Wed . 19 Apr 2019

List of antibiotics

list of antibiotics, list of antibiotics for sinus infection
The following is a list of antibiotics The highest division is between bactericidal antibiotics and bacteriostatic antibiotics Bactericidals kill bacteria directly, whereas bacteriostatics prevent them from dividing However, these classifications are based on laboratory behavior In practice, both can effectively treat a bacterial infection

Contents

  • 1 By coverage
    • 11 MRSA
    • 12 Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • 13 VRE
  • 2 By class
  • 3 Antibiotic candidates
  • 4 See also
  • 5 Notes
  • 6 References

By coverage

The following are lists of antibiotics for specific microbial coverage

MRSA

Antibiotics that cover methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA:

  • Vancomycin
  • Ceftobiprole5th generation
  • Ceftaroline 5th generation
  • Clindamycin
  • Dalbavancin
  • Daptomycin
  • Fusidic acid
  • Linezolid
  • Mupirocin topical
  • Oritavancin
  • Tedizolid
  • Telavancin
  • Tigecycline

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Antibiotics that cover Pseudomonas aeruginosa:

  • Aminoglycosides
  • Carbapenems
  • Ceftazidime 3rd generation
  • Cefepime 4th generation
  • Ceftobiprole 5th generation
  • Ceftolozane/tazobactam
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Piperacillin/tazobactam
  • Ticarcillin/clavulanic acid

VRE

Antibiotics that cover vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus VRE:

  • Linezolid
  • Streptogramins
  • Tigecycline
  • Daptomycin

By class

See also pathogenic bacteria for a list of antibiotics sorted by target bacteria

Antibiotics by class
Generic name Brand names Common uses Possible side effects Mechanism of action
Aminoglycosides
Amikacin Amikin Infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa Effective against Aerobic bacteria not obligate/facultative anaerobes and tularemia All aminoglycosides are ineffective when taken orally as the stomach will digest the drug before it goes into the bloodstream However aminoglycosides are effective in Intravenous, intramuscular and topical forms
  • Hearing loss
  • Vertigo
  • Kidney damage
Binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit some work by binding to the 50S subunit, inhibiting the translocation of the peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site and also causing misreading of mRNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth
Gentamicin Garamycin
Kanamycin Kantrex
Neomycin Neo-Fradin
Netilmicin Netromycin
Tobramycin Nebcin
Paromomycin Humatin
Streptomycin Tuberculosis
SpectinomycinBs Trobicin Gonorrhea
Ansamycins
Geldanamycin Experimental, as antitumor antibiotics Block DNA transcription, either via inhibiting DNA-dependent RNA polymerase by binding to the β-subunit
Herbimycin
Rifaximin Xifaxan Traveler's diarrhea caused by E coli
Carbacephem
Loracarbef Lorabid Discontinued prevents bacterial cell division by inhibiting cell wall synthesis
Carbapenems
Ertapenem Invanz Bactericidal for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms and therefore useful for empiric broad-spectrum antibacterial coverage Notes: MRSA resistance to this class All are active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa except ertapenem
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Seizures
  • Headache
  • Rash and allergic reactions
Inhibition of cell wall synthesis
Doripenem Doribax
Imipenem/Cilastatin Primaxin
Meropenem Merrem
Cephalosporins First generation
Cefadroxil Duricef Good coverage against Gram-positive infections
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea if alcohol taken concurrently
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
Cefazolin Ancef
Cefalexin Keflex
Cephalosporins Second generation
Cefaclor Distaclor Less Gram-positive cover, improved Gram-negative cover
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea if alcohol taken concurrently
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
Cefprozil Cefzil
Cefuroxime Ceftin, Zinnat UK
Cephalosporins Third generation
Cefixime antagonistic with Chloramphenicol Cefspan Fujisawa Improved coverage of Gram-negative organisms, except Pseudomonas Reduced Gram-positive cover But still not cover Mycoplasma and Chlamydia
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea if alcohol taken concurrently
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
Cefdinir Omnicef, Cefdiel
Cefditoren Spectracef, Meiact
Cefoperazone , combination Cefoperazone with Sulbactam makes more effective antibiotic, because Sulbactam avoid degeneration of Cefoperazone Cefobid discontinued
Cefotaxime Claforan
Cefpodoxime Vantin, Banadoz
Ceftazidime Unlike most third-generation agents, ceftazidime is active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but less active against Staphylococci and Streptococci compare to other 3rd generation of cephalosporins Fortaz
Ceftibuten Cedax
Ceftriaxone IV and IM, not orally, effective also for syphilis and uncomplicated gonorrhea Rocephin
Cephalosporins Fourth generation
Cefepime Maxipime

Covers pseudomonal infections

  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea if alcohol taken concurrently
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
Cephalosporins Fifth generation
Ceftaroline fosamil Teflaro Used to treat MRSA
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Allergic reaction
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
Ceftobiprole Zeftera Used to treat MRSA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and enterococci
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea if alcohol taken concurrently
  • Allergic reactions
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
Glycopeptides
Teicoplanin Targocid UK Active against aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria including MRSA; Vancomycin is used orally for the treatment of C difficile colitis Inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis
Vancomycin Vancocin
Telavancin Vibativ
Dalbavancin Dalvance
Oritavancin Orbactiv
LincosamidesBs
Clindamycin Cleocin Serious staph-, pneumo-, and streptococcal infections in penicillin-allergic patients, also anaerobic infections; clindamycin topically for acne Possible C difficile-related pseudomembranous enterocolitis Binds to 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomal RNA thereby inhibiting protein synthesis
Lincomycin Lincocin
Lipopeptide
Daptomycin Cubicin Gram-positive organisms, but is inhibited by pulmonary surfactant so less effective against pneumonias Binds to the membrane and cause rapid depolarization, resulting in a loss of membrane potential leading to inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis
MacrolidesBs
Azithromycin Zithromax, Sumamed, Xithrone Streptococcal infections, syphilis, upper respiratory tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, mycoplasmal infections, Lyme disease
  • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea especially at higher doses
  • Prolonged cardiac QT interval especially erythromycin
  • Hearing loss especially at higher doses
  • Jaundice
Inhibition of bacterial protein biosynthesis by binding reversibly to the subunit 50S of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting translocation of peptidyl tRNA
Clarithromycin Biaxin
Erythromycin Erythocin, Erythroped
Roxithromycin
Telithromycin Ketek Pneumonia Visual Disturbance, Liver Toxicity
Spiramycin Rovamycine Mouth infections
Monobactams
Aztreonam Azactam Gram-negative bacteria Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
Nitrofurans
Furazolidone Furoxone Bacterial or protozoal diarrhea or enteritis
NitrofurantoinBs Macrodantin, Macrobid Urinary tract infections
OxazolidinonesBs
Linezolid Zyvox VRSA
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Serotonin Syndrome
Protein synthesis inhibitor; prevents the initiation step
Posizolid Phase II clinical trials
Radezolid Phase II clinical trials
Torezolid Sivextro
Penicillins
Amoxicillin Novamox, Amoxil Wide range of infections; penicillin used for streptococcal infections, syphilis, and Lyme disease
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Allergy with serious anaphylactic reactions
  • Brain and kidney damage rare
Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls
Ampicillin Principen discontinued
Azlocillin
Dicloxacillin Dynapen discontinued
Flucloxacillin Floxapen Sold to European generics Actavis Group
Mezlocillin Mezlin discontinued
Methicillin Staphcillin discontinued
Nafcillin Unipen discontinued
Oxacillin Prostaphlin discontinued
Penicillin G Pentids discontinued
Penicillin V Veetids Pen-Vee-K discontinued
Piperacillin Pipracil discontinued
Penicillin G Pfizerpen
Temocillin Negaban UK discontinued
Ticarcillin Ticar discontinued
Penicillin combinations
Amoxicillin/clavulanate Augmentin Both Amoxicillin/clavulanate and Ampicillin/sulbactam are effective against non-recurrent acute otitis media Amoxicillin/clavulanate is one of the few oral antibiotics effective against skin and soft tissue infections Not to be given to children less than 40 kilograms in weight; for children heavier, the dosage is same as adults, twice daily The second component reduces the effectiveness of some forms of bacterial resistance to the first component
Ampicillin/sulbactam Unasyn
Piperacillin/tazobactam Zosyn
Ticarcillin/clavulanate Timentin
Polypeptides
Bacitracin Eye, ear or bladder infections; usually applied directly to the eye or inhaled into the lungs; rarely given by injection, although the use of intravenous colistin is experiencing a resurgence due to the emergence of multi drug resistant organisms Kidney and nerve damage when given by injection Inhibits isoprenyl pyrophosphate, a molecule that carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall outside of the inner membrane
Colistin Coly-Mycin-S Interact with the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane, displacing bacterial counterions, which destabilizes the outer membrane Act like a detergent against the cytoplasmic membrane, which alters its permeability Polymyxin B and E are bactericidal even in an isosmotic solution
Polymyxin B
Quinolones/Fluoroquinolones
Ciprofloxacin Cipro, Ciproxin, Ciprobay Urinary tract infections, bacterial prostatitis, community-acquired pneumonia, bacterial diarrhea, mycoplasmal infections, gonorrhea Nausea rare, irreversible damage to central nervous system uncommon, tendinosis rare Inhibits the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and transcription
Enoxacin Penetrex
Gatifloxacin Tequin
Gemifloxacin Factive
Levofloxacin Levaquin
Lomefloxacin Maxaquin
Moxifloxacin Avelox
Nadifloxacin
Nalidixic acid NegGram
Norfloxacin Noroxin
Ofloxacin Floxin discontinued, Ocuflox
Trovafloxacin Trovan Withdrawn
Grepafloxacin Raxar Withdrawn
Sparfloxacin Zagam Withdrawn
Temafloxacin Omniflox Withdrawn
SulfonamidesBs
Mafenide Sulfamylon Urinary tract infections except sulfacetamide, used for eye infections, and mafenide and silver sulfadiazine, used topically for burns
  • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
  • Allergy including skin rashes
  • Crystals in urine
  • Kidney failure
  • Decrease in white blood cell count
  • Sensitivity to sunlight
Folate synthesis inhibition They are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase, DHPS DHPS catalyses the conversion of PABA para-aminobenzoate to dihydropteroate, a key step in folate synthesis Folate is necessary for the cell to synthesize nucleic acids nucleic acids are essential building blocks of DNA and RNA, and in its absence cells cannot divide
Sulfacetamide Sulamyd, Bleph-10
Sulfadiazine Micro-Sulfon
Silver sulfadiazine Silvadene
Sulfadimethoxine Di-Methox, Albon
Sulfamethizole Thiosulfil Forte
Sulfamethoxazole Gantanol
Sulfanilimide archaic
Sulfasalazine Azulfidine
Sulfisoxazole Gantrisin
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Co-trimoxazole TMP-SMX Bactrim, Septra
Sulfonamidochrysoidine archaic Prontosil
TetracyclinesBs
Demeclocycline Declomycin Syphilis, chlamydial infections, Lyme disease, mycoplasmal infections, acne rickettsial infections, malaria
  • Gastrointestinal upset
  • Sensitivity to sunlight
  • Potential toxicity to mother and fetus during pregnancy
  • Enamel hypoplasia staining of teeth; potentially permanent
  • transient depression of bone growth
Inhibits the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA-ribosome complex They do so mainly by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit in the mRNA translation complex But Tetracycline cannot be taken together with all dairy products, aluminium, iron and zinc minerals
Doxycycline Vibramycin
Metacycline
Minocycline Minocin
Oxytetracycline Terramycin
Tetracycline Sumycin, Achromycin V, Steclin
Drugs against mycobacteria
Clofazimine Lamprene Antileprotic
Dapsone Avlosulfon Antileprotic
Capreomycin Capastat Antituberculosis
Cycloserine Seromycin Antituberculosis, urinary tract infections
EthambutolBs Myambutol Antituberculosis
Ethionamide Trecator Antituberculosis Inhibits peptide synthesis
Isoniazid INH Antituberculosis
Pyrazinamide Aldinamide Antituberculosis
Rifampicin Rifampin in US Rifadin, Rimactane mostly Gram-positive and mycobacteria Reddish-orange sweat, tears, and urine Binds to the β subunit of RNA polymerase to inhibit transcription
Rifabutin Mycobutin Mycobacterium avium complex Rash, discolored urine, GI symptoms
Rifapentine Priftin Antituberculosis
Streptomycin Antituberculosis Neurotoxicity, ototoxicity As other aminoglycosides
Others
Arsphenamine Salvarsan Spirochaetal infections obsolete
ChloramphenicolBs Chloromycetin Meningitis, MRSA, topical use, or for low-cost internal treatment Historic: typhus, cholera Gram-negative, Gram-positive, anaerobes Rarely: aplastic anemia Inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome
Fosfomycin Monurol, Monuril Acute cystitis in women This antibiotic is not recommended for children and 75 up of age Inactivates enolpyruvyl transferase, thereby blocking cell wall synthesis
Fusidic acid Fucidin
Metronidazole Flagyl Infections caused by anaerobic bacteria; also amoebiasis, trichomoniasis, giardiasis Discolored urine, headache, metallic taste, nausea; alcohol is contraindicated Produces toxic free radicals that disrupt DNA and proteins This non-specific mechanism is responsible for its activity against a variety of bacteria, amoebae, and protozoa
Mupirocin Bactroban Ointment for impetigo, cream for infected cuts Inhibits isoleucine t-RNA synthetase IleRS causing inhibition of protein synthesis
Platensimycin
Quinupristin/Dalfopristin Synercid
Thiamphenicol Gram-negative, Gram-positive, anaerobes Widely used in veterinary medicine Rash Lacks known anemic side-effects A chloramphenicol analog May inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome
TigecyclineBs Tigacyl Slowly Intravenous Indicated for complicated skin/skin structure infections, soft tissue infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections Effective for gram-positive, gram-negative, anaerobic, and against multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii, but not effective for Pseudomonas spp and Proteus spp Teeth discoloration and same side effects as tetracycline Not to be given for children and pregnant or lactate women Relatively safe and no need dose adjusted when be given for mild to moderate liver function or renal patients Similar structure with tetracycline, but 5 times stronger, big volume distribution and long half-time in the body
Tinidazole Tindamax Fasigyn Protozoal infections Upset stomach, bitter taste, and itchiness
TrimethoprimBs Proloprim, Trimpex Urinary tract infections
Generic Name Brand Names Common Uses Possible Side Effects Mechanism of action

Note: Bs: Bacteriostatic

Antibiotic candidates

Separately are listed antibiotic candidates, and known antibiotics not yet mass-produced

Antibiotic candidates
Generic name Origin Susceptible phyla Stage of development Mechanism of action
Unclassified
Teixobactin Eleftheria terrae Gram-positive, including antibiotic resistant S aureus and M tuberculosis No human trials scheduled Binds fatty acid precursors to cell wall
Malacidins Uncultured Bacterium Gram-positive, including antibiotic resistant S aureus No human trials scheduled Binds fatty acid precursors to cell wall

See also

  • Timeline of antibiotics, listed by year of introduction
  • Pathogenic bacteria

Notes

  1. ^ Note: Malaria is caused by a protist and not a bacterium

References

  1. ^ Pelczar, M J; Chan, E C S and Krieg, N R 1999 "Host-Parasite Interaction; Nonspecific Host Resistance", In: Microbiology Concepts and Applications, 6th ed, McGraw-Hill Inc, New York pp 478-479
  2. ^ Zhanel, G G; Lam, A; Schweizer, F; Thomson, K; Walkty, A; Rubinstein, E; Gin, A S; Hoban, D J; Noreddin, A M; Karlowsky, J A 2008 "Ceftobiprole: A review of a broad-spectrum and anti-MRSA cephalosporin" American journal of clinical dermatology 9 4: 245–54 doi:102165/00128071-200809040-00004 PMID 18572975 
  3. ^ a b c d For common Uses and possible side effects reference is: Robert Berkow ed The Merck Manual of Medical Information - Home Edition Pocket September 1999, ISBN 0-671-02727-1
  4. ^ "Neomycin Drug Information" uptodate Retrieved November 2, 2012 subscription required
  5. ^ Berger, Dr Stephen 2014-04-03 GIDEON Guide to Antimicrobial Agents 2014 ed GIDEON Informatics Inc p 221 ISBN 9781617558399 Retrieved 4 February 2015 
  6. ^ Splete, Heidi; Kerri Wachter March 2006 "Liver toxicity reported with Ketek" Internal Medicine News 
  7. ^ Casellas Jr, J M; Israele, V; Marín, M; Ishida, M T; Heguilen, R; Soutric, J; Arenoso, H; Sibbald, A; Stamboulian, D 2005 "Amoxicillin-sulbactam versus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for the treatment of non-recurrent-acute otitis media in Argentinean children" International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 69 9: 1225–33 doi:101016/jijporl200503016 PMID 16061111 
  8. ^ "APO-Amoxycillin and Clavulanic Acid 500mg/125 mg Tablets" PDF Retrieved November 27, 2014 
  9. ^ Mechanism of Action of Bacitracin: Complexation with Metal Ion and C55-Isoprenyl Pyrophosphate K John Stone and Jack L Strominger
  10. ^ "List of Antibiotics" Retrieved February 7, 2014 

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