List of film formats


This list of film formats catalogues formats developed for shooting or viewing motion pictures, ranging from the Chronophotographe format from 1888, to mid-20th century formats such as the 1953 CinemaScope format, to more recent formats such as the 1992 IMAX HD format To be included in this list, the formats must all have been used in the field or for test shooting, and they must all use photochemical images that are formed or projected on a film base, a transparent substrate which supports the photosensitive emulsion

As well, the formats must have been used to make more than just a few test frames The camera must be fast enough in frames per second to create an illusion of motion consistent with the persistence of vision phenomenon The format must be significantly unique from other listed formats in regard to its image capture or image projection The format characteristics should be clearly definable in several listed parameters e g, film gauge, aspect ratio, etc

Contents

  • 1 Legend
  • 2 Film formats
  • 3 See also
  • 4 Notes
  • 5 References
  • 6 Further reading

Legendedit

  • Format is the name of the process; some formats may have multiple names in common usage
  • Creator is the individual or company most directly attributable as the developer of the system
  • Year created usually refers to the earliest date that the system was used to completion ie projection, but may refer to when it was developed if no known film was made
  • First known film is the first film not including tests made with the format and intended for release
  • Negative gauge is the film gauge width used for the original camera negative
  • Negative aspect ratio is the image ratio determined by the ratio of the gate dimensions multiplied by the anamorphic power of the camera lenses 1x in the case of spherical lenses1
  • Gate dimensions are the width and height of the camera gate aperture, and by extension the film negative frame
  • Negative pulldown describes the film perforations per frame, the direction of film transport, and standard frame speed Film transport is assumed to be vertical unless otherwise noted, and standard frame speed is assumed to be 24 frames per second unless the film is otherwise noted or has no standard Silent film has no standard speed; many amateur formats have several common speeds, but no standard
  • Negative lenses indicates whether spherical normal or anamorphic lenses are used on the original camera negative, and if anamorphic lenses, what anamorphic power is used
  • Projection gauge is the film gauge width used for the release print
  • Projection aspect ratio is the image ratio determined by the ratio of the projection dimensions multiplied by the anamorphic power of the projection lenses 1x in the case of spherical lenses This is also known as the intended theatrical aspect ratio1
  • Projection dimensions are the width and height of the projector aperture plate, and by extension the film frame area which is projected The aperture plate always very slightly crops the frame
  • Projection lenses indicates whether spherical normal or anamorphic lenses are used on the projector, and if anamorphic lenses, what anamorphic power is used

Formats are listed in chronological order and by release date in the case of multiple formats within one year, if this can be determined Undated formats are listed at the bottom in alphabetical order

Film formatsedit

The table does not cover 3-D film systems or color film systems, nor is it well-suited to emphasize the differences between those systems
Format Creator Est First known work Negative gauge Negative A/R1 Gate dims Negative pulldown Negative lenses Projection gauge Projection A/R1 Projection dims Projection lenses
Chronophotographe 2 Étienne-Jules Marey 1888 motion analysis studies 90 mm 100 3543" x 3543" unperforated spherical


Paperfilm3 Louis Le Prince 1888 Roundhay Garden Scene 54 mm or 635 mm 100 perforated spherical 54 mm or 635 mm 100 spherical


Chronophotographic Wm Friese-Greene 1889 54 mm irregular perfs spherical


Kinesigraph Wordsworth Donisthorpe 1889 view of Trafalgar Square 68 mm 100 unperforated spherical


Kinetoscope cylinder Wm Dickson & T Edison 1889 or 1890 Monkeyshines, No 1 strip rolled around a cylinder unperforated spherical strip rolled around a cylinder spherical


Kinetoscope horizontal Wm Dickson & William Heise 1891 Dickson Greeting 19 mm 1 perf, 1 side, horizontal spherical 19 mm, horizontal spherical


Silent film standard Wm Dickson & T Edison 1892 Blacksmith Scene 35 mm 133 0980" x 0735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 133 0931" x 0698" spherical


Bioscop Max Skladanowsky 1892 footage of Emil Skladanowsky 54 mm unperforated camera; 4 perf, 2 sides projection spherical 54 mm two strips interleaved spherical


Acres 704 Birt Acres 1894 The Henley Royal Regatta of 1894 70 mm 138 2750" x 2000" spherical 70 mm spherical


Eidoloscope5 Woodville Latham 1895 Griffo-Barnett Prize Fight 51 mm 185 1457" x 0787" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 51 mm 185 spherical


Cinematographe Lumière Brothers 1895 La Sortie des Usines Lumiere 35 mm 133 0980" x 0735" 1 perf, 2 sides rounded spherical 35 mm 133 spherical


Biograph Herman Casler 1895 Sparring Contest at Canastota 68 mm 135 2625" x 1938" 1 perf, 2 sides punched in-camera spherical 68 mm spherical


Joly-Normandin Henri Joly 1895 60 mm 5 perf, 2 sides spherical 60 mm spherical


Biographe Demeny-Gaumont 1896 60 mm 140 1750" x 1250" unperforated spherical 60 mm 140 spherical


Chronophotographe Demeny-Gaumont 1896 60 mm 140 1750" x 1250" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 60 mm 140 spherical


Sivan-Dalphin Casimir Sivan and E Dalphin 1896 38 mm 2 perf, 2 sides spherical 38 mm spherical


Veriscope Enoch Rector 1897 The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight 63 mm 166 1875" x 1125" 5 perf, 2 sides spherical 63 mm spherical


Viventoscope Thomas Henry Blair 1897 48 mm 150 1500" x 1000" 1 perf spherical 48 mm spherical


Birtac Birt Acres 1898 unknown amateur format 175 mm 2 perf, 1 side spherical 175 mm spherical


Biokam T C Hepworth 1899 unknown amateur format 175 mm 160 0630" x 0394" 1 perf, center spherical 175 mm spherical


Prestwich 13 mm John Alfred Prestwich 1899 unknown amateur format 13 mm spherical 13 mm spherical


Mirograph Reulos, Goudeau & Co 1900 unknown amateur format 21 mm 1 notch, 2 sides spherical 21 mm spherical


Lumiere Wide Lumière Brothers 1900 75 mm 133 2362" x 1772" 8 perf, 2 sides spherical 75 mm 133 spherical


Cinéorama R Grimoin-Sanson 1900 Cinéorama 70 mm x 10 cameras 360° 4 perf spherical 70 mm x 10 projectors 360° spherical


La Petite Hughes WC Hughes 1900 unknown amateur format 175 mm 160 0630" x 0394" 1 perf, center smaller and less rectangular than Biokam spherical 175 mm spherical


Pocket Chrono Gaumont Demeny 1900 unknown amateur format 15 mm 1 perf, center spherical 15 mm spherical


Vitak William Wardell 1902 unknown amateur format no standard no standard no standard 1 perf, center spherical 11 mm spherical


Home Kinetoscope Edison 1912 unknown amateur format no standard no standard no standard no standard spherical 22 mm, 2 perf on frameline between frame rows 15 0236" x 0157" three frames across width spherical


Pathe Kok Pathé 1912 unknown amateur format 28 mm 136 0748" x 0551" 3 perf on one side, 1 perf on the other spherical 28 mm spherical


Duoscope Alexander F Victor 1912 unknown amateur format 175 mm 2 perfs, center spherical 175 mm spherical


Panoramico4 Filoteo Alberini 1914 Il sacco di Roma 70 mm 252 5 perf, 2 sides spherical 70 mm spherical


Split Duplex Duplex Corporation 1915 35 mm 133 0980" x 0735" 4 perf, 2 sides shooting spherical 35 mm 187 0735" x 0394" spherical split image 90° rotated


11 mm American 1916 unknown amateur format 11 mm 1 perf, center spherical 11 mm spherical


Movette Movette Camera Company 1917 unknown amateur format 175 mm 2 perfs, 2 sides rounded spherical 175 mm spherical


28 mm safety standard Alexander F Victor 1918 unknown amateur format 28 mm 136 0748" x 0551" 3 perf, 2 sides spherical 28 mm spherical


Clou Austrian 1920 unknown amateur format 175 mm 2 perf, 2 sides spherical 175 mm spherical


26 mm French 1920 unknown amateur format 26 mm 1 perf, 1 side spherical 26 mm spherical


95 mm Pathé 1922 unknown amateur format 95 mm 131 0335" x 0256" 1 perf, center spherical 95 mm 131 0315" x 0242" spherical


Phonofilm Lee De Forest 1922 Barking Dog and Flying Jenny Airplane 35 mm 133 0980" x 0735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 117 0826" x 0708" spherical


Widescope6 John D Elms & George W Bingham 1922 35 mm x 2 both in same camera 0980" x 0735" 133 x 2 negatives 4 perf, 2 sides spherical one lens per strip 35 mm x 2 projectors 266 0931" x 0698" spherical


Cinebloc Ozaphan 1922 unknown amateur format 22 mm 2 perf, 2 sides spherical 22 mm spherical


Tri-Ergon soundfilm6 Tri-Ergon 1922 35 mm 133 0980" x 0735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 42 mm 133 0931" x 0698" spherical


16 mm7 Eastman Kodak 1923 unknown amateur format 16 mm 137 0404" x 0295" 1 perf, 1 or 2 sides spherical 16 mm 137 0378" x 0276" spherical


Duplex GJ Bradley 1923 unknown amateur format 11 mm 2 perf, 2 sides rounded spherical 115 mm spherical


Alberini-Hill Corrado Cerqua 1924 35 mm 166 1575" x 0945" curved 10 perf, 2 sides, horizontal spherical, on 65° revolving drum 35 mm spherical


Cinelux Ozaphan 1924 unknown amateur format 24 mm spherical 24 mm spherical


48 mm JH Powrie 1924 48 mm 132 1969" x 1496" horizontal spherical 35 mm 133 0931" x 0698" spherical


Natural Vision8 George K Spoor & P John Berggren 1925 Niagara Falls and Rollercoaster Ride 635 mm 184 2060" x 1120" 6 perf, 2 sides, 20 frame/s spherical 635 mm 200 spherical


13 mm French 1925 unknown amateur format 13 mm 4 perf, center spherical 13 mm spherical


18 mm Russian 1925 unknown amateur format 18 mm 1 perf, 2 sides spherical 18 mm spherical


Pathe Rural Pathé 1926 unknown amateur format 175 mm 135 silent; 130 sound 0516" x 0382" silent; 0445" x 0343" sound 1 perf, 2 sides spherical 175 mm 133 silent; 126 sound 0472" x 0354" silent; 0445" x 0343" sound spherical


Widevision6 John D Elms & George W Bingham 1926 Natural Vision Pictures 57 mm 5 perf, 2 sides spherical 57 mm spherical


Magnascope4 Lorenzo del Riccio 1926 Old Ironsides 35 mm 133 0980" x 0735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 133 0931" x 0698" spherical selected scenes projected using a wider lens for larger picture


Fox Movietone F H Owens, T Case, Tri-Ergon 1927 Sunrise 35 mm 133 0980" x 0735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 117 0826" x 0708" spherical


Polyvision9 Abel Gance 1927 Napoléon 35 mm x 3 cameras 133 x 3 negatives 0980" x 0735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm x 3 projectors 400 0931" x 0698" spherical


Hypergonar Henri Chrétien 1927 Pour construire un feu 35 mm 266 0980" x 0735" 4 perf, 2 sides 2x anamorphic 35 mm 266 0931" x 0698" 2x anamorphic


Magnafilm10 Lorenzo del Riccio 1929 You're in the Army Now 56 mm 219 1620" x 0740" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 56 mm 200 spherical


Fox Grandeur10 Fox Film Corporation 1929 Fox Grandeur News and Fox Movietone Follies of 1929 70 mm 207 1890" x 0913" 4 perf, 2 sides, 20 frame/s before 1930 spherical 70 mm 200 1768" x 0885" spherical


Fearless Super Pictures11 Ralph G Fear 1929 35 mm 227 1813" x 0800" 10 perfs, 2 sides, horizontal spherical 35 mm, horizontal spherical


Fearless Super-Film / Magnifilm / Fox Vitascope12 Ralph G Fear 1930 Kismet 65 mm 200 1811" x 0906" 5 perf, 2 sides spherical 65 mm 205 1772" x 0866" spherical


Realife11 MGM 1930 Billy the Kid 70 mm 207 1890" x 0913" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 175 0904" x 0517" spherical


50 mm13 Fox Film Corporation & SMPE 1930 50 mm 180 1325" x 0735" spherical 50 mm 180 1305" x 0725" spherical


17 mm sound French 1930 unknown amateur format 17 mm 1 perf, 1 side spherical 17 mm spherical


Giant Expanding Pictures George Palmer 1930 35 mm 133 0980" x 0735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 117 0826" x 0708" spherical with a special projection zoom lens zooming wider and opening masking for key sequences


Kodel Kemco Homovie Clarence Ogden 1931 unknown amateur format 16 mm 4 sequential images per frame 1 perf, 2 sides spherical 16 mm spherical


Academy format14 AMPAS 1932 35 mm 1375 commonly abbreviated to 137 0868″ × 0631″ 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 137 0825″ × 0600″ spherical


8 mm Eastman Kodak 1932 unknown amateur format 16 mm 132 0192" x 0145" 1 perf, 1 side using 16 mm film with twice as many perfs spherical 8 mm 133 0172" x 0129" spherical


Straight 8 Bell & Howell 1935 unknown amateur format 8 mm 132 0192" x 0145" 1 perf, 1 side spherical 8 mm 133 0172" x 0129" spherical


Vitarama Fred Waller 1939 16 mm x 11 cameras 137 x 11 negatives 0404" x 0295" 1 perf, 2 sides spherical 16 mm x 11 projectors hemispherical view 0378" x 0276" spherical


Waller Flexible Gunnery Trainer Fred Waller 1943 US Air Force interactive training exercise 35 mm x 5 cameras 137 x 5 negatives 0866" x 0630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm x 5 projectors hemispherical view 0825" x 0602" spherical


Cinerama15 Fred Waller 1952 This is Cinerama 35 mm x 3 cameras 259 3 x negatives 0996" x 1116" 6 perf, 2 sides at 26 frame/s spherical 35 mm x 3 projectors, with 6 perf pulldown 259, with 146° curved screen 0985" x 1088" spherical


Matted 16614 Paramount 1953 Shane 35 mm 137 0866" x 0630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 166 0825" x 0497" spherical


Matted 18514 Universal 1953 Thunder Bay 35 mm 137 0866" x 0630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 185 0825" x 0446" spherical


Matted 175 MGM 1953 Arena 35 mm 137 0866" x 0630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 175 0825" x 0471" spherical


Cinemascope16 20th Century Fox 1953 The Robe 35 mm 255 1953–57; 235 1957–67 0937" x 0735" 1953–57; 0868" x 0735" 1957–67 4 perf, 2 sides 2x anamorphic 35 mm 255 1953–57; 235 1957–67 0912" x 0715" 1953–57; 0839" x 0715" 1957–67 2x anamorphic


Arnoldscope17 John Arnold 1953 35 mm 10 perf, 2 sides, horizontal spherical


VistaVision18 Paramount 1954 White Christmas 35 mm 151 1495" x 0991" 8 perf, 2 sides, horizontal spherical 35 mm, 4 perf, vertical 185 0825" x 0446" spherical


VistaVision Large Area1819 Paramount 1954 White Christmas 35 mm 151 1495" x 0991" 8 perf, 2 sides, horizontal spherical 35 mm, 8 perf, horizontal 196 1418" x 0723" spherical


Superscope20 Tushinsky Brothers 1954 Vera Cruz 35 mm 133 0980" x 0735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 200 0715" x 0715" 2x anamorphic


Circarama21 Disney 1955 A Tour of the West 16 mm x 11 cameras 137 x 11 negatives 0404" x 0295" 1 perf, 2 sides spherical 16 mm x 11 projectors 360° 0378" x 0276" spherical


Todd-AO2223 Michael Todd 1955 Oklahoma 65 mm 229 2072" x 0906" 5 perfs, 2 sides, at 30 frame/s spherical 70 mm 221, with 120° curved screen 1912" x 0870" spherical


CinemaScope 5524 20th Century Fox 1955 Carousel 55 mm 255 1824" x 1430" 8 perfs, 2 sides 2x anamorphic 35 mm 255 0912" x 0715" 2x anamorphic


95 Duplex25 Pathé Fréres 1955   95 mm 151 41 mm x 62 mm 2 central perforations in a 95mm film spherical 475 mm spherical, rotated 90°


8 mm Panoramic26 Dimaphot, Paris 1955   16 mm 15 5 mm x 75 mm 1 perf, 2 sides spherical 8 mm spherical, rotated 90°


Emel Panoscope27 Emel, Paris 1955   16 mm 27 35 mm x 96 mm 2 perf, 2 sides spherical 16 mm spherical


Technirama28 Technicolor 1956 The Monte Carlo Story 35 mm 226 1496" x 0992" 8 perf, 2 sides, horizontally 15x anamorphic 35 mm, 4 perf vertical 235 0839" x 0715" 2x anamorphic


Technirama Large Area28 Technicolor 1956 The Monte Carlo Story 35 mm 226 1496" x 0992" 8 perf, 2 sides, horizontally 15x anamorphic 35 mm, 8 perf horizontal 242 1421" x 0881" 15x anamorphic


Dynamic Frame29 Glenn Alvey 1956 The Door in the Wall 35 mm 13, 16, and 25 variable aperture plates 8 perf, 2 sides, horizontally spherical 35 mm, 4 perf, vertical 13, 15, and 25 spherical


Superscope 23520 Superscope Inc 1956 Run for the Sun 35 mm 133 0980" x 0735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 235 0839" x 0715" 2x anamorphic


Thrillarama30 Albert H Reynolds 1956 Thrillarama Adventure 35 mm x 2 cameras 178 x 2 negatives 3 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm x 2 projectors 355, with a curved screen spherical


Magirama9 Abel Gance 1956 Magirama 35 mm x 3 cameras sides bounced off mirrors 133 x 3 negatives 0980" x 0735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm x 3 projectors sides bounced off mirrors 400 0931" x 0698" spherical


MGM Camera 65 Panavision 1957 Raintree County 65 mm 276 2072" x 0906" 5 perf, 2 sides 125x anamorphic 70 mm 276 1912" x 0870" 125x anamorphic


Ultra Panavision31 Panavision 1962 Mutiny on the Bounty 65 mm 276 2072" x 0906" 5 perf, 2 sides 125x anamorphic 70 mm 276 1912" x 0870" 125x anamorphic


Cinestage32 Mike Todd 1957 Around the World in 80 Days 65 mm 229 2072" x 0906" 5 perfs, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 1 mm shaved off for UK prints 212 0912" x 0675" 1567x anamorphic


Rank VistaVision J Arthur Rank Organization 1957 35 mm 151 1495" x 0991" 8 perf, 2 sides, horizontally spherical 35 mm, 4 perf, vertical 182 0825" x 0602" 133x anamorphic


Modern anamorphic33 Panavision 1958 The Female Animal 35 mm 237 0866" x 0732" 4 perf, 2 sides 2x anamorphic 35 mm 235 1957–70; 239 1970–present 0839" x 0715" 1957–70; 0838" x 07" 1970–93; 0825" x 0690" 1993–present 2x anamorphic


Kinopanorama34 NIKFI 1958 Great Is My Country 35 mm x 3 cameras 091 x 3 negatives 1014" x 1116" 6 perf, 2 sides, at 25 frame/s spherical 35 mm x 3 projectors 272 0985" x 1088" spherical


70 mm2235 American Optical Company 1958 South Pacific 65 mm 228 2066" x 0906" 5 perfs, 2 sides spherical 70 mm 221 1912" x 087" spherical


Cinemiracle36 National Theatres 1958 Windjammer 35 mm x 3 cameras sides bounced off mirrors 089 x 3 negatives 0996" x 1116" 6 perf, 2 sides at 26 frame/s spherical 35 mm x 3 projectors sides bounced off mirrors, with 6 perf pulldown 259, with 120° curved screen 0985" x 1088" spherical


Super Technirama28 Technicolor 1959 Sleeping Beauty 35 mm 226 1496" x 0992" 8 perf, 2 sides, horizontally 15x anamorphic 70 mm 221 1912" x 0816" spherical


Smith-Carney System37 Rowe E Carney Jr and Tom F Smith 1959 Missouri travelogue 35 mm 469 0839" x 0370" bottom half and 0449" x 0370" top quarters 4 perf, 2 sides spherical x 3 35 mm 469 three sub-frames projected to one 180° image spherical x 3


Circular Kinopanorama / Circlorama38 E Goldovsky 1959 The Path of Spring 35 mm x 11 cameras 137 x 11 negatives 0866" x 0630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm x 11 projectors 360° 0825" x 0602" spherical


Varioscope39 Jan Jacobsen 1959 Flying Clipper 65 mm 228 2066" x 0906" 5 perfs, 2 sides spherical 70 mm variable framing run through control signal 1912" x 087" spherical


Quadravision40 Ford Motor Company 1959 Design for Suburban Living showtent   mm x 4 cameras   x 4 negatives spherical   mm x 4 projectors   4 images in 2x2 configuration spherical


Techniscope41 Technicolor 1960 The Pharaoh's Woman 35 mm 233 0868" x 0373" 2 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm 239 0838" x 07" 2x anamorphic


Wonderama Arc 12042 Leon W Wells 1960 Honeymoon no standard no standard no standard no standard no standard 35 mm 250 with a 120° curved screen 0931" x 0698", with two half-images turned 90° and placed side-by-side spherical x 2


Cine System 34344 Eric Berndt 1960 USAF and NASA usage 3 mm 1 perf, centered spherical


Grandeur 7045 20th Century Fox 1961 The King and I re-release 55 mm 255 1824" x 1430" 8 perfs, 2 sides 2x anamorphic 70 mm 221 1912" x 087" spherical


Cinerama 36042 Cinerama Corporation 1962 Journey to the Stars 65 mm 100 circle 225" diameter circular image 10 perf, 2 sides fisheye 70 mm 100 circle 225" diameter circular image spherical


Super 8 Eastman Kodak 1965 unknown amateur format 8 mm 148 0245" x 0166" 1 perf, 1 side spherical 8 mm 136 0215" x 0158" spherical


Real Sound46 Kenner 1965 no standard no standard no standard 1 perf, 1 side spherical 115 mm 133 0172" x 0129" spherical


Double Super 847 Eastman Kodak 1965 unknown amateur format 16 mm 148 0245" x 0166" 1 perf, 1 side using 16 mm film with twice as many perfs spherical 8 mm 136 0215" x 0158" spherical


Single-848 Fujifilm 1966 unknown amateur format 8 mm 136 0224" x 0164" 1 perf, 1 side spherical 8 mm 135 0213" x 0157" spherical


Dimension 15049 American Optical Company 1966 The Bible: In the Beginning 65 mm 228 2066" x 0906" 5 perfs, 2 sides spherical 70 mm 221, with 150° curved screen 1912" x 087", optically curved to compensate for the screen spherical


Circle Vision 36038 Disney 1967 America the Beautiful 35 mm x 9 cameras 137 x 9 negatives 0866" x 0630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm x 9 projectors 360° 0825" x 0602" spherical


875 mm50 Shanghai Film Projection Equipment Factory 1968 unknown amateur format 1 perf spherical 875 mm spherical


Astrovision51 Goto Optical 1969 65 mm 10 perf, 2 sides spherical or fish-eye 70 mm fish-eye dome projection


IMAX52 IMAX Corporation 1970 Tiger Child 70 mm 134 2772" x 2072" 15 perf, 2 sides, horizontally spherical 70 mm, horizontal 131 2692" x 2056" spherical


Super 16 mm film7 Rune Ericson 1970 Blushing Charlie 16 mm 166 0493" x 0292" 1 perf, 1 side spherical no standard, but often blown up to 35 mm no standard 0463" x 0279" full frame; 0463" x 0251" framed for 185 spherical


Pik-a-Movie53 Leon W Wells 1972 no standard no standard no standard no standard no standard 70 mm, horizontal, 1 perf, 2 sides 148 0245" x 0166", 12 rows high, underneath 12 rows of optical sound spherical


OMNIMAX54 IMAX Corporation 1973 Garden Isle 70 mm 134 2772" x 2072" 15 perf, 2 sides, horizontally special fish-eye lenses optically centered 037" above film horizontal center line 70 mm, horizontal 131 2692" x 2056" spherical, projected elliptically on a dome screen, 20 degrees below and 110 degrees above perfectly centered viewers


8/70 Dynavision, Iwerks 87055 Dynavision 1973 65 mm 137 2031" x 1484" 8 perf, 2 sides, 24 or 30 frame/s spherical 70 mm 134 1913" x 1431" spherical


Showscan56 Douglas Trumbull 1978 Night of Dreams 65 mm 228 2066" x 0906" 5 perfs, 2 sides, at 60 frame/s spherical 70 mm, at 60 frame/s 221 1912" x 087" spherical


Polavision57 Polaroid Corporation 1978 unknown amateur format 8 mm 148 0245" x 0166" 1 perf, 1 side spherical 8 mm 136 0215" x 0158" spherical


Cinema 18058 Omni Films 1979 Crazy Wheels 65 mm 228 2066" x 0906" 5 perfs, 2 sides, 30 frame/s fisheye 70 mm 180°, on a dome 1912" x 087" fisheye


Super 3559 Joe Dunton 1982 Dance Craze 35 mm 133 0980" x 0735" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm no standard no standard no standard


Circle Vision 20060 Disney 1982 Impressions de France 35 mm x 5 cameras 137 x 5 negatives 0866" x 0630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm x 5 projectors 685, on a 200° screen 0825" x 0602" spherical


Swissorama 360 / Imagine 36061 Ernst A Heiniger 1984 Impressions of Switzerland 65 mm 360° 191" outer edge, 120" inner edge 10 perf, 2 sides 360° x 35° extreme fisheye 70 mm 360° 360° x 35° extreme fisheye


Super Duper 8 / Max 8 / Super 8B6263 Mitch Perkins & Greg Miller mid- 1980s Sleep Always 2002 8 mm 151 0250" x 0166" 1 perf, 1 side spherical 8 mm no standard no standard spherical


3-perf64 Rune Ericson 1987 Pirates of the Lake 35 mm 179 0980" x 0546" 3 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm no standard no standard no standard


Super VistaVision65 Paramount 1989 The Ten Commandments re-release 35 mm 151 1495" x 0991" 8 perf, 2 sides, horizontal spherical 70 mm 221 1912" x 087" spherical


Kinoton HDFS66 Kinoton 1990 no standard no standard no standard no standard no standard 35 mm 200 0931" x 0698" 15x anamorphic


IMAX Magic Carpet67 IMAX Corporation 1990 Flowers in the Sky 70 mm x 2 cameras 134 2772" x 2072" 15 perf, 2 sides, horizontally spherical 70 mm, horizontal x 2 projectors 131 x 2 screens one in front, one below 2692" x 2056" spherical


Iwerksphere68 Iwerks 1991 65 mm 137 2031" x 1484" 8 perf, 2 sides, 24 or 30 frame/s fisheye 70 mm 134 1913" x 1431" fisheye


IMAX HD69 IMAX Corporation 1992 Asteroid Adventure 70 mm 134 2772" x 2072" 15 perf, 2 sides, horizontally, 48 frame/s spherical 70 mm, horizontal 131 2692" x 2056" spherical


Hexiplex 70 Australian 1992 Expo '92 demo 35 mm x 6 cameras 137 x 6 negatives 0866" x 0630" 4 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm x 6 projectors 360°, with rotating screens and projectors 0825" x 0602" spherical


Ultra Toruscope71 Mac McCarney 1992 35 mm x 3 cameras 137 x 3 negatives 0866" x 0630" 4 perf, 2 sides, at 30 frame/s spherical 70 mm x 3 projectors, at 30 frame/s 360° 1912" x 087" spherical


Imagination FX 701213 Geo-Odyssey 1992 35 mm 208 2040" x 0980" 12 perf, 2 sides, horizontal spherical 70 mm 221 1912" x 087" spherical


Univisium72 Vittorio Storaro 1998 Tango 35 mm 200 0945" x 0472" 3 perf, 2 sides at 25 frame/s spherical 35 mm 200 spherical


Maxivision73 Dean Goodhill 1999 35 mm 179 0980" x 0546" 3 perf, 2 sides spherical 35 mm, 3 perf 185 spherical


Maxivision 4873 Dean Goodhill 1999 35 mm 179 0980" x 0546" 3 perf, 2 sides, 48 frame/s spherical 35 mm, 3 perf, 48 frame/s 185 spherical


Super Dimension 7074 Robert Weisgerber 1999 65 mm 228 2066" x 0906" 5 perfs, 2 sides, at 48 frame/s spherical 70 mm, at 48 frame/s 221 1912" x 087" spherical


FuturVision 36051 65 mm 152 2066" x 0906" 5 perfs, 2 sides, 30 frame/s 15x vertical anamorphic 70 mm 147 1912" x 087" 15x vertical anamorphic


Mini-Max75 Vistascope 35 mm 266 2 perf, 2 sides, 30 frame/s spherical 35 mm 266 spherical


MotionMaster76 Omni Films 65 mm 228 2066" x 0906" 5 perfs, 2 sides, 30 frame/s spherical 70 mm 221, on a curved screen 1912" x 087" spherical


Row-film77 R Thun 35 mm 20 rows of images wide spherical spherical


Septorama51   mm x 7 cameras 133 x 7 negatives spherical   mm x 7 projectors hemispherical view spherical


Single Cinerama78 Fred Waller 35 mm curved gate 16 perf, 2 sides, horizontal spherical 35 mm, horizontal curved screen spherical


Soviet 1079 65 mm 10 perf, 2 sides 2x anamorphic 70 mm 209 1890" x 1811" 2x anamorphic


Vario-3579 35 mm spherical 35 mm variable framing run through control signal 0835" x 0713" full; 0835" x 0453" 184; 0709" x 0524" 135; 0614" x 0614" 100; 0535" x 0713" 075 spherical


Vario-35A79 35 mm 35 mm variable framing run through control signal 0835" x 0713" variable anamorphic 2x for 235; 157x for 185; 117x for 137; 085x for 100; 064x for 075; 05x for 059


Vario-7079 65 mm 10 perfs, 2 sides spherical 70 mm variable framing run through control signal 1890" x 1811" full; 1890" x 0803" 235; 1673" x 0906" 185; 1441" x 1051" 137; 1232" x 1232" 100; 1063" x 1429" 074; 0945" x 1604" 059; 0839" x 1811" 046 spherical


Format Creator Est First known work Negative gauge Negative A/R1 Gate dims Negative pulldown Negative lenses Projection gauge Proj A/R1 Projection dims Projection lenses

See alsoedit

  • List of anamorphic format trade names
  • Color motion picture film
  • List of film sound systems

Notesedit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Strictly speaking, aspect ratios for film are always expressed as the ratio of 1 and are formatted as x:y, eg 185:1 However, in the interest of formatting, the aspect ratios listed will assume the ratio of 1 and omit the :1 suffix
  2. ^ Burns, RW, Television: An International History of the Formative Years, p 71, Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1991
  3. ^ Scott, E Kilburn, "The Career of L A A Le Prince", Adventures in Cybersound Retrieved 2008-05-17
  4. ^ a b c Sherlock, p 3
  5. ^ Hiller, John "Film History for the Public: The First National Movie Machine Collection", Film History, v 11, n 3, p 373 Indiana University Press, 1999
  6. ^ a b c Sherlock, p 40
  7. ^ a b Hummel, p 16
  8. ^ Sherlock, p 5-6
  9. ^ a b Sherlock, p 4
  10. ^ a b Sherlock, p 5
  11. ^ a b Sherlock, p 6
  12. ^ Sherlock, p 6-7
  13. ^ a b Sherlock, p 59
  14. ^ a b c Hummel, p 10
  15. ^ Hart, Cinerama Specs
  16. ^ Hart, CinemaScope Specs and Of Apertures and Aspect Ratios
  17. ^ Hart, Ultra Panavision, p 1
  18. ^ a b Hart, VistaVision Specs
  19. ^ Sherlock, p 27
  20. ^ a b Hart, SuperScope Specs
  21. ^ Sherlock, p 19-20
  22. ^ a b Even after slowing down the frame rate from 30 to 24 frame/s, Todd AO productions retained the use of the same trade name on the 24 frame/s films There is no difference between 24 frame/s Todd AO, Super Panavision, and what is otherwise referred to as standard 65/70 mm
  23. ^ Hart, Todd AO Specs
  24. ^ Hart, CinemaScope Specs
  25. ^ Patrice-Hervé Pont, Jean Loup Princelle: 50 Ans de Caméras Françaises, Le Reve Édition, Ondrevill sur Essone, France, 2007, ISBN 2-9522521-3-0, --> page num 107
  26. ^ Patrice-Hervé Pont, Jean Loup Princelle: 50 Ans de Caméras Françaises, Le Reve Édition, Ondrevill sur Essone, France, 2007, ISBN 2-9522521-3-0, --> page num 51
  27. ^ Patrice-Hervé Pont, Jean Loup Princelle: 50 Ans de Caméras Françaises, Le Reve Édition, Ondrevill sur Essone, France, 2007, ISBN 2-9522521-3-0, --> page num 59
  28. ^ a b c Hart, Technirama Specs
  29. ^ Sherlock, p 58
  30. ^ Hart, Thrillarama
  31. ^ Hart, Ultra Panavision Specs
  32. ^ Sherlock, p 31
  33. ^ Hummel, p 13
  34. ^ Sherlock, p 11-12
  35. ^ Hummel, p 17
  36. ^ Hart, Cinemiracle Specs
  37. ^ Hart, The Smith-Carney System
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Referencesedit

  • Carr, Robert E and Hayes, R M, Wide Screen Movies A History and Filmography of Wide Gauge Filmmaking Mc Farland & Company, 1988
  • Hart, Martin American Widescreen Museum, 1996-2008 Retrieved on 2008-05-16
  • Herbert, Stephen and Luke McKernan, eds Who's Who of Victorian Cinema, 1996-2006 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Hummel, Rob editor American Cinematographer Manual, 8th edition Hollywood: ASC Press, 2001
  • Naimark, Michael Expo '92 Seville, Presence, Vol 1, No 3 MIT Press, Summer 1992 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Nystrom, JE History of sub-35mm Film Formats and Cameras, 1998-2001 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Rogge, Michael xs4allnl/~wichm/filmsizehtml "One hundred years of film sizes", Fotografica Society, Amsterdam, 1996 Revisions 1996-2008 Retrieved 2008-12-01
  • Sherlock, Daniel J "Wide Screen Movies" Correctionspermanent dead link, 1994-2004 Retrieved on 2006-12-01

Further readingedit

  • Baumgarten, Martin W 8 mm Film Gauges, 2006 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • de Vries, Tjitte "Cinematographe Lumiere" a myth Who invented the cinema, 2006 Retrieved on 2006-10-22
  • Eastman Kodak Corporation 40 Years of Super 8, 2005 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Eastman Kodak Corporation Kodak Chronology of Motion Picture Films 2003 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • eFilmCenter Ultimate Table of Formats and Aspect Ratios, date unknown Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Fisher, David Chronomedia, 1970-2006 Retrieved on 2006-10-22
  • Hart, Douglas C The Camera Assistant: A Complete Professional Handbook Newton, Massachusetts: Focal Press, 1996
  • Hauerslev, Thomas, ed in70mmcom, 1985-2006 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Hayes, John But First, a Brief History of Widescreen Wide Screen Movies Magazine, Vol 1, 2002 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Herbert, Stephen Museum of the Moving Image, date unknown Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Horak, Jan-Christopher Introduction to Film Gauges UCLA Film and Television Archive, 2000 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Internet Movie Database Incorporated Internet Movie Database, 1990-2006 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Jennings, Tom editor The Dead Media Project, 2001 Retrieved on 2006-10-22
  • Kattelle, Alan A Brief History of Amateur Film Gauges and Related Equipment, 1899-2001, 2003 Retrieved on 2006-10-22
  • Library of Congress, History of Edison Motion Pictures, date unknown Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • MCC Logical Designs Technical Info date unknown Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Mendrala, Jim Aspect Ratio and Image Cutoff, 1994 Retrieved on 2006-10-22
  • Munafo, Robert P Film Formats at MROB, 1996-2008 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Musser, Charles Edison film notes, 2005 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • National Media Museum Collections Department, 2006 Retrieved 2006-12-01
  • Naughton, Russell Adventures in Cybersound, 1998-2003 Retrieved on 2006-10-22
  • Newnham, Grahame Pathefilm collecting, 2000-2006 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Norwood, Scott E Film Tech FAQ, 1998 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Panavision Incorporated Panavision: Technical Information: Aspect Ratio Overview, 2004 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Roepke, Martina and Henk Verheul Ernemann film, 2002-2006 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • ScreenSound Australia Film Formats, date unknown Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • ScreenSound Australia Film Gauges, date unknown Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Society of Camera Operators Operating Cameraman Magazine, 1991-2005 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • UCLA Film and Television Archive UCLA Film and Television Archive Terminology, Definitions, and Abbreviations List, 2004 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • unknown author Formats 8 mm, 2004-2005 Retrieved on 2008-06-23
  • Vigeant, Rhonda Max 8 Press Release, 2005 Retrieved on 2006-12-01
  • Wittmann, Armin Michael One Long Image Dissertion for the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, 1999 Retrieved on 2006-12-01


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