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List of antibiotics

list of antibiotics, list of antibiotics for sinus infection
The following is a list of antibiotics The highest division is between bactericidal antibiotics and bacteriostatic antibiotics Bactericidals kill bacteria directly, whereas bacteriostatics prevent them from dividing However, these classifications are based on laboratory behavior In practice, both can effectively treat a bacterial infection

Contents

  • 1 By coverage
    • 11 MRSA
    • 12 Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • 13 VRE
  • 2 By class
  • 3 Antibiotic candidates
  • 4 See also
  • 5 Notes
  • 6 References

By coverage

The following are lists of antibiotics for specific microbial coverage

MRSA

Antibiotics that cover methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA:

  • Vancomycin
  • Ceftobiprole5th generation
  • Ceftaroline 5th generation
  • Clindamycin
  • Dalbavancin
  • Daptomycin
  • Fusidic acid
  • Linezolid
  • Mupirocin topical
  • Oritavancin
  • Tedizolid
  • Telavancin
  • Tigecycline

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Antibiotics that cover Pseudomonas aeruginosa:

  • Aminoglycosides
  • Carbapenems
  • Ceftazidime 3rd generation
  • Cefepime 4th generation
  • Ceftobiprole 5th generation
  • Ceftolozane/tazobactam
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Piperacillin/tazobactam
  • Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid

VRE

Antibiotics that cover vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus VRE:

  • Linezolid
  • Streptogramins
  • Tigecycline
  • Daptomycin

By class

See also pathogenic bacteria for a list of antibiotics sorted by target bacteria

Antibiotics by class
Generic nameBrand namesCommon usesPossible side effectsMechanism of action
Aminoglycosides
AmikacinAmikinInfections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa Effective against Aerobic bacteria not obligate/facultative anaerobes and tularemia All aminoglycosides are ineffective when taken orally as the stomach will digest the drug before it goes into the bloodstream However aminoglycosides are effective in Intravenous, intramuscular and topical forms
  • Hearing loss
  • Vertigo
  • Kidney damage
Binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit some work by binding to the 50S subunit, inhibiting the translocation of the peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site and also causing misreading of mRNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth
GentamicinGaramycin
KanamycinKantrex
NeomycinNeo-Fradin
NetilmicinNetromycin
TobramycinNebcin
ParomomycinHumatin
StreptomycinTuberculosis
SpectinomycinBsTrobicinGonorrhea
Ansamycins
GeldanamycinExperimental, as antitumor antibioticsBlock DNA transcription, either via inhibiting DNA-dependent RNA polymerase by binding to the β-subunit
Herbimycin
RifaximinXifaxanTraveler's diarrhea caused by E coli
Carbacephem
LoracarbefLorabidDiscontinuedprevents bacterial cell division by inhibiting cell wall synthesis
Carbapenems
ErtapenemInvanzBactericidal for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms and therefore useful for empiric broad-spectrum antibacterial coverage Notes:MRSA resistance to this class All are active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa except ertapenem
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Seizures
  • Headache
  • Rash and allergic reactions
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
DoripenemDoribax
Imipenem/CilastatinPrimaxin
MeropenemMerrem
Cephalosporins First generation
CefadroxilDuricefGood coverage against Gram-positive infections
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea if alcohol taken concurrently
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics:disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
CefazolinAncef
CefalexinKeflex
Cephalosporins Second generation
CefaclorDistaclorLess Gram-positive cover, improved Gram-negative cover
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea if alcohol taken concurrently
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics:disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
CefprozilCefzil
CefuroximeCeftin, Zinnat UK
Cephalosporins Third generation
Cefixime antagonistic with ChloramphenicolCefspan FujisawaImproved coverage of Gram-negative organisms, except Pseudomonas Reduced Gram-positive cover But still not cover Mycoplasma and Chlamydia
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea if alcohol taken concurrently
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics:disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
CefdinirOmnicef, Cefdiel
CefditorenSpectracef, Meiact
Cefoperazone , combination Cefoperazone with Sulbactam makes more effective antibiotic, because Sulbactam avoid degeneration of CefoperazoneCefobid discontinued
CefotaximeClaforan
CefpodoximeVantin, Banadoz
Ceftazidime Unlike most third-generation agents, ceftazidime is active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but less active against Staphylococci and Streptococci compare to other 3rd generation of cephalosporinsFortaz
CeftibutenCedax
Ceftriaxone IV and IM, not orally, effective also for syphilis and uncomplicated gonorrheaRocephin
Cephalosporins Fourth generation
CefepimeMaxipime

Covers pseudomonal infections

  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea if alcohol taken concurrently
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics:disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
Cephalosporins Fifth generation
Ceftaroline fosamilTeflaroUsed to treat MRSA
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Allergic reaction
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics:disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
CeftobiproleZefteraUsed to treat MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and enterococci
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea if alcohol taken concurrently
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics:disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
Glycopeptides
TeicoplaninTargocid UKActive against aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria including MRSA; Vancomycin is used orally for the treatment of C difficile colitisInhibits peptidoglycan synthesis
VancomycinVancocin
TelavancinVibativ
DalbavancinDalvance
OritavancinOrbactiv
LincosamidesBs
ClindamycinCleocinSerious staph-, pneumo-, and streptococcal infections in penicillin-allergic patients, also anaerobic infections; clindamycin topically for acnePossible C difficile-related pseudomembranous enterocolitisBinds to 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomal RNA thereby inhibiting protein synthesis
LincomycinLincocin
Lipopeptide
DaptomycinCubicinGram-positive organisms, but is inhibited by pulmonary surfactant so less effective against pneumoniasBinds to the membrane and cause rapid depolarization, resulting in a loss of membrane potential leading to inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis
MacrolidesBs
AzithromycinZithromax, Sumamed, XithroneStreptococcal infections, syphilis, upper respiratory tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, mycoplasmal infections, Lyme disease
  • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea especially at higher doses
  • Prolonged cardiac QT interval especially erythromycin
  • Hearing loss especially at higher doses
  • Jaundice
Inhibition of bacterial protein biosynthesis by binding reversibly to the subunit 50S of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting translocation of peptidyl tRNA
ClarithromycinBiaxin
ErythromycinErythocin, Erythroped
Roxithromycin
TelithromycinKetekPneumoniaVisual Disturbance, Liver Toxicity
SpiramycinRovamycineMouth infections
Monobactams
AztreonamAzactamGram-negative bacteriaSame mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics:disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
Nitrofurans
FurazolidoneFuroxoneBacterial or protozoal diarrhea or enteritis
NitrofurantoinBsMacrodantin, MacrobidUrinary tract infections
OxazolidinonesBs
LinezolidZyvoxVRSA
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Serotonin Syndrome
Protein synthesis inhibitor; prevents the initiation step
PosizolidPhase II clinical trials
RadezolidPhase II clinical trials
TorezolidSivextro
Penicillins
AmoxicillinNovamox, AmoxilWide range of infections; penicillin used for streptococcal infections, syphilis, and Lyme disease
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Allergy with serious anaphylactic reactions
  • Brain and kidney damage rare
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics:disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
AmpicillinPrincipen discontinued
Azlocillin
DicloxacillinDynapen discontinued
FlucloxacillinFloxapen Sold to European generics Actavis Group
MezlocillinMezlin discontinued
MethicillinStaphcillin discontinued
NafcillinUnipen discontinued
OxacillinProstaphlin discontinued
Penicillin GPentids discontinued
Penicillin VVeetids Pen-Vee-K discontinued
PiperacillinPipracil discontinued
Penicillin GPfizerpen
TemocillinNegaban UK discontinued
TicarcillinTicar discontinued
Penicillin combinations
Amoxicillin/clavulanateAugmentinBoth Amoxicillin/clavulanate and Ampicillin/sulbactam are effective against non-recurrent acute otitis media Amoxicillin/clavulanate is one of the few oral antibiotics effective against skin and soft tissue infections Not to be given to children less than 40 kilograms in weight; for children heavier, the dosage is same as adults, twice dailyThe second component reduces the effectiveness of some forms of bacterial resistance to the first component
Ampicillin/sulbactamUnasyn
Piperacillin/tazobactamZosyn
Ticarcillin/clavulanateTimentin
Polypeptides
BacitracinEye, ear or bladder infections; usually applied directly to the eye or inhaled into the lungs; rarely given by injection, although the use of intravenous colistin is experiencing a resurgence due to the emergence of multi drug resistant organismsKidney and nerve damage when given by injectionInhibits isoprenyl pyrophosphate, a molecule that carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall outside of the inner membrane
ColistinColy-Mycin-SInteract with the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane, displacing bacterial counterions, which destabilizes the outer membrane Act like a detergent against the cytoplasmic membrane, which alters its permeability Polymyxin B and E are bactericidal even in an isosmotic solution
Polymyxin B
Quinolones/Fluoroquinolones
CiprofloxacinCipro, Ciproxin, CiprobayUrinary tract infections, bacterial prostatitis, community-acquired pneumonia, bacterial diarrhea, mycoplasmal infections, gonorrheaNausea rare, irreversible damage to central nervous system uncommon, tendinosis rareInhibits the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and transcription
EnoxacinPenetrex
GatifloxacinTequin
GemifloxacinFactive
LevofloxacinLevaquin
LomefloxacinMaxaquin
MoxifloxacinAvelox
Nadifloxacin
Nalidixic acidNegGram
NorfloxacinNoroxin
OfloxacinFloxin discontinued, Ocuflox
TrovafloxacinTrovanWithdrawn
GrepafloxacinRaxarWithdrawn
SparfloxacinZagamWithdrawn
TemafloxacinOmnifloxWithdrawn
SulfonamidesBs
MafenideSulfamylonUrinary tract infections except sulfacetamide, used for eye infections, and mafenide and silver sulfadiazine, used topically for burns
  • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
  • Allergy including skin rashes
  • Crystals in urine
  • Kidney failure
  • Decrease in white blood cell count
  • Sensitivity to sunlight
Folate synthesis inhibition They are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase, DHPS DHPS catalyses the conversion of PABA para-aminobenzoate to dihydropteroate, a key step in folate synthesis Folate is necessary for the cell to synthesize nucleic acids nucleic acids are essential building blocks of DNA and RNA, and in its absence cells cannot divide
SulfacetamideSulamyd, Bleph-10
SulfadiazineMicro-Sulfon
Silver sulfadiazineSilvadene
SulfadimethoxineDi-Methox, Albon
SulfamethizoleThiosulfil Forte
SulfamethoxazoleGantanol
Sulfanilimide archaic
SulfasalazineAzulfidine
SulfisoxazoleGantrisin
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Co-trimoxazole TMP-SMXBactrim, Septra
Sulfonamidochrysoidine archaicProntosil
TetracyclinesBs
DemeclocyclineDeclomycinSyphilis, chlamydial infections, Lyme disease, mycoplasmal infections, acne rickettsial infections, malaria
  • Gastrointestinal upset
  • Sensitivity to sunlight
  • Potential toxicity to mother and fetus during pregnancy
  • Enamel hypoplasia staining of teeth; potentially permanent
  • transient depression of bone growth
Inhibits the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex They do so mainly by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit in the mRNA translation complex But Tetracycline cannot be taken together with all dairy products, aluminium, iron and zinc minerals
DoxycyclineVibramycin
Metacycline
MinocyclineMinocin
OxytetracyclineTerramycin
TetracyclineSumycin, Achromycin V, Steclin
Drugs against mycobacteria
ClofazimineLampreneAntileprotic
DapsoneAvlosulfonAntileprotic
CapreomycinCapastatAntituberculosis
CycloserineSeromycinAntituberculosis, urinary tract infections
EthambutolBsMyambutolAntituberculosis
EthionamideTrecatorAntituberculosisInhibits peptide synthesis
IsoniazidINHAntituberculosis
PyrazinamideAldinamideAntituberculosis
Rifampicin Rifampin in USRifadin, Rimactanemostly Gram-positive and mycobacteriaReddish-orange sweat, tears, and urineBinds to the β subunit of RNA polymerase to inhibit transcription
RifabutinMycobutinMycobacterium avium complexRash, discolored urine, GI symptoms
RifapentinePriftinAntituberculosis
StreptomycinAntituberculosisNeurotoxicity, ototoxicityAs other aminoglycosides
Others
ArsphenamineSalvarsanSpirochaetal infections obsolete
ChloramphenicolBsChloromycetinMeningitis, MRSA, topical use, or for low-cost internal treatment Historic:typhus, cholera Gram-negative, Gram-positive, anaerobesRarely:aplastic anemiaInhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome
FosfomycinMonurol, MonurilAcute cystitis in womenThis antibiotic is not recommended for children and 75 up of ageInactivates enolpyruvyl transferase, thereby blocking cell wall synthesis
Fusidic acidFucidin
MetronidazoleFlagylInfections caused by anaerobic bacteria; also amoebiasis, trichomoniasis, giardiasisDiscolored urine, headache, metallic taste, nausea; alcohol is contraindicatedProduces toxic free radicals that disrupt DNA and proteins This non-specific mechanism is responsible for its activity against a variety of bacteria, amoebae, and protozoa
MupirocinBactrobanOintment for impetigo, cream for infected cutsInhibits isoleucine t-RNA synthetase IleRS causing inhibition of protein synthesis
Platensimycin
Quinupristin/DalfopristinSynercid
ThiamphenicolGram-negative, Gram-positive, anaerobes Widely used in veterinary medicineRash Lacks known anemic side-effectsA chloramphenicol analog May inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome
TigecyclineBsTigacylSlowly Intravenous Indicated for complicated skin/skin structure infections, soft tissue infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections Effective for gram-positive, gram-negative, anaerobic, and against multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureusand Acinetobacter baumannii, but not effective for Pseudomonas spp and Proteus sppTeeth discoloration and same side effects as tetracycline Not to be given for children and pregnant or lactate women Relatively safe and no need dose adjusted when be given for mild to moderate liver function or renal patientsSimilar structure with tetracycline, but 5 times stronger, big volume distribution and long half-time in the body
TinidazoleTindamax FasigynProtozoal infectionsUpset stomach, bitter taste, and itchiness
TrimethoprimBsProloprim, TrimpexUrinary tract infections
Generic NameBrand NamesCommon UsesPossible Side EffectsMechanism of action

Note:Bs:Bacteriostatic

Antibiotic candidates

Separately are listed antibiotic candidates, and known antibiotics not yet mass-produced

Antibiotic candidates
Generic nameOriginSusceptible phylaStage of developmentMechanism of action
Unclassified
TeixobactinEleftheria terraeGram-positive, including antibiotic resistant S aureus and M tuberculosisNo human trials scheduledBinds fatty acid precursors to cell wall
MalacidinsUncultured BacteriumGram-positive, including antibiotic resistant S aureusNo human trials scheduledBinds fatty acid precursors to cell wall

See also

  • Timeline of antibiotics, listed by year of introduction
  • Pathogenic bacteria

Notes

  1. ^ Note:Malaria is caused by a protist and not a bacterium

References

  1. ^ Pelczar, M J; Chan, E C S and Krieg, N R 1999 "Host-Parasite Interaction; Nonspecific Host Resistance", In:Microbiology Concepts and Applications, 6th ed, McGraw-Hill Inc, New York pp 478-479
  2. ^ Zhanel, G G; Lam, A; Schweizer, F; Thomson, K; Walkty, A; Rubinstein, E; Gin, A S; Hoban, D J; Noreddin, A M; Karlowsky, J A 2008 "Ceftobiprole:A review of a broad-spectrum and anti-MRSA cephalosporin" American journal of clinical dermatology 9 4:245–54 doi:102165/00128071-200809040-00004 PMID 18572975 
  3. ^ a b c d For common Uses and possible side effects reference is:Robert Berkow ed The Merck Manual of Medical Information - Home Edition Pocket September 1999, ISBN 0-671-02727-1
  4. ^ "Neomycin Drug Information" uptodate Retrieved November 2, 2012 subscription required
  5. ^ Berger, Dr Stephen 2014-04-03 GIDEON Guide to Antimicrobial Agents 2014 ed GIDEON Informatics Inc p 221 ISBN 9781617558399 Retrieved 4 February 2015 
  6. ^ Splete, Heidi; Kerri Wachter March 2006 "Liver toxicity reported with Ketek" Internal Medicine News 
  7. ^ Casellas Jr, J M; Israele, V; Marín, M; Ishida, M T; Heguilen, R; Soutric, J; Arenoso, H; Sibbald, A; Stamboulian, D 2005 "Amoxicillin-sulbactam versus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for the treatment of non-recurrent-acute otitis media in Argentinean children" International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 69 9:1225–33 doi:101016/jijporl200503016 PMID 16061111 
  8. ^ "APO-Amoxycillin and Clavulanic Acid 500mg/125 mg Tablets" PDF Retrieved November 27, 2014 
  9. ^ Mechanism of Action of Bacitracin:Complexation with Metal Ion and C55-Isoprenyl Pyrophosphate K John Stone and Jack L Strominger
  10. ^ "List of Antibiotics" Retrieved February 7, 2014 

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