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List of battleships of Austria-Hungary

list of battleships of austria-hungary map
The Austro-Hungarian Navy Kaiserliche und Königliche Kriegsmarine, shortened to kuk Kriegsmarine built a series of battleships between the early 1900s and 1917 To defend its Adriatic coast in wartime, Austria-Hungary had previously built a series of smaller ironclad warships, including coastal defense ships, and armored cruisersNote 1 The appointment of Admiral Hermann von Spaun to the post of State Secretary of the Navy in 1897 accelerated naval construction and under the command of Franz Joseph I of Austria, the kuk Kriegsmarine began a program of naval expansion at the beginning of the 20th century The navy immediately pushed for the construction of the three Habsburg-class battleships, after which soon followed three of the Erzherzog Karl class, all of which were pre-dreadnoughts

Several years passed before the Radetzky-class battleships were built These were the last pre-dreadnought battleships to be built by the Austro-Hungarian Navy and were soon succeeded by the Tegetthoff class being built within three more years They were the country's only class of dreadnoughts1 Near the beginning of World War I, the navy started discussions on the construction of a second class of dreadnoughts named the Ersatz Monarch class to replace the old Monarchs The plans were canceled in 1917, and no new battleships were built after that Overall, within a period of 13 years, the Austro-Hungarian Navy had produced 13 battleships2

All of the ships saw service in World War I, although the diversion of coal, which was scarce, to the newer Tegetthoff and Radetzky classes limited the service of the remaining battleships Following the defeat of Austria-Hungary in World War I, the empire was dismantled and all of the battleships were handed over to France, Great Britain, the United States, and Italy3Note 2

Key
Main guns The number and type of the main battery guns
Displacement Ship displacement at full combat load
Propulsion Number of shafts, type of propulsion system, and top speed generated
Service The dates work began and finished on the ship and its ultimate fate
Laid down The date the keel began to be assembled
Launched The date the ship was launched
Commissioned The date the ship was commissioned

Contents

  • 1 Habsburg class
  • 2 Erzherzog Karl class
  • 3 Radetzky class
  • 4 Tegetthoff class
  • 5 Ersatz Monarch class
  • 6 Notes
  • 7 References

Habsburg classedit

Main article: Habsburg-class battleship SMS Habsburg on trials in the upper Adriatic in 1901

The Habsburg-class battleships were the first class of pre-dreadnought battleships to be built by Austria-Hungary between 1899 and 1902 The construction of the Habsburg-class battleships marked the beginning of the naval expansion program by the Austro-Hungarian Navy The Habsburg-class was also the first class of seagoing battleships the Austrio-Hungarian Navy built since the construction of the ship Tegetthoff 24 years earlier in 18764 The class was composed of three ships: SMS Habsburg, SMS Árpád, and SMS Babenberg5

The members of the Habsburg-class were built in the Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino shipyards in Trieste The lead ship of the class, Habsburg, was launched on 9 September 19006 Árpád followed a year later, with her launching on 11 September 1901 The last ship of the class was the Babenberg, launched on 4 October 19024 The first two ships, Habsburg and Árpád, were modernized either in 1910 and 1911 respectively,5 or in 1911 and 1912,7 by having one deck of the superstructure removed57 At the outbreak of World War I in late July 1914, Habsburg was serving as the flagship of the III Battleship Division of the Austro-Hungarian fleet, under the command of Captain Miklós Horthy, alongside her two sisters8 They were later transferred to the IV Division after the new Tegetthoff-class battleships came into service All three battleships saw a limited service during World War I as members of the IV Division of the Austro-Hungarian fleet While both Babenburg and Árpád participated in the bombardment of the Italian port city of Ancona in 1915, the class was largely inactive for the remainder of the war, serving as coastal defense ships9 All three were decommissioned in 1916 in order to allow their crews to serve in the Austro-Hungarian air force and as crew members of Austro-Hungarian U-boats5 Following the end of World War I, all of the Habsburg-class battleships were handed over to Great Britain They were then sold to Italy and broken up in 19219

Ship Main guns Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
SMS Habsburg 3 × 24 cm 94 in410 8,232 t 8,102 long tons5 Two cylinder, vertical triple expansion steam engines, 1962 kn 3634 km/h; 2258 mph4 13 March 189967 9 September 19006107 31 December 190267 Scrapped in 1921 in Italy9
SMS Árpád Two cylinder, vertical triple expansion steam engines, 1965 kn 3639 km/h; 2261 mph4 10 June 189947 11 September 19014107 15 June 190347 Scrapped in 1921 in Italy9
SMS Babenberg Two cylinder, vertical triple expansion steam engines, 1985 kn 3676 km/h; 2284 mph4 19 January 190147 4 October 19024107 15 April 190447 Scrapped in 1921 in Italy9

Erzherzog Karl classedit

Main article: Erzherzog Karl-class battleship SMS Erzherzog Ferdinand Max in 1914

The Erzherzog Karl-class was the second class of pre-dreadnought battleships to be built by the Austro-Hungarian Navy Like the members of the Habsburg-class before them, all of the battleships of the Erzherzog Karl-class were built in the Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino shipyards in Trieste The first battleship, SMS Erzherzog Karl was laid down in 1902 Construction on the remaining two battleships, SMS Erzherzog Ferdinand Max and SMS Erzherzog Friedrich continued up to 190511 Erzherzog Karl was commissioned in 1906, while Erzherzog Ferdinand Max and Erzherzog Friedrich were commissioned in 190711 The three Erzherzog Karl-class battleships were considered modern for their small size Small docking space and budget restraints resulted in the class being fairly compact They were well designed and properly protected, 11 however the Erzherzog Karl-class battleships were inferior to the more modern Dreadnought type battleships – with their "all big gun" armament and turbine propulsion Due to their obsolete nature, they only played a limited role during World War I11 At the beginning of World War I, the members of the Erzherzog Karl class formed the III division of the Austrian-Hungarian battle-fleet Despite their largely inactive careers in the war, the battleships of the Erzherzog Karl class did participate in the flight of SMS Goeben and SMS Breslau during the opening days of the war as well as the bombardment of Ancona on 23 May 191511 The ships also took part in suppressing a major mutiny among the crew members of several armored cruisers stationed in Cattaro between 1 and 3 February 191812 Following Austria-Hungary's defeat in World War I, Erzherzog Karl and Erzherzog Friedrich were ceded as war reparations to France The remaining battleship, Erzherzog Ferdinand Max, was given to Great Britain Erzherzog Karl ran aground at Bizerte and was broken up there in 1921 The remaining two battleships were scrapped in 1921 in Italy13

Ship Main guns Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
SMS Erzherzog Karl 4 × 24 cm 94 in1011 10,472 t 10,307 long tons11 Four cylinder, vertical triple expansion steam engines, 205 kn 380 km/h; 236 mph11 24 July 190211 4 October 19031011 17 June 190611 Ran aground at Bizerte, broken up there in 192113
SMS Erzherzog Friedrich 4 October 190211 30 April 19041011 31 January 190711 Scrapped in 192111
SMS Erzherzog Ferdinand Max 9 March 190411 21 May 19051011 21 December 190711 Scrapped in 192111

Radetzky classedit

Main article: Radetzky-class battleship SMS Radetzky between 1909 and 1914

The Radetzky-class battleships were the third and last group of pre-dreadnought battleships to be constructed by Austria-Hungary14 The class was made up of three battleships: SMS Radetzky, SMS Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand, and SMS Zrínyi; all of which were built in the Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino shipyard in Trieste between 1907 and 191015 Their heavy secondary guns were the main difference between the Radetzky-class battleships and other pre-dreadnought type battleships of the Austro-Hungarian Navy1516

All three of the Radetzky-class battleships were commissioned only a few years prior the beginning of World War I Prior to the war, all three battleships were assigned to the 2nd Division of the 1st Battle Squadron, along with the Tegetthoff-class battleships in the 1st Division All three battleships conducted training exercises in the Mediterranean Sea from 1910 to 191115 In 1913, they participated in an international naval demonstration in the Ionian Sea that protested the Balkan Wars17 During World War I, the ships had very limited service careers, hardly ever leaving port However, in October 1914, the three ships bombarded French positions on Mount Lovčen during the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Montenegro14 After Italy declared war on Austro-Hungary in 1915, the Radetzky-class battleships participated in the bombardment of the Italian city of Ancona18 Following these operations, the three battleships' contributions to the war effort became minimal They remained in port until the end of the war Following Austria-Hungary's defeat in World War I, all three battleships were handed over to Italy and later broken up for scrap between 1920 and 192615

Ship Main guns Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
SMS Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand 4 × 305 cm 120 in1015 14,508 t 14,279 long tons15 Four cylinder vertical triple expansion engines, 205 kn 380 km/h; 236 mph15 12 September 190715 8 September 19081015 5 June 191015 Scrapped in 1926 in Italy15
SMS Radetzky 26 November 190715 3 July 19091015 15 January 191115 Scrapped 1920–21 in Italy15
SMS Zrínyi 15 November 190815 12 April 19101015 22 November 191115 Scrapped 1920–21 in Italy15

Tegetthoff classedit

Main article: Tegetthoff-class battleship SMS Viribus Unitis in 1914

The Tegetthoff-class battleships were the only group of dreadnought battleships to be constructed by Austria-Hungary The Austro-Hungarian Navy needed to update its fleet following the construction of HMS Dreadnought After the announcement in 1908 of the start of construction for the first dreadnought of the Regia Marina the Italian Navy, the Dante Alighieri, the Austro-Hungarian Navy formally ordered the construction of a series of four dreadnought battleships19 Unlike the previous classes of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, the Tegetthoff class was made up of four battleships instead of three They were the SMS Viribus Unitis, Tegetthoff, SMS Prinz Eugen, and SMS Szent István19 The first three battleships were constructed in the Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino shipyard in Trieste, while the fourth battleship, Szent István was constructed at the Danubius shipyard at Fiume All of the battleships were constructed between 1910 and 191519

Two of the Tegetthoff-class battleships were commissioned less than two years prior the beginning of World War I, while Prinz Eugen was commissioned the same month as the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand The last battleship of the class, Szent István, was commissioned during the war in November 191519 Prior to the war, the battleships in commission were assigned to the 1st Battleship Division of the 1st Battle Squadron of Austro-Hungarian Navy During the war, the ships had limited service due to the Otranto Barrage, which prevented the battleships from leaving the Adriatic Sea As a result, they rarely left Pola19 However, three of the battleships participated in the flight of the German battleships SMS Goeben and SMS Breslau in 1914, and in the bombardment of the Italian city of Ancona in May 1915 Szent István was still under construction Following these operations and the completion of the Szent István, the Tegetthoff-class battleships remained in port for the remainder of the war3

The final operation for the Tegetthoff-class ships was an attempt to break through the Otranto Barrage in June 1918 During the journey to the strait of Otranto, the battleship Szent István was torpedoed and sunk on 10 June 1918, resulting in the operation being called off2021 Viribus Unitis was also sunk prior to the end of the war on 1 November 1918 when a team of Italian frogmen sank the battleship with mines while she was moored at port in Pola15 Following Austria-Hungary's defeat in World War I, the remaining two battleships of the class were handed over to Allies with the Tegetthoff being given to Italy and scrapped in 1924 and Prinz Eugen being handed over to France and sunk as a target ship in 192219

Ship Main guns Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
SMS Viribus Unitis 12 × 3048 cm 1200 in1022 20,008 t 19,692 long tons22 Two AEG-Curtis steam turbines, 20 kn 37 km/h; 23 mph1019 24 July 191019 24 June 19111019 5 December 191219 Sunk by a limpet mine on 1 November 1918 at Pola15
SMS Tegetthoff 24 September 191019 21 March 19121019 14 July 191319 Scrapped in 1924 in Italy19
SMS Prinz Eugen 16 January 191219 30 November 19121019 8 July 191419 Sunk as a target ship by France in 192219
SMS Szent István 29 January 191223 17 January 19141023 13 December 191523 Sunk on 10 June 1918 by a torpedo from an Italian torpedoboat2021

Ersatz Monarch classedit

Main article: Ersatz Monarch-class battleship

The Ersatz Monarch-class literally Replacement Monarch-class was a projected series of four battleships that would have been constructed for the Austro-Hungarian Navy between 1914 and 191924 They were essentially an enlarged version of the Tegetthoff-class and were meant to replace the aging Monarch-class coastal defense ships Due to World War I, none were laid down and all four were eventually canceled in late 1917 There were supposed to be four battleships in the class named "Battleship VIII" to "Battleship XI" While the battleships were never laid down, four of the main guns were constructed and later transferred to the Austro-Hungarian Army for use on the Italian Front2425

Ship Main guns Displacement Propulsion Service
Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
Battleship VIII 10 × 36 cm 14 in2624 24,500 t 24,100 long tons26 Four shaft steam turbines, 210 kn 389 km/h; 242 mph27  —  —  — Canceled in 191727
Battleship IX  —  —  — Canceled in 191727
Battleship X  —  —  — Canceled in 191727
Battleship XI  —  —  — Canceled in 191727

Notesedit

  • Battleships portal
  • Austria-Hungary portal

Footnotes

  1. ^ These included among others the Monarch-class coastal defense ships, SMS Kronprinz Erzherzog Rudolf and SMS Kronprinzessin Erzherzogin Stephanie all only battleships in name and really coastal defense ships, and the armored cruisers SMS Kaiserin und Königin Maria Theresia, SMS Kaiser Karl VI and the SMS Sankt Georg
  2. ^ The ships that were handed over to the United States immediately after the war were soon transferred to Italy and scrapped along with the rest of the battleships that Italy received from the Austro-Hungarian Navy

Citations

  1. ^ Sokol, pp 67, 69
  2. ^ Hore, pp 123, 181–182
  3. ^ a b Halpern, p 54
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Gardiner Chesneau & Kolesnik, p 272
  5. ^ a b c d e Hore, p 91
  6. ^ a b c d Sieche, Conway's, p 333
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Greger, p 21
  8. ^ Tucker, p 560
  9. ^ a b c d e Sieche, Conway's, p 330
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Sokol, pp 150–151
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Hore, p 123
  12. ^ Halpern, pp 170–171
  13. ^ a b Greger, p 23
  14. ^ a b Halpern, p 14
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Sieche, Conway's, p 332
  16. ^ DiGiulian 305 cm/45
  17. ^ Hore, p 84
  18. ^ DANFS Zrínyi
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Sieche, Conway's, p 334
  20. ^ a b Sieche, Warship International, pp 127, 131
  21. ^ a b Sokol, p 161
  22. ^ a b Sieche, Warship International, p 133
  23. ^ a b c Sieche, Warship International, p 116
  24. ^ a b c Fitzsimons, p 854
  25. ^ Greger, p 26
  26. ^ a b Sokol, p 71
  27. ^ a b c d e Vego, p 174

Referencesedit

  • DiGiulian, Tony 27 November 2007 "Austria-Hungary 305 cm/45 12" K10 Skoda" NavWeapscom Retrieved 7 September 2009 
  • Fitzsimons, Bernard 1978 The Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare, Volume 8 Milwaukee: Columbia House OCLC 4515654 
  • Gardiner, Robert; Chesneau, Roger; Kolesnik, Eugene M, eds 1979 Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1860–1905 London: Conway Maritime Press ISBN 978-0-85177-133-5 
  • Greger, René 1976 Austro-Hungarian warships of World War I London: Ian Allan ISBN 978-0-7110-0623-2 OCLC 2440180 
  • Halpern, Paul G 1995 A Naval History of World War I Annapolis: Naval Institute Press ISBN 978-1-55750-352-7 OCLC 57447525 
  • Hore, Peter 2006 The Ironclads London: Southwater Publishing ISBN 978-1-84476-299-6 
  • Sieche, Erwin F 1985 "Austria-Hungary" In Gardiner, Robert; Gray, Randal Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921 Annapolis: Naval Institute Press ISBN 978-0-85177-245-5 
  • Sieche, Erwin F 1991 "SMS Szent István: Hungaria's Only and Ill-Fated Dreadnought" Warship International Toledo, OH: International Warship Research Organization XXVII 2: 112–146 ISSN 0043-0374 
  • Sokol, Anthony 1968 The Imperial and Royal Austro-Hungarian Navy Annapolis: United States Naval Institute OCLC 1912 
  • Tucker, Spencer E 2005 The Encyclopedia of World War I ABC-CLIO ISBN 978-1-85109-420-2 
  • Vego, Milan N 1996 Austro-Hungarian Naval Policy, 1904–14 London: Frank Cass Publishers ISBN 978-0-7146-4209-3 OCLC 560641850 
  • "Zrínyi" Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships Navy Department, Naval History and Heritage Command Retrieved 8 September 2009 

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