1959  Sleeping Beauty  35 mm  226  1496" x 0992"  8 perf, 2 sides, horizontally  15x anamorphic  70 mm  221  1912" x 0816"  spherical

SmithCarney System37  Rowe E Carney Jr and Tom F Smith  1959  Missouri travelogue  35 mm  469  0839" x 0370" bottom half and 0449" x 0370" top quarters  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical x 3  35 mm  469  three subframes projected to one 180° image  spherical x 3

Circular Kinopanorama / Circlorama38  E Goldovsky  1959  The Path of Spring  35 mm x 11 cameras  137 x 11 negatives  0866" x 0630"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm x 11 projectors  360°  0825" x 0602"  spherical

Varioscope39  Jan Jacobsen  1959  Flying Clipper  65 mm  228  2066" x 0906"  5 perfs, 2 sides  spherical  70 mm  variable framing run through control signal  1912" x 087"  spherical

Quadravision40  Ford Motor Company  1959  Design for Suburban Living showtent  mm x 4 cameras  x 4 negatives  spherical  mm x 4 projectors  4 images in 2x2 configuration  spherical


Techniscope41  Technicolor  1960  The Pharaoh's Woman  35 mm  233  0868" x 0373"  2 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm  239  0838" x 07"  2x anamorphic

Wonderama Arc 12042  Leon W Wells  1960  Honeymoon  no standard  no standard  no standard  no standard  no standard  35 mm  250 with a 120° curved screen  0931" x 0698", with two halfimages turned 90° and placed sidebyside  spherical x 2

Cine System 34344  Eric Berndt  1960  USAF and NASA usage  3 mm  1 perf, centered  spherical 


Grandeur 7045  20th Century Fox  1961  The King and I rerelease  55 mm  255  1824" x 1430"  8 perfs, 2 sides  2x anamorphic  70 mm  221  1912" x 087"  spherical

Cinerama 36042  Cinerama Corporation  1962  Journey to the Stars  65 mm  100 circle  225" diameter circular image  10 perf, 2 sides  fisheye  70 mm  100 circle  225" diameter circular image  spherical

Super 8  Eastman Kodak  1965  unknown amateur format  8 mm  148  0245" x 0166"  1 perf, 1 side  spherical  8 mm  136  0215" x 0158"  spherical

Real Sound46  Kenner  1965  no standard  no standard  no standard  1 perf, 1 side  spherical  115 mm  133  0172" x 0129"  spherical


Double Super 847  Eastman Kodak  1965  unknown amateur format  16 mm  148  0245" x 0166"  1 perf, 1 side using 16 mm film with twice as many perfs  spherical  8 mm  136  0215" x 0158"  spherical

Single848  Fujifilm  1966  unknown amateur format  8 mm  136  0224" x 0164"  1 perf, 1 side  spherical  8 mm  135  0213" x 0157"  spherical

Dimension 15049  American Optical Company  1966  The Bible: In the Beginning  65 mm  228  2066" x 0906"  5 perfs, 2 sides  spherical  70 mm  221, with 150° curved screen  1912" x 087", optically curved to compensate for the screen  spherical

Circle Vision 36038  Disney  1967  America the Beautiful  35 mm x 9 cameras  137 x 9 negatives  0866" x 0630"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm x 9 projectors  360°  0825" x 0602"  spherical

875 mm50  Shanghai Film Projection Equipment Factory  1968  unknown amateur format  1 perf  spherical  875 mm  spherical


Astrovision51  Goto Optical  1969  65 mm  10 perf, 2 sides  spherical or fisheye  70 mm  fisheye dome projection


IMAX52  IMAX Corporation  1970  Tiger Child  70 mm  134  2772" x 2072"  15 perf, 2 sides, horizontally  spherical  70 mm, horizontal  131  2692" x 2056"  spherical

Super 16 mm film7  Rune Ericson  1970  Blushing Charlie  16 mm  166  0493" x 0292"  1 perf, 1 side  spherical  no standard, but often blown up to 35 mm  no standard  0463" x 0279" full frame; 0463" x 0251" framed for 185  spherical

PikaMovie53  Leon W Wells  1972  no standard  no standard  no standard  no standard  no standard  70 mm, horizontal, 1 perf, 2 sides  148  0245" x 0166", 12 rows high, underneath 12 rows of optical sound  spherical


OMNIMAX54  IMAX Corporation  1973  Garden Isle  70 mm  134  2772" x 2072"  15 perf, 2 sides, horizontally  special fisheye lenses optically centered 037" above film horizontal center line  70 mm, horizontal  131  2692" x 2056"  spherical, projected elliptically on a dome screen, 20 degrees below and 110 degrees above perfectly centered viewers

8/70 Dynavision, Iwerks 87055  Dynavision  1973  65 mm  137  2031" x 1484"  8 perf, 2 sides, 24 or 30 frame/s  spherical  70 mm  134  1913" x 1431"  spherical


Showscan56  Douglas Trumbull  1978  Night of Dreams  65 mm  228  2066" x 0906"  5 perfs, 2 sides, at 60 frame/s  spherical  70 mm, at 60 frame/s  221  1912" x 087"  spherical

Polavision57  Polaroid Corporation  1978  unknown amateur format  8 mm  148  0245" x 0166"  1 perf, 1 side  spherical  8 mm  136  0215" x 0158"  spherical

Cinema 18058  Omni Films  1979  Crazy Wheels  65 mm  228  2066" x 0906"  5 perfs, 2 sides, 30 frame/s  fisheye  70 mm  180°, on a dome  1912" x 087"  fisheye

Super 3559  Joe Dunton  1982  Dance Craze  35 mm  133  0980" x 0735"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm  no standard  no standard  no standard

Circle Vision 20060  Disney  1982  Impressions de France  35 mm x 5 cameras  137 x 5 negatives  0866" x 0630"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm x 5 projectors  685, on a 200° screen  0825" x 0602"  spherical

Swissorama 360 / Imagine 36061  Ernst A Heiniger  1984  Impressions of Switzerland  65 mm  360°  191" outer edge, 120" inner edge  10 perf, 2 sides  360° x 35° extreme fisheye  70 mm  360°  360° x 35° extreme fisheye


Super Duper 8 / Max 8 / Super 8B6263  Mitch Perkins & Greg Miller  mid 1980s  Sleep Always 2002  8 mm  151  0250" x 0166"  1 perf, 1 side  spherical  8 mm  no standard  no standard  spherical

3perf64  Rune Ericson  1987  Pirates of the Lake  35 mm  179  0980" x 0546"  3 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm  no standard  no standard  no standard

Super VistaVision65  Paramount  1989  The Ten Commandments rerelease  35 mm  151  1495" x 0991"  8 perf, 2 sides, horizontal  spherical  70 mm  221  1912" x 087"  spherical

Kinoton HDFS66  Kinoton  1990  no standard  no standard  no standard  no standard  no standard  35 mm  200  0931" x 0698"  15x anamorphic


IMAX Magic Carpet67  IMAX Corporation  1990  Flowers in the Sky  70 mm x 2 cameras  134  2772" x 2072"  15 perf, 2 sides, horizontally  spherical  70 mm, horizontal x 2 projectors  131 x 2 screens one in front, one below  2692" x 2056"  spherical

Iwerksphere68  Iwerks  1991  65 mm  137  2031" x 1484"  8 perf, 2 sides, 24 or 30 frame/s  fisheye  70 mm  134  1913" x 1431"  fisheye


IMAX HD69  IMAX Corporation  1992  Asteroid Adventure  70 mm  134  2772" x 2072"  15 perf, 2 sides, horizontally, 48 frame/s  spherical  70 mm, horizontal  131  2692" x 2056"  spherical

Hexiplex 70  Australian  1992  Expo '92 demo  35 mm x 6 cameras  137 x 6 negatives  0866" x 0630"  4 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm x 6 projectors  360°, with rotating screens and projectors  0825" x 0602"  spherical

Ultra Toruscope71  Mac McCarney  1992  35 mm x 3 cameras  137 x 3 negatives  0866" x 0630"  4 perf, 2 sides, at 30 frame/s  spherical  70 mm x 3 projectors, at 30 frame/s  360°  1912" x 087"  spherical


Imagination FX 701213  GeoOdyssey  1992  35 mm  208  2040" x 0980"  12 perf, 2 sides, horizontal  spherical  70 mm  221  1912" x 087"  spherical


Univisium72  Vittorio Storaro  1998  Tango  35 mm  200  0945" x 0472"  3 perf, 2 sides at 25 frame/s  spherical  35 mm  200  spherical


Maxivision73  Dean Goodhill  1999  35 mm  179  0980" x 0546"  3 perf, 2 sides  spherical  35 mm, 3 perf  185  spherical


Maxivision 4873  Dean Goodhill  1999  35 mm  179  0980" x 0546"  3 perf, 2 sides, 48 frame/s  spherical  35 mm, 3 perf, 48 frame/s  185  spherical


Super Dimension 7074  Robert Weisgerber  1999  65 mm  228  2066" x 0906"  5 perfs, 2 sides, at 48 frame/s  spherical  70 mm, at 48 frame/s  221  1912" x 087"  spherical


FuturVision 36051  65 mm  152  2066" x 0906"  5 perfs, 2 sides, 30 frame/s  15x vertical anamorphic  70 mm  147  1912" x 087"  15x vertical anamorphic


MiniMax75  Vistascope  35 mm  266  2 perf, 2 sides, 30 frame/s  spherical  35 mm  266  spherical


MotionMaster76  Omni Films  65 mm  228  2066" x 0906"  5 perfs, 2 sides, 30 frame/s  spherical  70 mm  221, on a curved screen  1912" x 087"  spherical


Rowfilm77  R Thun  35 mm  20 rows of images wide  spherical  spherical


Septorama51  mm x 7 cameras  133 x 7 negatives  spherical  mm x 7 projectors  hemispherical view  spherical


Single Cinerama78  Fred Waller  35 mm  curved gate  16 perf, 2 sides, horizontal  spherical  35 mm, horizontal  curved screen  spherical


Soviet 1079  65 mm  10 perf, 2 sides  2x anamorphic  70 mm  209  1890" x 1811"  2x anamorphic


Vario3579  35 mm  spherical  35 mm  variable framing run through control signal  0835" x 0713" full; 0835" x 0453" 184; 0709" x 0524" 135; 0614" x 0614" 100; 0535" x 0713" 075  spherical


Vario35A79  35 mm  35 mm  variable framing run through control signal  0835" x 0713"  variable anamorphic 2x for 235; 157x for 185; 117x for 137; 085x for 100; 064x for 075; 05x for 059


Vario7079  65 mm  10 perfs, 2 sides  spherical  70 mm  variable framing run through control signal  1890" x 1811" full; 1890" x 0803" 235; 1673" x 0906" 185; 1441" x 1051" 137; 1232" x 1232" 100; 1063" x 1429" 074; 0945" x 1604" 059; 0839" x 1811" 046  spherical


Format  Creator  Est  First known work  Negative gauge  Negative A/R1  Gate dims  Negative pulldown  Negative lenses  Projection gauge  Proj A/R1  Projection dims  Projection lenses 
See alsoedit
 List of anamorphic format trade names
 Color motion picture film
 List of film sound systems
Notesedit
 ^ a b c d e f Strictly speaking, aspect ratios for film are always expressed as the ratio of 1 and are formatted as x:y, eg 185:1 However, in the interest of formatting, the aspect ratios listed will assume the ratio of 1 and omit the :1 suffix
 ^ Burns, RW, Television: An International History of the Formative Years, p 71, Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1991
 ^ Scott, E Kilburn, "The Career of L A A Le Prince", Adventures in Cybersound Retrieved 20080517
 ^ a b c Sherlock, p 3
 ^ Hiller, John "Film History for the Public: The First National Movie Machine Collection", Film History, v 11, n 3, p 373 Indiana University Press, 1999
 ^ a b c Sherlock, p 40
 ^ a b Hummel, p 16
 ^ Sherlock, p 56
 ^ a b Sherlock, p 4
 ^ a b Sherlock, p 5
 ^ a b Sherlock, p 6
 ^ Sherlock, p 67
 ^ a b Sherlock, p 59
 ^ a b c Hummel, p 10
 ^ Hart, Cinerama Specs
 ^ Hart, CinemaScope Specs and Of Apertures and Aspect Ratios
 ^ Hart, Ultra Panavision, p 1
 ^ a b Hart, VistaVision Specs
 ^ Sherlock, p 27
 ^ a b Hart, SuperScope Specs
 ^ Sherlock, p 1920
 ^ a b Even after slowing down the frame rate from 30 to 24 frame/s, Todd AO productions retained the use of the same trade name on the 24 frame/s films There is no difference between 24 frame/s Todd AO, Super Panavision, and what is otherwise referred to as standard 65/70 mm
 ^ Hart, Todd AO Specs
 ^ Hart, CinemaScope Specs
 ^ PatriceHervé Pont, Jean Loup Princelle: 50 Ans de Caméras Françaises, Le Reve Édition, Ondrevill sur Essone, France, 2007, ISBN 2952252130, > page num 107
 ^ PatriceHervé Pont, Jean Loup Princelle: 50 Ans de Caméras Françaises, Le Reve Édition, Ondrevill sur Essone, France, 2007, ISBN 2952252130, > page num 51
 ^ PatriceHervé Pont, Jean Loup Princelle: 50 Ans de Caméras Françaises, Le Reve Édition, Ondrevill sur Essone, France, 2007, ISBN 2952252130, > page num 59
 ^ a b c Hart, Technirama Specs
 ^ Sherlock, p 58
 ^ Hart, Thrillarama
 ^ Hart, Ultra Panavision Specs
 ^ Sherlock, p 31
 ^ Hummel, p 13
 ^ Sherlock, p 1112
 ^ Hummel, p 17
 ^ Hart, Cinemiracle Specs
 ^ Hart, The SmithCarney System
 ^ a b Sherlock, p 19
 ^ Fromm, Gerhard "The Work of Jan Jacobsen", in 70mm: The 70mm Newsletter, Issue 57 June 1999 Retrieved 20081201
 ^ Nilsen, Sarah Dawn Projecting America: Films at the Brussels World's Fair of 1958, p 96 University of Southern California Press, 2000
 ^ Hart, Techniscope Specs
 ^ a b Sherlock, p 18
 ^ Nystrom
 ^ National Film and Sound Archive, Technical Glossary of Common Audiovisual Terms, "Film Gauges" Retrieved 20081201
 ^ Hart, CinemaScope, p 6
 ^ Rogge, "From 3 to 75mm"
 ^ Rogge, "Super/single 8 and super 16"; Baumgarten, Martin W "A Short History of Small Gauge Movie Films", 2000 Retrieved 20100225
 ^ "Viewpoint Japan", The British Journal of Photography, December 3, 1965, p 1050
 ^ Sherlock, p 1718
 ^ Clark, Paul The Chinese Cultural Revolution: A History, p 146 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008
 ^ a b c Sherlock, p 37
 ^ Hummel, p 18
 ^ "PikAMovie", British Kinematography Sound and Television, August 1973 Retrieved 20080707
 ^ Hummel, p 1819
 ^ Hummel, p 19
 ^ Sherlock, p 39
 ^ Giambarba, Paul The Branding of Polaroid 19571977, Chapter 18, 20040901 Retrieved 20080707
 ^ Aridi, Sal "Large Format Cinematography", Operating Cameraman, July/December 2000 Retrieved 20080707
 ^ Hummel, p 11
 ^ Sherlock, p 20
 ^ Piccolin, Lukas "AllAround Cinema", in70mmcom, 20041001 Retrieved 20080707
 ^ Vigeant, Phil Technical schematic drawings of Max8 format, Pro8mm, 20051109
 ^ http://wwwfriendlyfirefilmscom/liftarticlehtml
 ^ Hummel, p 20
 ^ "Upcoming Rerelease of Vertigo", Los Angeles Times, 19960616 Retrieved 20080707
 ^ Lobban, Grant "Widescreen and 3D Formats Wallchart", BKSTS year unknown
 ^ Schwartzberg, Schlomo "IMAX: Oscar nominated Canadian company on the leading edge of technology" Archived 20090215 at the Wayback Machine, Performing Arts and Entertainment in Canada, Spring 1993 Retrieved 20080707
 ^ Katz, Stephen Douglas Film Directing Shot by Shot: Visualizing from Concept to Screen, p 330 Michael Wiese Productions, 1991
 ^ Naimark, "Giant Rectangular Screens"
 ^ Naimark, "Cylindrical Screens"
 ^ Aridi, Sal Large Format Cinematography, Camera Operator, July/December 2000 Retrieved 20080517
 ^ Storaro, Vittorio Storaro's notes on Univision, date unknown Retrieved on 20061201
 ^ a b Hindes, Andrew Sticking with 35mm, Variety, 19990419 Retrieved 20080516
 ^ Weisgerber, Robert Super Dimension 70: New 70mm Process Demonstrated, in70mmcom, Issue 63 March 2001 Retrieved 20080517
 ^ Lobban, Grant "Film Gauges and Soundtracks Wallchart", BKSTS year unknown
 ^ Motion Master, Screen Digest, October 1, 1995 Retrieved 20080517
 ^ Nystrom, sidebar
 ^ Kimble, Greg "This Is Cinerama!": Cinerama's 50th Anniversary, part 4, in70mmcom, 20020610 Retrieved 20080516
 ^ a b c d Sherlock, p 58
Referencesedit
 Carr, Robert E and Hayes, R M, Wide Screen Movies A History and Filmography of Wide Gauge Filmmaking Mc Farland & Company, 1988
 Hart, Martin American Widescreen Museum, 19962008 Retrieved on 20080516
 Herbert, Stephen and Luke McKernan, eds Who's Who of Victorian Cinema, 19962006 Retrieved on 20061201
 Hummel, Rob editor American Cinematographer Manual, 8th edition Hollywood: ASC Press, 2001
 Naimark, Michael Expo '92 Seville, Presence, Vol 1, No 3 MIT Press, Summer 1992 Retrieved on 20061201
 Nystrom, JE History of sub35mm Film Formats and Cameras, 19982001 Retrieved on 20061201
 Rogge, Michael xs4allnl/~wichm/filmsizehtml "One hundred years of film sizes", Fotografica Society, Amsterdam, 1996 Revisions 19962008 Retrieved 20081201
 Sherlock, Daniel J "Wide Screen Movies" Correctionspermanent dead link, 19942004 Retrieved on 20061201
Further readingedit
 Baumgarten, Martin W 8 mm Film Gauges, 2006 Retrieved on 20061201
 de Vries, Tjitte "Cinematographe Lumiere" a myth Who invented the cinema, 2006 Retrieved on 20061022
 Eastman Kodak Corporation 40 Years of Super 8, 2005 Retrieved on 20061201
 Eastman Kodak Corporation Kodak Chronology of Motion Picture Films 2003 Retrieved on 20061201
 eFilmCenter Ultimate Table of Formats and Aspect Ratios, date unknown Retrieved on 20061201
 Fisher, David Chronomedia, 19702006 Retrieved on 20061022
 Hart, Douglas C The Camera Assistant: A Complete Professional Handbook Newton, Massachusetts: Focal Press, 1996
 Hauerslev, Thomas, ed in70mmcom, 19852006 Retrieved on 20061201
 Hayes, John But First, a Brief History of Widescreen Wide Screen Movies Magazine, Vol 1, 2002 Retrieved on 20061201
 Herbert, Stephen Museum of the Moving Image, date unknown Retrieved on 20061201
 Horak, JanChristopher Introduction to Film Gauges UCLA Film and Television Archive, 2000 Retrieved on 20061201
 Internet Movie Database Incorporated Internet Movie Database, 19902006 Retrieved on 20061201
 Jennings, Tom editor The Dead Media Project, 2001 Retrieved on 20061022
 Kattelle, Alan A Brief History of Amateur Film Gauges and Related Equipment, 18992001, 2003 Retrieved on 20061022
 Library of Congress, History of Edison Motion Pictures, date unknown Retrieved on 20061201
 MCC Logical Designs Technical Info date unknown Retrieved on 20061201
 Mendrala, Jim Aspect Ratio and Image Cutoff, 1994 Retrieved on 20061022
 Munafo, Robert P Film Formats at MROB, 19962008 Retrieved on 20061201
 Musser, Charles Edison film notes, 2005 Retrieved on 20061201
 National Media Museum Collections Department, 2006 Retrieved 20061201
 Naughton, Russell Adventures in Cybersound, 19982003 Retrieved on 20061022
 Newnham, Grahame Pathefilm collecting, 20002006 Retrieved on 20061201
 Norwood, Scott E Film Tech FAQ, 1998 Retrieved on 20061201
 Panavision Incorporated Panavision: Technical Information: Aspect Ratio Overview, 2004 Retrieved on 20061201
 Roepke, Martina and Henk Verheul Ernemann film, 20022006 Retrieved on 20061201
 ScreenSound Australia Film Formats, date unknown Retrieved on 20061201
 ScreenSound Australia Film Gauges, date unknown Retrieved on 20061201
 Society of Camera Operators Operating Cameraman Magazine, 19912005 Retrieved on 20061201
 UCLA Film and Television Archive UCLA Film and Television Archive Terminology, Definitions, and Abbreviations List, 2004 Retrieved on 20061201
 unknown author Formats 8 mm, 20042005 Retrieved on 20080623
 Vigeant, Rhonda Max 8 Press Release, 2005 Retrieved on 20061201
 Wittmann, Armin Michael One Long Image Dissertion for the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, 1999 Retrieved on 20061201



Film gauges 


Film formats 


Aspect ratio standards 


Video framing issues 

list of film formats, list of photographic film formats
List of film formats Information about

List of film formats beatiful post thanks!
29.10.2014
List of film formats
List of film formats
List of film formats viewing the topic.
There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video
Random Posts
Book
A book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or...Boston Renegades
Boston Renegades was an American women’s soccer team, founded in 2003 The team was a member of the U...Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement
Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement can be found on a rocky headland about 10 kilometers west of Ibiza T...Bodybuilding.com
Bodybuildingcom is an American online retailer based in Boise, Idaho, specializing in dietary supple...Search Engine
Our site has a system which serves search engine function.
You can search all data in our system with above button which written "What did you look for? "
Welcome to our simple, stylish and fast search engine system.
We have prepared this method why you can reach most accurate and most up to date knowladge.
The search engine that developed for you transmits you to the latest and exact information with its basic and quick system.
You can find nearly everything data which found from internet with this system.
Random Posts
The San Francisco Examiner
The San Francisco Examiner is a longtime daily newspaper distributed in and around San Francisco, Ca...Frederator Films
Frederator Films is an animation studio founded by Fred Seibert as part of Frederator Studios, with ...John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck March 13, 1899 – October 27, 1980 was an American physicist and mathematici...Christian Lacroix
Christian Marie Marc Lacroix French pronunciation: kʁistjɑ̃ lakʁwa; born 16 May 1951 is a Fren...© Copyright © 2014. Search Engine